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Ѵ¸ҵdz͹˹ͧ͢ࢵ͹ѡͧ¸ 㹷ͧӺѹ ;йظ ѧѴйظ ¡աҧ Ѵ¸ Ѵ ӹҹ㹾Ǵ˹ dzͧѴ繾Ҫѧ¸ ͡ѵ黡ͧͧ¾鹷ѧҧѴ ֧ Ѵ ѹٹҧͧͧ¸ӻѡ ͹ͧʶһҡاظ ˹ͧʹ

ӹҹѴѴ¸ҹ繵ӹҹẺǡѹѺӹҹҧѴط 觵ҧѹçҵӹҹѴ¸ٹҧͧͧ͹ҧظҹѹͧ͡СاظҴҹӻѡ ǹӹҹѴطҾҴҹͧСا1

稾й³Ҫ 稾оطҨʻͧѴ 稾оطҨٻ繼 “ҷҴ” (ҴѺ͹蹴Թ) 稾й³Ҫ ҡվغѴաٻ˹2

͡ҡ ¾Һ վԡٻ˹觪 “͹” ŧ¹㹡اظҨ­͹ “оҡ” ˹觾ҪҤнԻʹҸ Ѵ 稾Һȷçʶһ繾ѧҪͧҧ Ѵнҧ (ѧѴصôԵ㹻Ѩغѹ) ¡اظҤ駷 2 .. 2310 ͧ駻ǧվҪҸԺջͧҡѹ駵Ǣ¡ ѧҪͧ繼ͧͶԪҤǪҭ Ѵͧᴧ᷹ʶһҵ “Ҿнҧ” 繡ҾнҧվʧѾع֡ ѧ稾ҵҡԹاշç¡Ѿ任Һ .. 2313 ͧҳࢵͧҾнҧ ǹҾнҧ˹٭3

кҷ稾ШŨ Ѫŷ 5 觡اѵԹ ͤʴ稻о㹻Ѫ .. 2451 çк ѴѴҳ ¸ Ѵշҧй¸ ѧ 鹷㹺dz֧͡ѹͧ¸ҵ繵 ѧеҨ֧ա¡Ѵ¸ ʹͧѺ͹4

ѴͧѴخմ 觻ѨغѹͶҹ˹Ѵ µҡͧèѺͧѹҷҧ͹˹ 觡ҧࢵطʷѧһеٷҧҴҹ˹ҷȵѹ͡ Ժͧ ٧ҳ 2.50 Ѵ਴ 2 ͧ ҧѪŷ 5 ͺèѰԢͧ͸ԡѴЭҵ ҡ繾ʶҧ躹ҹ繾ʶظ5


਴Ѵ¸6


Ѵ¸Ѵ ҡѡҹ㹾ǴظҶ֧úóѧóС ҤѴǧʷӤѭպҷҧʹظѴ˹ ¾й³Ѵ稾оطҨϼᵡҹ㹤ûԮ ͧͼ “ҷҴ” 繪ҴӤѭͧҪӹѡظ7

. ҡ ¹Ҷ֧Ѵ (Ѵ¸) ˹ѧ͹ҧҡ԰ظ “਴çѧỴ躹ҹ٧ ਴ʹѡŧѧҹѡԳ٧ҡ š 繷˹ҡ͹ ͧЦѧ鹻ٹ繡պǫ͹͹ պѹ䴢ͧ਴ҹ˹дҹѧ ѴӴԹ¢¤⾸좹Ҵ˭Դçҧ ѴẺª Ҩ繢ͧ ҧѴҧʶ ẺҵԴ˹ʶѹ˹觫е١ᾧͪҧ¾й³蹾й³ԧѹ˹ ֧Ҩһѧó˭¾й³ ਴ҹԺͧ١ͷǡʶ᷹ Իͺ Ѵ繷 Ѵͧ躹͹ ѧͧҢͧç˹ šçҹ਴觡٧ҡ ҧҨ繰ҹ਴Ǩ֧ѧó ҧ਴Ỵѧ

Ҿ·

1. еҺdzط ҹȵѹ͡еѹմҹ 1 е ѧѴਹ§ҹǤͷȵѹ͡ еٹիһеٷͧҧ͹Ǩآ͹ 2 պǤк˧ һеԺͧ ٧ҳ 2.50

2. ਴ һеٷҧȵѹ͡਴ҧТ 2 ͧ ਴ç ҹѡɳԧ ͺҡͶ 繢ͧҧѪŷ 5 觡اѵԹ ͺèѰԢͧ͸ԡ ¹աͧ˹觺èѰԢͧѧ - ҧ (ͧ͸ԡ )

3. ʶ ҧҡҹ բҴҧҳ 9 ǻҳ 15 վлиҹҧԪ ٹ 繾оطٻѺúóТӺ͡ лиҹͧкҷ稾ШŨʴһԴͧ Ҿлиҹͧ§ҡ ʶѧ Ѵҧ令˹ Ҵ֧شش ¸ҵмѧªҡͧ лиҹͧѨغѹдɰҹҹء٧ 1.44 ˹ҵѡҧ 3.50 ٧ҳ 4.90 ʶѧآѹçҧҹ˹ м͡ѧآͧҹժŴ 㹪ѧҧʶҡҹ ҧآѹͧҧ͹ͧ ѨغѹʶҧѴ鵡觷

4. лҧ ѧʶ ҹԺͧѡԳ٧ 3.66 պǤӺ˧ͧ ҧǤ˧ª鹷ͧժͧٻҡҷҹ 7 ͧ Ѩغѹѧ٧ҡҹѡԳ任ҳ 3.00 ʹлҧѡŧ ѧҡ繡պع Ҩ繽ͪҧѧ 稾һҷͧ

5. ਴иҹ ѡɳаҹҧ٧ 1 պǤӺ˧ ҧ 1.90 ѡԳ٧ҳ 7 պǤӺ˧ ҹ਴ç 8 պǤӺ˧ ѹ鹴ҹѹ͡ 1 ѹ Цѧçͺապǫ͹ 2 ¡պѡɳ͹ ѧ 8 ҹкǶǹҳ٧ 30 ਴ͧѡɳФ Ѻ਴ѴҸҵ ä ѧѴ¹ҷ ѡԳ٧ 㹨ѧѴйظ 龺਴ẺǡѹѴҧ ਴ͧѡɳз繾ɡ਴蹵çͧЦѧ繡պ˧¢Ҵ˭ дѺͺͧЦѧ Ѩغѹ§ҧǹҹ

6. Ѩغѹ§ԹԹ٧ҳ 1 ѹɰҹҤҧǡѺʶѧ ʶѧ Һһٴ¡ͧԹ 8 ҧ 40ૹ ˹ 5.3 ૹ ͻپͧաͧԹ 4 áçҧ

͡ҡҧҹͧͧ਴١Ѵࢵѧ վʧӾ աû١ҧد ҡ­ 繷¢ͧ繷СͺԸշҧʹҢͧǺҹdz ѨغѹҧѴ鵺ࢵط¹ҷʶ ооطٻҾͧҳʶҹҳѵ¹ ͧ繤¹͡ҡ਴иҹ

Ѵ¸ (Ѵ) ѺûСȢ鹷¹ҳʶҹ觪ҵ .. 2486 »СҪԨҹມ 60 ͹ 39 ѹ 20 áҤ 2486


ʶ 㹻дɰҹлٹ鹻Դͧ ҧԪ ˹ʶվоطٻҧҸԻдɰҹ8






Wat Ayothaya
Wat Ayothaya is located in the conserved area called “Muang Kao Ayothaya (the old city of Ayothaya)” at Hantra Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. It is also called “Wat Si Ayothaya” or “Wat Derm (The original temple)”. According to the north historical annals, it was believed that the area of this temple was once the royal palace in Ayothaya period. Later the king governing the city donated the area to build the temple. As a result, the temple is called “Wat Derm (the original temple)”. It was the center of Ayothaya City on the bank of Pa Sak River. This happened before King U-Thong founded Krung Si Ayutthaya as the capital at the area called “Nong Sanoh (a swamp of a kind of water plants called Sanoh).

The legend of Wat Derm or Wat Ayothaya is the same as that of Wat Phutthai Sawan. It is only different with the belief in the legend of Wat Ayothaya that the center of the old city before the foundation of Krung Si Ayutthaya was in the east of the city Island on the Pa Sak River, but the legend of Wat Phutthai Sawan indicated that it was on the bank of the Chao Phraya River in the south of the city island (1).

In the reign King Narai the Great, Phra Buddha Khosajarn was the abbot of the temple. The abbot was the one who wrote “Rachowat Chadok” (A book telling about the existence of the Buddha and used to teach kings), and presented it to the King. Later Phra Ubalee became the other abbot of this temple (2).

Later, in the reign of King Boromakot, a monk named “Ruan” went to study in Krung Si Ayutthaya. He got “Prian (graduate of theology)” and was promoted to “Phra Phakul Thera” which was a clerical title of the monks who practiced transcendental meditation at this temple. After that King Boromakot promoted him to the rank of the abbot of Muang Sawangkhaburi at Wat Phra Fang (a temple in Uttaradit now). When Krung Si Ayutthaya was lastly destroyed in 1767, there were no heads to govern the chief cities. Many warriors promoted themselves to govern the chief cities. The abbot was believed by city people that he was proficient in magic spells. Therefore, he was disrobed, put on red clothes, promoted himself as “Chao Phra Fang” and became head of Chao Phra Fang clique by having many monks as army leaders. Finally, King Taksin of Thon Buri moved his troops to suppress him in 1670. The chief cities which belonged to Chao Phra Fang were defeated. Chao Phra Fang ran away and disappeared.

King Chulalongkorn, the fifth king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period), took a trip to Ayutthaya in 1908 and stated that Wat Derm was an ancient temple built since Ayutthaya period. It was khammawasi temple (a temple in a city, town or village) situated in the middle of Ayothaya City. Therefore, the area has been believed being Ayothaya City since then. Later, the temple was newly named “Wat Ayothaya” in agreement with this belief (4).

The temple was situated on the canal near Wat Kudeedao. Nowadays, the canal has become the road in front of the temple which is situated at the mouth of the canal connecting to the other canal called “Hantra” in the north. The remains left in the religious area are the gate-posts of an entrance in the east. The gate-posts were made in twelve indented corners with 2.50 meters high. Next, there are two chedi constructed in the reign of King Chulalongkorn used to contain bone remains of abbots and their relatives. Next to the chedi, there was an ubosot newly constructed on the base of the old one in Ayutthaya period (5).

The old chedi at Wat Ayothaya (6)

Wat Ayothaya or Wat Derm was not mentioned in Ayutthaya annals about the renovation or restoration. On the contrary, it is believed that it might have been a royal temple, the place for the important abbots to stay and took religious roles in Ayutthaya period; for example, in the reign of King Narai, there was Somdej Phra Buddha Khosajarn who had great intellect in the Tripitaka. This abbot was believed to write “Rachowat Chadok”, a very important chadok (A book telling about existence of the Buddha) of Ayutthaya court (7).

Nor Na Parknam wrote and told about Wat Derm (Wat Ayothaya) in his book, Ha Duan klang Sak It tee Ayutthaya (Five Months among the Remains in Ayutthaya), “there is an octagonal chedi in Langka style (spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base) situated on a high base which can be seen from the distance. The top of the chedi tumbled down, but the part on top of the bell-shaped chedi called “Banlang Than Taksin” was built very highly. It is strange and I have never seen the chedi like this before. The body of the chedi in bell shape was molded in the form of lotus petals overlapped each other similar to ones on top of a column. There are two sets of stairs, one in the front and the other one in the back of the chedi. The old Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stones) of Wat Derm were made of white sand stone with the pattern of a big leaf from bodhi tree (the tree that the Buddha got his enlightment) in the middle. They are the old style of Bai Sema and the original ones that are left. The temple was rebuilt with a new ubosot and the bai sema were put in front of it. Another thing is the door façade made by the craftman in King Narai’s reign, and a Bai Sema in King Narai’s reign was put against it. As a result, it is believed that the temple was grandly renovated in King Narai reign. The chedi with the base made in twelve-indented corners was completely damaged and the ubosot was built instead at the area. The area around the temple was originally lowland, but the temple might have been built on a mound. The clue of it is still remained. Remarkably, the base of the chedi was built very highly. It may be the base of the original chedi which was renovated, and afterwards the octagonal chedi was built over it.

The General Remains
1. Two gates leading to the religious area, one in the east and the other one in the west. Visibly, there is only a gate in the east with no façade. A small building with four gable ends of two levels called ruankaew chaturamuk was built on each gate-post. Figures of overturned and faced up lotuses were put under the small buildings. The posts themselves were made in twelve-indented corners about 2.50 meters high.

2. When entering through the east gate, there is a pair of chedi, one on the left and the other on the right. They are square chedi with the form of lion legs under them. After asking a scholar, he said that the chedi were laterly built in the reign of King Chulalongkorn of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period). One was used to contain bone ashes of a head of monks named Tai, the abbot of the temple at that time. The other one was used to contain Mr. Sang’s and Mrs. Kasem’s bone ashes (the abbot’s, Tai, parents).

3. The present ubosot was constructed on the original base with 9 meters wide and 15 meters long. A Buddha image in the attitude of subduing the mara made of molded mortar is situated inside. It was said that the image was recently renovated. Once, King Chulalongkorn went to cover the original main Buddha image with gold leaves. The Buddha image might have been very beautiful, but due to the fact that the old ubosot did not have the roof, being deserted and uninterested, the Buddha image was naturally damaged or was destroyed by people who made profit from the image. The present main Buddha image is situated on the base with 1.44 meters high. The width of his lap is 3.50 meters long and he is 4.90 meters high. The old ubosot had two passages in the north and in the south. It was also said that both sides of the passages were built with levels. Later when the new ubosot was built on the original base, passages were not built on both sides. Nowadays, the ubosot was already decorated and painted.

4. Phra Prang (stupa) was situated behind the ubosot. The base of Phra Prang called Tarn Taksin was made in a square with twelve indented corners and 3.66 meters high. The base was built with two levels in the form of lotuses turning face down and up. On the second level between the lotuses turning face down and up, there were 7 apertures in the form of crosses. Nowadays, Phra Prang leaves only the remains about 3 meters higher than its base. The top of the stupa tumbled down. Only the patterns called “kleeb Khanoon” were seen, and they were said to be the style of craftmen in King Prasat Thong reign.

5. The main chedi has the base with the lower level in square with one meter high and with the models of lotuses turning faces up and down. The higher base is 7 meters high and also with the models of lotuses turning faces up and down. The base under the body of the chedi was octagonal and in the models of lotuses turning faces up and down, too. A set of stairs leads to the east side. The chedi is bell-shaped with two levels of models of lotus petals around it. The end of the lotus petals is graceful. On the top of the bell-shaped chedi, there is an octagonal base with small posts called “sao harn” on it with lotus-shaped models on top. The remains of the chedi are about 30 meters high. The chedi is nearly the same as that of Wat Maha That at Amphoe Sankhaburi in Chai Nat because they both have high bases. There is also the same style of Chedi at Wat Mae Nang Pleum in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. The special style of this kind of chedi is that the bell-shaped body contains very big models of lotus petals turning faces up decorated around it. Nowadays, only some parts of them are left.

6. Wihan (Vihara) is left only its monud about one meter high. According to the assumption, it might have been built the same time as the original ubosot. Inside the ubosot and the vihara were covered with ceramics made from baked clay in octagonal form with 40 centimeters wide and 5.3 centimeters thick. The floors covered with the ceramics mentioned were also put inbetween with square ceramics.

Additionally, the south of the main chedi is the area for monks’ accommodations. There were many monks staying in the area. Monks’ dwellings and a sermon hall were built on it. The people around the temple have used the area for religious rituals and ceremonies. Nowadays, the religious area was newly decorated with paintings inside the ubosot, Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone), and the Buddha images. The decoration made the ancient remains and the antiques changed. Only the main chedi still shows the ancient style.

Wat Ayothaya (Wat Derm) was declared and registered as a national historic site in 1943 with the declaration in the government gazette, volume 60, part 39, on July 20, 1943.

Inside the ubosot, there is a Buddha image molded with mortar and covered with gold leaves in the attitude of subduing the mara. In front of the ubosot, there is also a Buddha image in the attitude of doing meditation (8).

References

1. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 112-113.
2. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province, p. 45.
3. Referred, p. 46.
4. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 113.
5. Referred.
6. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A Picture in Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, p. 47.
7. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 113.
8. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A picture and caption in Khumeu Chom Silapa lae Sathapattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon SiAyutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 138.

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ѴѴҳ ҧ¡اظҪҹ Ӻźҹ 6 ͧ͡ҹȵѹԴѺҾ ͧ Ѻ਴·ѺѴѵҸҪ Ѩغѹҡͧҡͧçdz਴· 繡دҳ԰ͻٹѧ˹ ѴѴ ѧ¡ѹ “Ѵ” ҧ “ѴҪ” ҧ 㹻Ѩغѹ¡Ѵ1 ҡҧѪ ѹɰҹҧ¡ 415

ѴѴغըӾ 觾غͧ繾ҪҤ 稾 Ҹ ¾ع оʧѹѺԺͧٻ ͡仵駾оطʹҺǪźص׺оطʹѧѧҷջ ;.. 2296 ѵاѧҵԴ͢;ԡʧ͡仿鹿پоطʹ㹻ѧ 觡ѧҡ Ҿԡ ѹ˵ѧԴطʹҿ鹿٢ա ԡʧغ仺Ǫն֧ 700 ٻ 300 ٻ ֧¡ҡѹ “غǧ” ;ǧ׺Ҩءѹ2


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Ѵ繷駤¾ҷء駷¡Ѿاظ ͤǺ鹷ҧҤҧ ˹Ѵ繺dzҡžշҺèѺҾ ѹ繨شطʵӤѭͧظ㹡͹¡ѧŨҡ¹͡ѧ㹾й ҹѧͧѴѧ繷觡ҧժ¡ “觻઴” ѹ繺dzաúѹҧ¡Ѻ С÷Ѵҧҹȵѹ çѺҪѧǧظ Ѵ˹㹷駢ͧ͢ҡظա

ѧҡاظ㹻 .. 2310 ҷѴ鹨Ѵҧ ѡҹǶ֧Ѵ 㹹Ⱦкҷͧع ͹˹

“Ѵ
͡駨ԧͨШ㹤¹
਴١Ҵ
­ʶدԪشѧ
֧Ѵ
ͧ˹ǧѧѧ
صçѷһзѧ
ҧҧͧ
ѧǪѴҷ
֧ҧѧͧ
͹ءըԹҤͧ
دͧ”

¤㹡͹ʴ繪Ѵ “ѧѧ” ʴһѧó ѧѧͧ鹨繼 ͡ҡ稾ҹ ҿҡǧ͹ѡ (ͧԹ) 觻ٵͻբ طѡҪ 2289 蹴Թ稾Һ 觤繤ӤѭͧѴ ֧Һóѧóǻ .. 2328 - 2348 ͹˹ҷзǧ㹻 .. 2350

ѺúóѧóѪŷ 1 觡اѵԹ Ҫҹ “ѴҪ” հҹ繾ǧѭ 㹻 .. 2449 çѺѪŷ 5 աҧ 1 ѧ 1 ѧ ҡ­ 1 ѧ ѧҡ鹡աúóЫСҧҤеͧҵʹ4

Ѵ਴иҹçҹзѡԳ繻иҹͧѴ õҧȵѹ͡ оʶҧҹѧͧ਴иҹҧȵѹ ǹЦѧӷҧȵѹ͡ ࢵѧ

دԷӷ繡دͧ鹹鹻Ѩغѹ Ҥ÷çҾԵáҼѧ 4 ҹ ͧطѵ෾ ûŧҹ окҷѡɳ Ѫŷ 5

㹾ط ʶ о਴ ҳࢵҧҧ˭ աᾧͺ

˹Һѹ´͡ٹ鹻Сͺٻѵҧ ժͿСһٹ ѧاͧԹ վоطٻٹͧ ਴çѧҢҴ˭ѧ ٧ҳ 20 ҹѡԳͧ鹻дѺԧͺҹ ȹТͧѡҳҷǴçͧ਴ѧá ʴѴҧ¸5


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Wat Thammaram

Wat Thammaram is an ancient temple built since Krung Si Ayutthaya was the capital. It is situated at Ban Pom Subdistrict, moo 6, outside the city island in the east and on the Chao Phraya River, some distance across Chedi Si Suriyothai and Wat Kasattrathirat. Nowadays, if we look across the City Island at Chedi Si Suriyothai, we will see an ancient monk dwelling made of laid bricks and mortar on the river. Originally, its name was Wat Tharama or Wat Thamma. Later, it was named “Wat Thammawat” or “Wat Ratchathammawat Worawihan”. At present, it is called “Wat Thammaram” (1), and assumed being built not less than 415 years ago.

This temple was the place where Phra Ubalee who was a Buddhist prelate stayed. King Boromakot sent Phra Ubalee, Phra Ariya Muni and another twelve monks to Langka Island (Bangladesh) to ordain people and to promote Buddhism on the island in 1753, according to the invitation of the Langka king who wanted to restore Buddhism in Sri Langka (Bangladesh). At that time, Buddhism in Sri Langka was in recession, and Buddhist monks were very rare. As a result, it led to the restoration of Buddhism in Sri Langka. Phra Ubalee ordained about 700 monks and 300 novices. Thus Buddhism there has been called “Ubalee Wong” or “Phra Siam Wong” till today (2).

Wat Thammaram (3)

Wat Thammaram had been used as the Burmese camp every time the Burmese moved their troops to invade Krung Si Ayutthaya, in order to control the water communication due to the fact that north of Wat Thammaram is the place where the Lop Buri River connects to the Chao Phraya River. In Ayutthaya period, it was the Thai important stronghold in moving troops to help protect the city. Behind Wat Thammaram, there was a wide field called “Thung Prached”, the place used for fighting between the Thai and the Burmese troops. Becauuse Wat Thammaram is situated in the west opposite the Royal Palace in Ayutthaya period; the temple was also used as the boat landing in Ayutthaya time.

After Krung Si Ayutthaya was defeated in 1767, Wat Thammaram was completely burnt down by the Burmese. As a result, it was deserted. There is evidence mentioning about Wat Thammaram in a part of lyrical poetry “Nirat Phrabat” written by Sunthorn Phu:

“Temples and temple grounds on the banks
are true according to the writings.
Chedi remains are left everywhere
and sermon halls are in ruins.
Wat Tharama made me in sorrow.
The temple where the Crown Prince,
or prince of the back palace,
had trust to renovate it.
Once it was shiny with beauty, but now deserted.
Being sympathy for Wat Thamma,
newly built in the name of Wat Tharama,
It’s like my suffering in thinking to have jewellery
and a golden crown to put on my body.”

The content in the poem shows that “Phra Wanglang (Prince of the back palace)” newly renovated it. This means Prince Anurakthewed (Thong In) who was born in the year of the tiger, 1746, in the reign of King Boromakot. He might have placed importance on Wat Thammaram and renovated it during 1785 1805 before his death in 1807.

Later, the temple was renovated again in the reign of King Rama I of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period). The king gave the name “Wat Ratchathammawat Worawihan” to the temple. It was a royal temple in Aranyawasi (the forest side). In the reign of King Rama V in 1906, a vihara, a hall for keeping the Buddhist scriptures and a sermon hall were built. After that the temple has been continuously renovated and mended (4).

Inside the temple, there was the main chedi in the round shape situated on a square base. There was also a vihara situated in the east, and the ubosot was situated behind the main chedi in the west. The hall for keeping the scriptures and the bell tower were by the river in the monks’ area in the east.

The monk dwelling on the river has two stireys. Now it is used for keeping the Buddhist scriptures, and is a Thai style house with mural paintings on the four sides of the wall. They tell biography of the Lord Buddha, the meeting of gods, lying down and doing meditation with corpses, and royal pictures of King Rama V.

Inside the religious area, there were the ubosot, the vihara, and the main chedi. The area was very wide and surrounded by walls.

Regarding the vihara, its gables contained molded flowers with models of various animals. The gable ends contained molded apexes (chorfah) and toothlike ridges (Bai Raka) on the sloping edges of the gables. The roof was covered with tiles made of baked clay. There were many Buddha images made of molded lime inside the vihara. A chedi in spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base (Song Langka) was behind the vihara. It was 20 wa (40 meters) high. Its base was doubled levels and decorated with molded lions around it. According to archeologists’ idea, the shape of the chedi was in early “Song Langka (spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base)” and shows that it was an old temple built in Ayutthaya period (5).

Wat Thammaram, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province (6)

References

1. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province, p. 47.
2. Chumpengphan, Pathum. (2001). Athibai Bhumisathan Krung Si Ayutthaya(Explanation of Krung Si Ayutthaya Geographical Sites). Bangkok: Chormo Dek, p. 71.
3. A picture in “Kharawan yuan Krung Si Ayutthaya: Thedsakarn Tiew Thai 5 Phark (A Caravan Visiting Krung Si Ayutthaya: Seasons of Thai Festivals in Five Regions)”. On line in Travel Time at http://www.travelthaimagazine.com/index.php?lay=show&ac=article&ld=538695272&Ntype=52.
4. Ayutthaya Study Institute. (nd.). Ayutthaya: Kwamsamphan tangdan Sassana rawang Prathed Thai kab Prathed Sri Langka (Relationship on Religion between Thailand and Sri Langka). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Rajabhat University.
5. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province, pp. 47 - 48.
6. Bloggang. com. (2008).A picture in “Bai Thamboon Wai Phra Gao Wat @ Ayutthaya Tornrab BeeMai Duaykan Nakha (Going to Do Merit for Nine Temples @ Ayutthaya to Welcome the New Year Together)” Retrieved December 25, 2008 on: http://www.bloggang.com.mainblog.php?id=yui-chan&month=25-12-2008&group=13&gblog=4.

all e-book
...ʶҺѹظ֡
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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
  • շ: շ 3 Ѻ 11 ¹-Զع¹ 2556
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  • շ: շ 3 Ѻ 12 áҤ-ѹ¹ 2556
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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
  • շ: շ 4 Ѻ 1 Ҥ-ѹҤ 2556
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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
  • շ: շ 4 Ѻ 2 Ҥ-չҤ 2557
  • ӹǹ˹(): 40
Ѻҹ
 
ظ֡
˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
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  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 146
   
  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 128
 
˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
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  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2553
  • ӹǹ˹(): 79
   
  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2554
  • ӹǹ˹(): 90
 
˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
´
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2555
  • ӹǹ˹(): 84
   
  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2556
  • ӹǹ˹(): 90
 
˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
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  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2557
  • ӹǹ˹(): 110
   
  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2558
  • ӹǹ˹(): -
 
Ѻҹ
 
Ҫѯا
˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
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  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ط
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 132
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ɰԨ§
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 126
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا
  • շ: 2549
  • ӹǹ˹(): 166
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا šջѭ طʹդӵͺ
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 130
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ԷҪѯ...Է㹽ѹ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 144
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا Ҫѯا
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 202
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ٻ¹
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 162
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا Ҫѯйظ ԴеҹҪҵ
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 250
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ԷҪѯ "Է ͤ"
  • շ: 2545
  • ӹǹ˹(): 182
   
  • ˹ѧ: Ҫѯا ԶժԵԻѭ
  • շ: 2545
  • ӹǹ˹(): 146
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ҡʶҺѹҪѯ...ԷҪѯ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 170 (2 )
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا /ȵõ šؤͷ
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 150 (2 )
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ٻش֡ؤšѵ
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 170
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ...֡觪ҵ 2542... ٻ֡ؤšѵ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 170
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ԡĵɰԨ !
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 130
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا Ѻ...ظ
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 146 (2 )
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ٻ֡
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 142
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا (ҪѵŢҪ)
  • շ: 2540
  • ӹǹ˹(): 108
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ѺǴ
  • շ: 2539
  • ӹǹ˹(): 126
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا Ѻôš
  • շ: 2539
  • ӹǹ˹(): 120
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا Ѻ...Ѳ鹺ҹ
  • շ: 2539
  • ӹǹ˹(): 130
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ҡԷ¤ ʶҺѹҪѯ
  • շ: 2538
  • ӹǹ˹(): 126
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا е˹ѡ ͧйظ
  • շ: 2537
  • ӹǹ˹(): 168
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا šջѭ طʹդӵͺ
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 130
Ѻҹ
 
آ
˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
´
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 11 Ѻ 11
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 156
   
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 10 Ѻ 10
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 118
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 9 Ѻ 9
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 140
   
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 8 Ѻ 8
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 148
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 7 Ѻ 7
  • շ: 2540
  • ӹǹ˹(): 116
   
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 4 Ѻ 5
  • շ: 2537
  • ӹǹ˹(): 148
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 3 Ѻ 4
  • շ: 2536
  • ӹǹ˹(): 192
   
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 2 Ѻ 2
  • շ: 2535
  • ӹǹ˹(): 140
Ѻҹ
 

˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
´
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ȵɨҡç¹֡Ѵͧ ԷҪѮйظ
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 186
   
  • ˹ѧ: 96 ʶҺѹҪѯйظ
  • շ: 2545
  • ӹǹ˹(): 234
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: 100 ҵѰ
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 190
   
Ѻҹ
 
§ҹ
˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
´
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش ͡Ẻ͡úóѴ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 614
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش ͡Ẻ͡úóѴʴ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 418
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش شкóѴҧ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 218
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش͡Ẻ͡úóѴ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 594
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹ Ѵѡô
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 358
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹ˹ѡ§
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 274
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴҧ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 390
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴҧ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 207
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴ⡯
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 437
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴաش
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 272
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش鹾鹷dzҡҧ (ѧ)
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 239
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ͡Ẻ кóҳʶҹѴ˹Ҿ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 467
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش觺óѧóҳʶҹྐྵ´ͧҧ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 290
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش§ҹ âشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳ ҳʶҹѴЫ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 576
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡Ẻ͡úóѴྪ
  • շ: 2545
  • ӹǹ˹(): 284
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشҳʶҹ dz˹ӹѡҹطҹѵʵйظ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 195
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشҳʶҹѴ⤡
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 369
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشҳʶҹСâشҳѴ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 164
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóѴóҪ
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 327
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóлѺاԷȹѴخմ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 265
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóҳʶҹͧк Ѵʴ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 69
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ûԺѵԧҹشҢͺࢵѧѧ
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 654
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ûѺاԷȹҸóٻҪҹ稾ͧ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 54
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹش鹷ҧҳմҹȵѹ͡§ͧҪѧѹ
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 425
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹз
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 53
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹлҧ ѴҸҵ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 172
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹѴʧ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 191
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹѴ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 81
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ óѴ⤡
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 155
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ СͺúóҳʶҹѴѧ-ѧ
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 278
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ѴоҹҤ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 573
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ Ѵ⾸͡
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 434
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çâش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹͧк ѴЧ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 520
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çâش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 909
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çâش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 1079
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúó Ѵʴ лѺاԷȹҳʶҹdzͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 496
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúó Ѵʴ лѺاԷȹҳʶҹdzͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 574
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúóлѧاҾǴҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 91
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúóлѺاҾǴҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 96
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúóлѺاҾǴҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 96
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâش͡Ẻ͡úóѴ§
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 470
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹͧ çâشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳѴعͧ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 439
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹͧ çâشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳѴҳʹ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 285
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹͧ çâشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳѴѡ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 264
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ػ§ҹ çâش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 140
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç ҹóоʶ()Ѵʮҧ
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 63
 
  • ˹ѧ: çúóҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط էҳ 2550 ҹóѴ˭ (෾Ե)
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 276
   
  • ˹ѧ: çûѺاྪ
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 16
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹ Ѵ⤡
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 96
   
  • ˹ѧ: çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 §ҹúóҳʶҹѴط
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 105
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 §ҹúóҳʶҹѴҸҵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 84
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 71
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 74
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 82
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 71
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ ѴЧ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 64
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 72
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵͧк
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 67
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ҹó ਴иҹ ਴ е Сᾧ ѴЪ
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 332
   
  • ˹ѧ: ҹóѴдç
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 117
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ҹѺاԷȹѴ
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 91
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش ᾧҪѧǧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 587
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S1 W26 P65
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 87
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S3 W27 P19
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 70
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S4 W27 P11
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 76
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S5 W30 P26
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 137
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S6 W27 P1
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 39
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S9 W29 P85
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 89
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡ẺóѴԧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 319
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡Ẻ͡úóѴྪ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 247
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡Ẻ͡úóѴǧաش
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 111
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشѴɰ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 224
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóЫ Ѵǧ
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 181
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóЫҡ­ ѴѵҸҪ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 70
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóʶѴҡͧ (з 2)
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 120
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 Ѵʴ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 100
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹشͧ͡к
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 108
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ШӧǴҹ 1 ҹش͡Ẻ͡úó Ѵҧ Ѵ§ ˹ѡ§ Ѵ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 133
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâش ش ҧҳѴôѵ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 106
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâشҳʶҹҪѧǧ
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 270
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâشҳʶҹѴ⵹
  • շ: 2540
  • ӹǹ˹(): 167
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹôԹҹҧҳ ˹ѡҿҧ
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 90
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹúó Ѵҧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 81
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹúóЫʶþй͹Ѵ
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 102
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹúóлѺاԷȹҳʶҹѴط
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 367
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹúóѴǧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 114
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹûԺѵԧҹ Ǵ 1 çâشлѺاҾǴҳʶҹ ѴЧ Ѵ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 208
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹûԺѵԧҹ Ǵ 3 çâشлѺاҾǴҳʶҹ ѴЧ Ѵ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 115
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ͹ѡоѲҳʶҹѴһٹ (óЫدʧ з 1)
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 76
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹçúóЫʶ(ѧ) Ѵǡ
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 221
 
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