˹ѡ
 
׺˹ѧ

        

 
   
 
ºͧش
chaosamphraya
ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ

 

 

ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ عͧ (è) 㹵ӺŻеҡҧѧѴйظ价ҧȵѹ͡§˹ͻҳ 400 ҧ .. 2502 Թ觻ЪҪԨҤ¢Ѻо觤鹾㹡ؾлҧѴҪó繢ͧҤس ըӹǹѺ 3,461,938 ҷ 22 ʵҧ Żҡè֧ԹӹǹҴԹáҧԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵԾºҹѡ˹ҷʶҹյǨٸѧҳѺǺdzºѹ 4 ¹ .. 2503 ͷ ͹ó稾кҪҸҪ 2 ʶһѴҪóТ .. 1967 ӹҨҪѭѵҳʶҹҳѵ Żѵ СþԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ .. 2504 ֧СԾԸѳʶҹ觹ժ "ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ" ѹ 8 Ȩԡ¹ .. 25041

ԾԸѳʶҹ觹 кҷ稾稾йҧҾкҪԹչҶʴ稾ҪԹҷçСͺԸԴ ѹ 26 ѹҤ .. 2504

ѹ 30 Ҥ .. 2513 Ͼ ءԨ ҹԹ Ѱաзǧ֡Ҹԡ㹢й 繻иҹ㹾ԸԴҤա 2 ѧ2

㹾ԾԸѳʶҹѴҧԾԸѳʶҹ 觹Ҩ繾ԾԸѳʶҹá㹻·Ѵҧ ѴҧǺͧҳҵҡ ͧ٤¡Ѻҹ¢ͧҡҨ繾ԾԸѳ

Żѵҳѵ㹾ԾԸѳʶҹ觹Ҩ繢ͧشҡػҧѴҪó᷺ ͧѡооطٻҴ˭ ҹ鹷ҨҡԾԸѳʶҹѧѹ èѴӡͺѺͧѡ зӰҹͧѺоطٻҡѹѺҤʶҹ ШѴҧ ѹ ʧҧͧҤáҧ١Ը ͧҹҧ㹾ԾԸѳʶҹ3

ӤѭѴʴ㹾ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ4

  1. ͧٹ鹫дѺ˹Һѹͧҧȵҧ ѴҸҵ
  2. оطٻоþоطٻҧ Ż⢷ºҧ ͧҧ ظҺҧ 觾оطٻоþоطٻҹ龺਴Ѵྪҧ ѴҸҵغҧ Ҩҡоͧ¢ͧźԵúҧ ǹҡҨҡѴҪó
  3. оطٻ·Ǵ Ԫ ž ооطٻ͵ҧ оطٻԹ ѧ ີ Шչ
  4. ͧѡ¡اظ ǹ˭繺ҹе ѡͧǴһСͺҧ ٻǡҧҧ ͡ҡѧ˹Һѹѡٻй³çغóٻر ¡اظ
  5. ͧǼ֡شҡѴҸҵѴҪó
  6. ͧªອç ظѵԹ
  7. оẺҧ شҡؾлҧѴҪó
  8. þоطٻ ŻẺǴպҧ ŻẺظҺҧ
  9. кԡҵث觢ش鹾㹾лҧͧ˭ѴҸҵ ѹ 30 ѹ¹ .. 2499 Ѻͧͧ աª
  10. ͧͧ觤鹾㹡ؾлҧѴҪóѴҸҵ ͧͧش㹡ؾлҧѴҪóй鹤ͧҪٻͧ¾ ɰҢͧ稾кҪҸҪ 2

ФҸ÷ͧӻдѺѭ Żظҵ͹ (طѡҪ 1967) 㹡ؾлҧѴҪó
óԧ÷ͧӻдѺѭ ͧҪٻ Żظҵ͹ (طѡҪ 1967) 㹡ؾлҧѴҪó

 

Chao Sam Phraya National Museum


Chao Sam Phraya National Museum is on Khun Muangchai road (Rojana road) at Pratu Chai sub-district near the Old City Hall about 400 meters in the north-east. The museum was built in 1959 by the sum of money donated from people who received Buddha votive tablets dug out from the main stupa at Wat Ratburana as gifts. The sum was 3,461,938 baht and 22 satang (one baht contains 100 satang).The Fine Arts Department used the sum of money in building the museum, residences for officials, the tourist police station, and the fences. It was finished on April 4, 1960, and aimed to be the memorial place for King Boroma Rachathirat 2 (Chao Sam Phraya) who was the founder of Wat Ratburana in 1424. With the authority of the National Ancient Places, Antiques, and Museum Act 1961, the museum was declared as Phiphitapan Satan Hangchart Chao Sam Phraya (Chao Sam Phraya National museum) on November 8, 1961 (1).


His Majesty King Bhumibhol and her Majesty the Queen went to grant the ceremony and opened the museum on December 26, 1961.
Later, his Excellency Sukit Nimmarnhamin, the Minister of the Ministry of Education at that time, acted as the chairman to open another two buildings.
The museum was adjusted in modern style, and it is said to be the first museum in Thailand adjusted in the new way because a lot of antiques were not collected at each area like shops that sold antiques instead of being a museum.


All the artistic subjects and antiques in Chao Sam Phraya museum were said to be from Wat Ratburana. Only the carved wooden subjects and big Buddha images were taken from Chandrakasem Museum. Frames were made to place the carved wooden subjects, and bases were made to situate Buddha images in harmony with the places and the buildings. The things displayed were not stick to each other. Enough light is technically allowed to go into the buildings, and display of things could be properly seen unlike the other museums in Thailand at that time (3).


Important Subjects Displayed in Chao Sam Phraya National Museum


Figures made of mortar from different gables of Wat Mahathat.


Buddha images and Buddha images heads from Sukhothai, U-Thong, and Ayutthaya periods which were found in the main stupa at Wat Phra Si Sanphet, Wat Mahathat, or from the left shoulder of Phra Mongkhol Bophit, and most of them were from Wat Ratburana.
Buddha images in the styles of Thawarawadee period, Sriwichai period, Lob Buri period, and the Buddha images made abroad, for example, Buddha images from India, Langka, Burma, Tibet and China.


The carved wooden subjects of Ayutthaya period that most of them were panels of doors carved in patterns of gods, and in other figures. There were also gable panels carved in the figures of the god Vishnu riding on Guruda and figures of single Garuda. The mentioned figures were also used as heads of royal boats in Ayutthaya period.


The glasswares and crystals dug out from Wat Mahathat and Wat Ratburana.
The porcelains called Bencharong (The Thai porcelain with designs in five colors: black, white, yellow, green and red) in Ayutthaya and Rattanakosin (Bangkok) periods.


Various styles of Buddha votive tablets found from the main stupa at Wat Ratburana.
Buddha images heads made of stone in Thawarawadee and Ayutthaya styles.
Buddhas relics found in the main stupa at Wat Mahathat on September 30, 1956. Many gold ornaments were also found there.
The gold wares found in the main stupas at Wat Mahathat and Wat Ratburana. The gold wares found in the main stupa at Wat Ratburana were Chao Ai Phrayas and Chao Yi Phrayas (King Boroma Rachathirat IIs or Chao Sam Phrayas brothers) personal belongings.
A golden figure of elephant decorated with precious stones in early Ayutthaya style (1424) found in the main stupa at Wat Ratburana.
The royal golden pitcher decorated with precious stones used as the kings personal equipment, in early Ayutthaya style (1424) found in the main stupa at Wat Ratburana.


References
1. Sukkasem, Chalerm. Singnaroo jark Ayutthaya (Things to know in Ayutthaya). Bangkok:
Sathiankosate Foundation, pp. 148-149.
2. Sookkasem, Chalerm. (Referred). p. 149.
3. Amattayakul, Tree. (1962). Namtiew Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (Guided Tour in
Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Printed for Mr. Thonglor Boonnits Funeral, p. 33.
4. Amattayakul, Tree. (Referred). pp. 33-34.

chantarakasem
Ҫѧѹ

 

 

Ҫѧѹͷ¡ѹ "ѧ˹" Ҿҵç¡ѹҴҹ˹ѧͤáҧҡ˹ѧ;ҪǴ "ѧ" 稾йôҧ .. 2120 㹢зͧѧ繾ؾҪͧͧɳš ˵طҧѧѹ鹷çç繪ҹй͡ᾧͧ ѧ稾ҸҪô¡ᾧͧ͡仨֧ Թ㹺dz֧ҧպҹ͹ɮ ͧҡҧҹ˹ҹ繴ҹӤѭ ͧѾ¡ѾҤ㴡ѡҵշҧҹ й鹨֧繨еͧѧҹҵͪú֡¡ҵվйôҹҧ˹ ա˵ؼ˹觤稾йѡʴ稨ҡͧɳšҾҪԴͧ յ˹ѡ˭õԷлзѺ㹾й ֧繵ͧҧѧѺ繷зѺ1

 

Ңͧ¡ "ѧ˹" ҴçҪҹҾçԾѹɰҹͧҢͧ "ѧ˹" 㹺 "Ҫѧѹ ͧɳš 㹵ӹҹѧ˹" 2

"駡ا㹪á ѧͧػҪеçШ¡ҧҡ ͧѹŻѵԢͧѧ˹Ҿբ蹴Թ稾ҸҪҸҪ

蹴Թ稾Ҩѡþô ˧Ǵ çͧҵͧ¤Ǣͪҧ͡ͻաع .. 2106 ... ˧Ǵժª ԡѾѺ ҸҪҨ֧ͧ¾Ҫʾͧ˭ 稾й ҹ鹾Ъѹ 9 Ǻ 繵Ǩӹ㹾Ҫӹѡͧ˧Ǵ §ҧҪ

稾йʴͧ˧Ǵ 6 稾ҸҪҪѵͻ .. 2112 ¾ؾóҪԴ˧Ǵ ˧Ǵը֧稾йáѺ׹ ҪԴʴ稢Ҫý˹ ͧɳš ç繾ؾҪ ҹ鹡اظ繻Ҫا˧Ǵ շҧʹԷʹ ҷẺҧлླẺ˧Ǵ㹡اظҧ Ҿ ( ҴçҪҹҾ – ¹) ѹɰҹҹҨж¤ԹԹԧ ¡稾й "ҽ˹" Ш¡ "ѧ˹" çѾԹԹͧҡʴѧ㹡اظ Ѵ㹷ҧ ֧ "" ᷹

...

Ҷ֧͡ .. 2127 稾йûСҾͧͧ鹵ͧ˧Ǵյ ͧ֡˧Ǵշеͧ 稾й÷çҴ͹餹ͧ˹ŧǺѹ㹡اظ 繷蹵 ֧ʴŧһзѺѧѹ Ҿ ( ҴçҪҹҾ – ¹) ѹɰҹ繨Դ¡ѧѹ "ѧ˹" "ѧ˹" ¹ оõȢͧ稾йù鹻С 1 ѧѹԭҹ˹ҢͧҪѧǧաС 1..."

ǹͧ͢ѧ˹ҹ ѹɰҹ ͤ稾йʴ稨ҡͧɳšҡاظҹժͧɳšзäзµʴŧҴ Ǿɳšҹ鹨֧¡ѧзѺͧ稾й "ѧѹ" зѺ ͧɳš ;Ҫѧѹ ѹ繷ٵԢͧͧ3

µ "ѧѹ" ¹ "ѧѹú" Ҩѧҡ ͤ駴çȢعǧѡ "Ҫѧʶҹ" ѧ˹ зѺ Ҫѧ觹 觹Ѻ繤áҡйҪѧʶҹ㹻ѵʵ4

㹾Ҫѧѹúù鹻Сͺ仴¾з觻ҷѵآ ʹ վз觵ҧ ѧ ժͿ ҧ˧ آ͹ ʹշءѧ յ˹ѡ˭¢ҧ˹Ңҧҡѧ

վФѧҧ ءѡҹúԺó ç׹˭çʧþظ çҧ ç çö ҧӡõҧ ҾԾҡҵԹ¤ҧ ءзǧ ˭ѡعҧ ¡ ١عѧ˹

Ҵ ѧ ͧ ҷˡ繷ФˡդվҪѧ˹

úҭ㹾Ҫѧ˹ ʴդءѡͧء շҪҧзҩǹӻШӷ ҵǹҪѧ˹ ç͹зç͡кǹҧ Ѵͧ Ѵҷ

֡Թ׹ çѡ ҷԹ 㹾Ҫѧѹúվ˹觪Ѵعʹ վʶ ­ оҸҵءѺ਴Ժó ʧѴѧ5

ǹ "ѧѹ" ¡㹻Ѩغѹ 繪кҷ稾Шô Ҫҹ ͤѧçóоҪѧº ѪŢͧͧ6

͡اظҡѺ е֡һЪԴй 稾йʴһзѺӹ¡ʧѧ騹ʹѪŢͧ稾ҪԴ ʴ稢ԧҪѵǡѧзѺ ѧա֧ 5 ֧ç任зѺҪѧǧ .. 2138

稾й÷ç任зѺҪѧǧ 稾͡ҷöçзѺ ҧѧѹ㹰ҹѧ˹ ;ػҪ 稾йʴä㹻 .. 2148 ҿطȹ Ҫʢͧ稾͡ҷöзѺ ѧ׺

ͤ駾ظҪҤԴѺй³Ѻҿ»ŧЪ¡ظҪҢҪ Ҫѧǧ 稾й³зѺ ѧ˹;Ҫѧѹͧ

ҾظҪҤͧҪ 3 ͹Դ˵آѴ駡Ѻй³쨹Դúѹҧѧ˹ҡѺѧǧ 觵Ҿй³繽ª ظҪҶ١ŧЪ 稾й³ʴ稨ҧҪѧѹһзѺ Ҫѧǧ繡ѵ컡ͧاظͻ .. 2199

ѧ稾й³ǻҡѧ˹ ;Ҫѧѹ繷зѺͧػҪç繡ѵա 3 ͧ , 稾ҷ, 稾Ǻ

ͤ稾Ǻʴ稢鹤ͧҪͻ .. 2275 ͧʴһзѺ㹾Ҫѧǧ зѺ ѧ˹ҹ 12 ֧ .. 2287 ԴҪѧѹ˭訹зое˹ѡҧ ͺ 稾ǺȨ֧ͧʴ任зѺ㹾Ҫѧǧ

ѧҡ͡ҪѧʹҾԷѡ ҿҸҸ Ҫ稾ǺʴһзѺҪѧѹ׺ա 14 Ͷ֧ǧоҪѳҡкԴͻ .. 2301 ҪѧѹҧҨз¡اͻ .. 2310

Ҫѧѹ繷зѺͧػҪСѵ¡اظҶ֧ 8 ͧ7

㹾ǴäêǡاҡǶ֧Ҵ鹷ͧҪѧѹ "ѧѹ աᾧͧ͹ѧǧ ᾧ鹹͡٧ 7 ͡ ǡᾧͺ 24 ջе˭ҧ 4 ͡ 6 е еٹ 2 е..."8

ͤ¡ا駷ͧ㹻 .. 2310 Ҫѧѹ١ ʶҹѧѡѧششŧѹҡ Ѫŷ 1 ô԰ҧا෾ ѧ֧١áҧҨ֧Ѫŷ 4 кҷ稾ШǨ֧ôҪѧ੾ǹ˹觢ͧҪѧ ;з觾ҹѵоѺҨآѺ繷зѺʴ稻оʾйظ9 ¡ë駹çҧǡᾧҪѧ ŴҴ˭ŧҡ ǹҧ 133.5 164 ·çҧ繡ᾧẺҳ ջе͡繻е˭ 繡ᾧҪѧѹҡ㹻Ѩغѹ ǹ㹾Ҫѧ鹷çҧз觵ҧ 鹵ҡҹ10

ҪѧѹѺ繷зѺʴ稻оʾйظҨ֧Ѫŷ 5 кҷ稾ШŨ ͷçҧҪѧкҧԹǨ֧Ҫҹ繷ҡظ غŧѪŷ 7 кҷ稾лǡçôҡҧѧѴйظҨзҧҡҧ¡പظ11

ʶҹҧ 㹾ҪѧѹҧѪŷ 4

ѺҨآ

ѺҨѵآ 繾Ѻͧ躹еѧҹѹ͡ кҷ稾Ш ôҧѺ繷зѺʴ稻оʾйظ Ѫŷ 5 Ѻ觹ششҡ кҷ稾ШŨ ֧ôԪԵ (Ҥ ྪ) ѡҡا˹ »Ѫŷ 6 Ѻҹشա ѪŹ黯ѧó ֧Ѫŷ 7 ֧ôҳҪҹԹ ( പФػ) ա˹ ë駹͵ǾѺŧѧ ʹ Т ͹յ᷹ͧͧ Т·çѺ٧ա͡

Ѻҹ "ظҾԾԸѳ"12 ѡҢͧŻҡ 觢ͧ㹾ԾԸѳǹҡҳҪҹԹǺͤԺظ 觢ͧҪҧ оطٻ շķ ͧѡ ͧͧͧԹ繵 ( "ԾԷѳʶҹ" ҧ鹹 ͧѡҡԾԸѳ觹仨Ѵʴª) ѨغѹԾԸѳ¡ "ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵԨѹ" ѡҢͧ˹Żҡ÷ 1 ѧѴйظ

з觾ҹѵ

з觾ҹѵ 繵֡ҧѧ зͧкҷ稾Ш çҧҡзͤ駡اظ ·çҪҨ繷зѺʴ稻о ҧҧ ֧Ѫŷ 5 ֧ôҧͨ 繷зѺ㹤ʴ稻оʾйظҨзҧҪѧҧԹǨ֧Ҫҹ繷ҡҡҧ»13 зѧշͧç繷ʴ͡ͺҴ

з觾ѡɳ ͷ¡ѹ "ͧͧ"14 ٧ 4 ٧ҡԹҳ 40 ٻͤҧҹѹ ҧ稾й³ ѡѧŧͤ¡ا駷 2 㹻 .. 2310 㹻Ѩغѹͤ·ҧѪŷ 4 ҹ Ҫҹ "з觾ѡɳ" çѺ繷зѺѺʹ๵ô ͧҡçôԪҴʵʵҡ ͻ .. 2474 .. 2511 Żҡӡëзͧ15

з觾ѡɳ "ͧͧ"

еСᾧѧ 㹻Ѩغѹ繻еСᾧѧҧѪŷ 4 ҧᾧࢵͺ еСᾧѧբҴҧҧҷ㹻Ѩغѹ ¾ҳҪҹشҡзͺ͡ᾧѧҹ龺ҡ԰㹺dz͹ӨѧѴйظա觴

 

Chandrakasem Palace


Chandrakasem Palace or the Front Palace is situated on the Chao Phraya River at the buffer side in front of the palace. It was named Wang Mai (the new palace) when it was first constructed. King Narasuan commissioned the construction of the palace in 1577 when he was still the crown prince ruling Pitsanuloke. The reason of building the palace at the spot came from the fact that the area was the outskirt of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya outside the city walls. Later, King Maha Thamma Racha commissioned expanding the city wall to the bank of the Chao Phraya River. During that time, the area was empty and few people lived on it, due to the fact that this side of the city was an important checkpoint that the enemies always used to move their troops to attack Krung Si Ayutthaya. As a result, it was appropriate to construct a palace there in order to help fight against the enemies when they moved the troops to that side. The other reason was that King Narasuan always visited his father (King Maha Thamma Racha), and there was not any suitable residence for him to stay inside the city. Therefore, the Front Palace had to be built for the Crown Prince (King Narasuan) to stay when he came to Ayutthaya (1).


For the origin of the word Wang Na (the Front Palace), Prince Damrongrachanupap wrote showing the origin of the word Wang Na in an article which the topic meaning in English The Chandra Palace in Pitsanoloke and the Legend of Wang Na (2):


In early Krung Si Ayutthaya time, there was no mention about the location of the crown princes palace and what name it was called. The history of the Front Palace first occurred in the reign of King Maha Thamma Rachathirat.


In the reign of King Maha Chakaphat, King Burengnong of Hongsawadee asked for a white elephant from Ayutthaya, but he was refused. Therefore, King Burengnong moved his troops to attack Krung Si Ayutthaya in 2106, and he defeated. King Maha Thamma Racha had to send his eldest son, later becoming King Narasuan, to Krung Hongsawadee as the hostage. At that time King Narasuan was only 9 years old. He had to be the hostage in King Burengnongs royal palace as a tradition of being dependency.


King Narasuan had stayed in Krung Hongsawadee for 6 years. When King Maha Thamma Racha succeeded to the throne in 1569 in the year of the small snake, he offered his daughter, Princess Suphana Thewee, as an exchange with King Narasuan. Thus, King Narasuan went back to Krung Si Ayutthaya, and was appointed to rule Phitsanuloke, the important city in the north. King Narasuan was promoted to the position of the crown prince. At that time, Krung Si Ayutthaya was Krung Hongsawadees dependency, and because of being well-acquainted, many Hongsawadees costoms and traditions were adopted to Krung Si Ayutthaya. Prince Damrongrachanupap assumed that Burmese words for the crown prince Insa Minkhing was translated into Thai, and originally called King Narasuan Phrachao Fai Na (Prince of the front side). To call him Phrachao Wangna (Prince of the front palace) translated directly from the words Insa Minkhing was not appropriate because King Narasuan did not stay in the Royal Palace. So the word Fai was used instead of Wang.
Later in 1584, King Narasuan declared his victory over Krung Hongsawadee, and refused to be under Krung Hongsawadee any more. King Narasuan expected a war from Hongsawadee, and prepared well to fight against it. He removed the habitants out of chief cities of the north to stay in Krung Si Ayutthaya in order to fight against the Burmese. He also moved and stayed at Chandrakasem Palace since then. Prince Damrongrachanupap assumed that the palace was called Wang Fai Na (Palace of the front side) or Wang Na (the front palace) since then. This was from two reasons: one was due to King Narasuans honour and the other, Chandrakasem Palace was in front of the Royal Palace.


Regarding the name Wang Chan, it was assumed that King Narasuan moved from Phitsanuloke to Krung Si Ayutthaya with a lot of his followers and Phitsanuloke people. Those people turned to call the front palace Wang Chan, the same name as King Narasuans residence in Phitsanuloke which was called Phra Ratchawang Chan (Chan Royal Palace) the place where King Narasuan was also born (3).


Later, the name Wang Chan was changed to Wang Chandraboworn. This name might have been used when King Sua, when he was in the position of Krom Phra Ratchawang Boworn Sathanmongkhol or Prince of the front palace, stayed at this palace. This name was mentioned at the same time as the position of Krom Phra Ratchawang Boworn Sathanmongkhol in Thai history (4).


The area of Chandrakasem Palace comprised Prasat Chaturamook Hall. The roof of this Hall did not have pointed tops. There were many residences of royalty with chorfah (decoration at the tops the gables), Hanghong (decoration at both ends of the gables), leveled porticos, but every residence did not have an arbor on top. There were many royal residences inside the palace with various houses of treasury. There were also many buildings to keep weapons, elephants, horses, vehicles, residences for mechanics and skillful workmen, and houses of justice of various ministries. A big rest-house was provided for high ranked noblemen to have an audience of the crown prince, and it was called Sala Look-khun Wangna (the rest-house of the front palaces judges).
There were rest-houses for the Ministry of Interiors, including the Departments of Defense, Foreign Affairs, Palace Affairs, Agricultural Affairs, City Affairs; and all the rest-houses would decide all cases involving the front palace.


Inside Chandrakasem Palace, there was sala-saraban (the rest-house for official register) for ladies of the court, two jails for prisoners, an elephant camp, the insulator connected to a rest-house in the river, and rest-houses for guards on the palaces corners. There were rest-houses for each hall, and also rest-houses for royal barges at Wat Dtong-pu and Wat Prasat.


It was also said that at dteuk-din (a building called din), there were no guns, no royal vehicles and no smithy. Inside Chandraboworn Palace (Chandrakasem Palace), there was a temple called Wat Khunsaen comprising the Ubosot, wihan, karn plian (building for religious knowledge), and a stupa containing the Buddhas relics inside. No monks stayed at the temple because it was the temple inside the palace (5).


The name Chandrakasem Palace called nowadays originated from King Chulalongkorn who renamed the palace into the new one when he commission renovating the palace which was finished in the reign of King Vajiravudh, the sixth king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok) period (6).


When Krung Si Ayutthaya became independent, and later, the enemies surrounded Krung Si Ayutthaya, King Narasuan went to this palace to plan for fighting against the enemies, and stayed there until the end of his fathers reign. Finally, he was proclaimed King; he had still stayed at the palace for five years. Then he moved to stay in the Grand Palace in 1595.


After King Narasuan moved to stay in the Grand Palace, King Ekathosarot stayed at the front palace when he was in the position of the prince of the front palace or Uparatch (viceroy). After King Narasuan died in 1605, Prince Suthas, King Ekathosarots son moved to stayed at the palace.
When King Si Suthammaracha and King Narai conspired to arrest Prince Chai and killed him, King Si Suthammaracha succeeded to the throne, and moved to stay in the Grand Palace. King Narai stayed at the front palace or Chandrakasem Palace as the viceroy, too.


King Si Suthammaracha had reigned for only three months; he and King Narai became contrary. There was a war between the Royal Palace and the Front Palace. King Si Suthammaracha was defeated, and was killed. King Narai moved from the front palace to the Royal Palace and was proclaimed king of Krung Si Ayutthaya in 1656.


After the reign of King Narai, the front palace or Chandrakasem palace was used as the residence of the viceroy for another three kings: King Sua, King Thai Sa and King Boromakot.


King Boromakot succeeded to the throne in 1732, but he did not move to stay in the Grand Palace. He had stayed at Chandrakasem palace for 12 years. In 1744, Chandrakasem palace caught fire. The halls and the royal residences were nearly all burnt down. As a result, King Boromakot had to move to the Grand Palace.
After that Krom Phraratchawang Boworn Mahasenapithak or Prince Thammathibet, a son of King Boromakot had stayed at Chandrakasem Palace for 14 years. Later, he got punishment by royal decree and was killed in 1758. Chandrakasem Palace was in vacancy until Ayutthaya was defeated and was destroyed in 1767.


In conclusion, Chandrakasem Palace had been the residence of eight viceroys and kings of Krung Si Ayutthaya (7).


In a chronicle according to Ayutthaya people testimonies, it was said that Chandrakasem Palace had double sets of walls like the Grand Palace. The outer wall is 7 feet high, and 48 meters long. There were 6 big gates with 4 feet wide and another two small gate called Pratu (Pratu means gate)


When Krung Si Ayutthaya was destroyed in 1767, Chandrakasem Palace was burnt down, and left in ruins. Later, in the reign of King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok) period, he commissioned taking a lot of bricks from the front palace to build the Royal Palace in Bangkok. The front palace had been deserted until the reign of King Mongkut who commissioned renovating Chandrakasem Palace at only the old royal residences called Piman Rattaya Hall and Plabplachaturamuk Hall in order to stay when he visited Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (9). The King commissioned constructing the walls in ancient style with bai-sema (Boundary stones), and big gates for entrance at the four directions that we can see them nowadays. He also commissioned constructing many royal places inside the palace at the same location they were in former time (10).


Chandrakasem Palace had been used as the royal resting place for many kings until the reign of King Chulalongkorn, the 5th king of Krung Rattanakosin (Bangkok), who commissioned building the new palace at Bang Pa-in Island, and appointed the front palace to be the officially provincial office for Monthon (Precinct) Ayutthaya. Later Monthon (Precinct) was given up, and King Prajadhipok appointed the palace to be Phranakhon si Ayutthaya city hall until the new city hall was constructed at Dachawuth Junction (11).


Places constructed inside Chandrakasem Palace in King Mongkuts reign


Plap-pla Chaturamuk (Chaturamuk Pavilion)


Plap-pla Chaturamuk was made of wood and situated near the palace gate in the east. King Mongkut commissioned building it in order to stay when he visited Ayutthaya. This pavilion became very damaged in the reign of King Chulalongkorn. So he assigned Phraya Chaiwichit (Nak Na Pomphet), Ayutthaya governor, to restore the palace. Later, the palace became damaged again and was renovated by Phraya Boranratchathanin (Porn Dachakhup) in the reign of King Vajiravudh, the sixth king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok) period. At this time, the pavilion was torn down. The posts, the beams and the joists which were made of wood were replaced with ones made of concrete, and the pavilion became one foot higher.


This pavilion lately became Ayutthaya Pipittaphan (Ayutthaya Museum) (12) under the Department of Fine Arts. Things displayed in the museum were from Phraya Boranratchathanins collection when he was the archaic provincial governor of Monthon Ayutthaya. There were many interesting things, for example, Buddha images in stone and archaic, figures made of wood, things made in ceramics and baked clay, and etc. (When Chao Sam Phraya Museum was finished, some of the things was taken to display at the museum). Now, the palace is used as a museum called Pipittaphansathan Hangchart Chandrakasem (Chandrakasem National Museum) and it works under the Office of Fine Arts 1 in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya.


Piman Rattaya Hall


Piman Rattaya Hall was a group of buildings in the middle of Chandrakasem Palace. King Mongkut commissioned constructing the Hall on the same location as it was in Krung Si Ayutthaya time. He aimed to use it as the royal resting place when he visited the old city, but the hall was not finished in his reign. Later, King Chulalongkorn continued constructing it until it was finished, and he used it as the royal resting place when he visited Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. When the King finished constructing Bang Pa-In Palace, he conferred it to be the official house and city hall for many years (13). Once the hall of the grand building was used by the king to go out and grant audiences to officials.


Pisai Sanyalak Hall


Pisai Sanyalak Hall or Hor Songklong (Hall for watching the planets) (14) had four floors with 40 meters high. It was a watch-tower in the west, and built in the reign of King Narai. It tumbled down when Ayutthaya was destroyed in 1767. The one we see nowadays was the new one built in the reign of King Mongkut on the same location as it was. He named it Phrateenang Pisai Sanyalak (Pisai Sanyalak Hall). It was used as a place to watch the planets due to the fact that King Mongkut was fond of astronomy. The Department of Fine Arts have renovated the Hall twice, once in 1931, and the other in 1968 (15).


The gates and the walls at Pisai Sanyalak Hall that we see nowadays were renovated in the reign of King Mongkut, the 4th king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok) period. A set of walls was built to surround the area, but the old walls and the old gates were much bigger than those we see nowadays. Phraya Boranratchathanin was appointed to unearth the area; he found the old base of the Hall and a lot of bricks at the area of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Prison.

References
1. Amattayakul, Tree. (1962). Namtiew Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (Guided Tour in
Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Printed for Mr. Thonglor Boonnits Funeral, pp. 13-14.
2. Damrongrachanupap, Prince. (2003). Phraratchawang Chan, Muang Pitsanuloke,
Phraratchawang Chan Wang Phra Narasuan Muang Pitsanuloke, Teeprasoot,
Teepratab khong Somdet Phra Narasuan, Suchit wongthed, editor. Bangkok:
Samnakpim Matichon, pp. 68-70.
3. Tassanasuwan, Pramote. (1979). Chohmna Krung Si Auyutthaya (Ayutthaya Physical
Geography). Bangkok: Samnakpim Siangthai Publishing, p. 174.
4. Tassanasuwan, Pramote. (Referred), p. 174.
5. Wongthed, Suchit. (2001). Ayutthaya Yos Yingfah. Bangkok: Matichon, pp. 56-57.
6. Tassanasuwan, Pramote. (Referred), p. 174.
7. Tassanasuwan, Pramote. (Referred), pp. 175-177.
8. Tassanasuwan, Pramote. (Referred), p. 177.
9. Amattayakul, Tree. (Referred), p. 14.
10. Tassanasuwan, Pramote. (Referred), p. 178.
11. Amattayakul, Tree. (Referred), p. 14.
12. Sukkasem, Chalerm. Singnaroo jark Ayutthaya (Things to know in Ayutthaya). Bangkok:
Sathiankosate Foundation, p. 27.
13. Amattayakul, Tree. (Referred), p. 15.
14. Sukkasem, Chalerm. (Referred), p. 28.
15. Sukkasem, Chalerm. (Referred), p. 29.

bangsai
ٹŻҪվҧ

 

 

ٹŻҪվҧ 觫¢ͧҾ ࢵӺҪ ӺŪҧ˭ еӺ⾸ᵧ ͺҧ ѧѴйظ ͷ 2,505 30 ҧ ͡ǹ˭ 3 ǹ ٹŻҪվ 繾鹷;Ѳҡɵ 繷ԹҪҹѴʶҺѹûӨ״ѺҤҧ ѡɳо鹷繼׹ԹŧǢҹ仡ѺҾ1

ҢͧٹŻҪվҧù׺ͧҡ稾йҧ кҪԹչҶ ç鹿٧ҹŻҪվ㹷ͧ蹵ҧ ǹҪ֡зҪվ ҧҡҹ ¡ûдɰŻѵҧ 駨ѴҵҴ˹

㹢鹵稾йҧ кҪԹչҶվҪǹҪԾ㹾ͧѺԴͺç ¡ "çŻҪվ" çô ѴŹԸ Ҫҹ "ŹԸŻҪվ" "ŹԸŻҪվ 稾йҧ кҪԹչҶ" зç繻иҹҸԡâͧŹԸ2 µ駢ѹ 21áҤ .. 2519 çѴç֡ͺŻҪվáе˹ѡǹԵŴ3

ѹѵŻ .. 2523 稾йҧ кҪԹչҶçСسô ¸ҹԹ ͧиҹŹԸŻҪվ ҷԹ§ѺҪѧҧԹͨѴٹŻҪվա˹

 

¸ҹԹ ѴҷԹ 2 ŧ 繷Թͧӹѡҹ ѾԹǹҡѵкҷ çسô ҪҹѰŨѴûٻԹɮüҡշзҡԹѵҾ ŧ˹ͺҹҨѧѴù¡ աŧ˹ͺҧèѧѴйظ ;кҷ稾稾йҧ кҪԹչҶʴ稾ҪԹ价ʹ๵÷Թŧͺҧ 觷Թŧվ鹷ҳ 750 4 㹷ش稾йҧ кҪԹչҶ մ ࢵٻԹͺҧҾ äҤдǡ ҧҡا෾ ҡѡ ʶҹ觷ͧ 駷ҧԹойظ ö¢ͺ§ҹҧҧ觢鹵 ôԹҹͨѴٹŻҪվҧè֧ .. 2523 "ٹŻҪվҧ稾йҧԡԵ кҪԹչҶ" ¡зǧɵˡóҢͧͧ ˹§ҹǢͧѺԴͺԹҹա˹§ҹ5

ʶҹʹٹŻҪվҧ

Ҿ觢ѭ

Ҿ觢ѭ ҤẺç»ء ѧҨѵآ ٧ 4 Ъմѧ

鹷 1 ǹաҸԵ ÷ӧҹŻѵҧ ûѡ ûдɰ͡ ҹҹ 繷ʴԹҾ˹¼ԵѳͧٹŻҪվҧ Шҡҧ ŹԸԨó ҹͧ͢ҨҢͧٹŻҪվҧ ˡóغо ٹŻҪվǹԵŴ ٹŻҪվ ǻ Եѳ˹繧ҹŻѵ ͧªອç ͧԡ ҹѡշ駷ѡлѡѡä ͡дɰҡʴظҵ д ͧǷٻҧ ѵ ͡ Ҫö ǹ˭աͧǺèº ͹仵駻дѺѹ ͡ҡ ѧͧѡҹ駷ҹ Ѵ ͧ ͧҹ һ Ҿѹ 繵

鹷 2 繹Էȡçҹҧͪͧ͡ٹŻҪվ ժš

鹷 3 繹ԷȡҾҴչѹ ͧͧ ҡȵҧ ռʴ觨¹

鹷 4 ͧЪ ͧЪ˭ ͧ͡ҡѧյШҧ кҧѹաʴԴ ҧѹա͹Դ

ѧ

ѧ Ҥͤ;ԾԸѳ ͷоѹ͹ѡѹҹӨ״˭ش㹻 Ҥôҹ˹ٻỴ ѧҹԹҵ .. 2528 ԴҪͻ .. 2541 ͼҹҤèշҧԹҴԹͺ繡ШҾͧ㹹оת«㹶ѧ˭ 2 ѧ 2 ѧ˹դ 1,400 ѹ ա֧˹ 600 ѹ ѧ˭ͧҾͧҹӨ״㹻ªԴԹ ǹաѧ˹繻ҪԴԹûժԵ 硻ҹŧ

 

͡ҡҢҴ˭ 2 ѧյ Ҿ¹¾͸Ժ´ͧЪԴʹ

ǹ ʶҹ͹ѡ칡Դҧ 㹻«觺ҧԴ٭ѹҡ 2 ǹ ѹ

ǹ˹ͷҧ յªԴ͹ͧһҸҵ յҢ¤Сçǹ 㹡ç˭չԹǷǹ Ѻ١ѡѧ㹡ç硷㹡ç˭ Һҹ͡㹡ç硹ͧӾǡ ǡ˹繹ͺ¹ աǡ˹繹ѡ١蹷Ъµͧ ǹԹ§ҹҪԴͧ繴µ ͹ Ӹ оҹǹԹ仨Թ仵оҹʹٹҧԴ

աǹ˹աçѧ繹д յҧ С зا 繵

ǹ

ҹŻҪվ ͹үŻ ͹ 4 Ҥ 觡÷ͧ觻ѺٹŻҪվҧФʶһѵ¡ԷŻҡèѴҧ͹ ¾кҷ稾 áʷçͧҪѵԤú 50

ҹŻҪվ

ҹŻҪվСͺ仴͹Ҥҧ ͹Ҥ˹ 6 ѧ ͹Ҥҧ 7 ѧ ͹Ҥҹ 6 ѧ ͹Ҥ 5 ѧ ͹ҧẺʶһѵ¡͹Ҥ ͹Ҥ˹աŷѧ ժҹ͹ҹ ͹Ҥѧҷç շǹç ͹ҤҧѧҨ ѧ͹ᾢͧ ҹҹҹѺ繷ʴ͡ʴ鹺ҹէҹ ع͹ҸԵШ˹ԹŻѵ ͹ մҴҧ Һմл͡ѡͽѧءҧгյ§

 

Ҥý֡ͺŻҪվ dz㨡ҧͧٹŻҪվ СͺҤý֡ͺŻҪվͧἹҧ 觹ѡͧö仪Ըաý֡ͺŻҪվͧٹŻҪվ ء鹵͹СüԵҹŻ վդгյԨԵ 觵ͧѹǹҹҫ觼ԵѳդسҾ աἹҧ 27 Ἱ 1. Ἱ¹Ҿ 2. Ἱѡҹ¢Ե 3. Ἱͼ 4. Ἱҧ 5. Ἱ꡵Ҫѧм 6. Ἱѡ 7. Ἱͧ͹ 8. Ἱͼҵչ 9. ἹѴͼ 10. Ἱҧë 11. Ἱҧͧ˹ѧ 12. Ἱͧ 13. Ἱʹҹ 14. ἹҧЪѡ 15. Ἱҧͧ¹ 16. Ἱԡ 17. Ἱɵá 18. ἹŻлдɰ 19. Ἱ 20. Ἱѡ 21. Ἱ͡дɰ 22. ἹԵáء 23. Ἱ͡颹ѧ 24. Ἱ⢹ 25. Ἱҧ 26. ἹҧЪѡͧ͹ 27. Ἱѡ

ͪط 繷͢ҴҧԴѺҾ öͧѺѡͧǷԹҧҷҧѺ¤ ºͨʹ鹷ҧдǡʺ ͪط觹 վ鹷Դҧ 2 öͧ繷ȹҾҾҧ§ЪѴਹ

е˹ѡ

е˹ѡ ͹Ҥҧع٧ҧʴط㹷ͧ դ§ẺѺ͹´ е˹ѡҧ繷зѺѡ͹ͧкҷ稾 稾йҧ кҪԹչҶ 稾١ͷءͧ е˹ѡǴ仴͡дѺйӵͧ§

ȡлླշѴٹŻҪվҧ6

ٹŻҪվҧù ѡȡЧҹླշѴ繻ШӷءٹŻҪվ

ҹШӻٹŻҪվҧ Ѵ繻Шӷءժǧ͹Ҥ 㹺dzٹŻҪվҧ աʴлСǴŧҹҹŻҪվ ԹҾͧ СʴҹŻѲ

ҹ¡ззջǻླ ٹŻҪվҧ Ѵ繻Шӷء͹Ȩԡ¹ 㹺dzٹŻҪվҧ աûСǴҧ СǴǹ СǴз СǴǹ ʴ蹾鹺ҹ ǻླ ǹҹҪҵ è˹¼ԵѳŻҪվ

 

Bangsai Arts and Crafts Center


Bangsai Arts and Crafts Center is located on the left side of the Chao Phraya River at Ratchakhram, Changyai and Photaeng sub-districts in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya with the area of 2,505 rai 30 square wa (1 rai = 1,600 square meters, and 1 square war = 4 square meters the translator). The area is divided into 3 parts: the area of the Arts and Crafts Center, the area for agricultural development, and the area given to the Department of Fishery in establishing an institute for fresh water fishery promotion of the central region. The area is long and parallel to the Chao Phraya River.


The center originated from Her Majesty Queen Sirikits purposes to promote Thai local arts and handicrafts, and to train Thai farmers to work on arts and handicrafts as supplementary work when they are free from working in the fields in order to gain more incomes to their families. The center works on both training and finding markets for the farmers products.


Firstly, Her Majesty Queen Sirikit commissioned her court officials to take a responsibility on a project called Khrongkarn Soonsilapacheep Piset (Special Vocational Arts Project). Later, she commissioned establishing a foundation and named it Special Vocational Arts Promotion Foundation, and afterwards became Vocational Arts Promotion Foundation in Patronage of Her Majesty the Queen. Her Majesty the Queen acts as chairman of the foundation. The center was established on July 21, 1976. The Queen also established a vocational arts training school at her own royal residence, Chitlada Palace (3).
On Coronation Day in 1980, Queen Sirikit asked Mr. Thanin Kraiwichian, vice-president of the Vocational Arts Promotion Foundation, to locate some land near Bang Pa-in Palace for the new arts and crafts Training center.


Mr. Thanin Kraiwichian could provide two pieces of land which belonged to the Crown Property Office that His Majesty King Bhumibol conferred to the government in order to allocate them to poor people as dwelling places and earning a livelihood. The first one is at Ban Na sub-district in Nakhon Nayok, and the other one is at Bangsai sub-district in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. King Bhumibol and Queen Sirikit went to Bangsai and casted the eyes to the piece of land which first had the area of 750 rai (4), the Queen thought that the land is near the river with good communication and not very far from Bangkok. Finally, the Queen chose the piece of land because it is also near other tourist sites at Bang Pa-in and in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, and additionally the area could be expanded for more works. Therefore, Bangsai Arts and Crafts Center under the Patronage of Her Majesty the Queen was established in 1980. The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation took responsibility on the center, together with some other working sectors involving the projects (5).

 

 

Interesting places inside Bangsai Arts and Crafts Center


Sala Phra Mingkwan


Sala Phra Mingkwan is an applied Thai-style building with four porches and four floors. Each floor is used to display things as follows:
The first floor is the demonstration area of handicrafts, for example, embroidering clothes, making artificial flowers, and braiding yanlipao (a kind of plants) into utensils. This floor is also used to display products from the center, and from other royal projects, such as, products from Chulaporn Foundation, products from ex-teachers and ex-students club of the center, products from Hoopkapong Cooperation Club, products from Chitlada Arts and Crafts Center, and products from other arts and crafts centers all over the country. There are a lot of products on arts and handicrafts for sale: a kind of porcelain called Benjarong, ceramic ware, handmade and machine made with computer embroidered clothes, artificial flowers from natural materials, silk fabric, kradad-sa (a kind of paper made from a plant called sa), glass blown into figures of animals, trees, flowers, royal vehicles, and boats. All of them are contained in beautiful packages. Buyers can use them to decorate their houses. There is also wickerwork from yanlipao, a kind of handmade fabric called paewa, silk fabric called madmee, saucers for cups and plates made of cloth, tablecloths, scarves and etc.


The second floor displays products of masterpieces of the center which are unique and there is only one piece in the world.
The third floor displays paintings made of oil colors, beautiful glass ware borrowed from many countries. The display is circulated from time to time on this floor.
The fourth floor is used for conferences. It is divided into conference rooms and a meeting hall decorated with glass cupboards containing Thai puppets. There are also puppet shows on this floor. Performing puppet dances is taught to people interested as well.


Wang Pla (The Aquarium)


Wang Pla is a building used as an aquarium. It is the biggest aquarium in Thailand that breeds and conserves typical fish. The building in front is in octagon shape. This aquarium has been preceded by the Department of Fishery since 1985, but it could be opened to people in 1998. Inside the building, people can walk through the tunnel made of glass, and look at many kinds of fish, water plants and aquatic weed inside two big glass tanks and two glass cupboards. A big tank contains 1,400 tons of water, and a cupboard contains 600 tons of water. A big tank is imitated fresh water fish habitat with fish eating plants and water weeds, and the other one displays fish eating alive preys, for example, small fish and insects.
Apart from the two cupboards used as aquariums, there are also small aquariums with Thai style patterns, and descriptions of each kind of fish.

 

Suan Nok (Birds habitats)


Suan Nok was built to conserve various kinds of birds in Thailand, and birds that are nearly extinct. There are two habitats of birds near each other.
A part of the area is the imitation of a forest covered with a big net over the trees and birds cages. The big cage contains birds allowed to fly, and some kinds of birds shut up in small cages inside that big cage. It is said that the small cages contained two kinds of birds: ones which harm other birds and the others harmed by other ones. When going into Suan Nok, we can hear sounds of birds with cool air from trees, water-wells, an artificial stream and a suspension bridge that we can walk along and see birds on trees closely from the bridge.
There are also cages containing big and fierce birds, such as hawks with many colors, ta-groom (a large tall and bald bird of the stork family), gra-sa (also in the stork family), pelicans, and etc.


Muban Sillapacheep (The Arts and Crafts Village)


The arts and crafts village, together with the dramatic arts exhibition is Thai styled-houses of the four regions. The Tourism Authority of Thailand in cooperation with Bangsai Arts and Crafts Center and the Faculty of Architectures of Sillapakorn University built it in order to present to King Bhumibol on 50th year of his reigning anniversary.


Additionally, the arts and crafts village comprises 6 Thai styled-houses of the north, 7 Thai-styled-houses of the central, 6 Thai styled-houses of the north-east and 5 Thai styled-houses of the south. Each group of houses were built with architectures showing characteristics of Thai styled-house in each region; for example, a Thai styled-house of the north has ga-lae (special decoration on top of the gables) with a porch and a small rest-house providing drinking water for passers-by; a Thai styled-house of the south has a roof called panya (a pointed roof) hanging cages of doves around; and a Thai-styled-house of the central has a roof with gables and a rest-house on the pond. There are also float-houses selling foods and drinks. Each group of houses has a yard for local shows. Demonstration of cooking Thai foods and selling handmade products are provided on the ground under the floor of each house, such as, spoons, forks, various sizes of knives, swords with handles and cases beautifully carved or decorated with pearl.
The arts and crafts training buildings are located in the middle of the center classifying in departments of many kinds of arts and crafts. Tourists are able to see demonstrations of ways in training people in arts and crafts in each step and also ways in producing arts and crafts products. All the products are neatly produced and taken time to make one with good quality. The training center is divided into 27 departments: 1) writing Thai-styled patterns in pictures, 2) weaving wicker ware in the patterns called khid, 3) weaving silk fabric, 4) carpentry, 5) modeling dolls in figures of court attendants, 6) weaving dry plant called phaktobchawa, 7) wickerwork from rattan, 8) weaving fabric called teenjok, 9) dress-making, 10) modeling things with metal and resin, 11) leather wares, 12) blowing glass, 13) weaving utensils from a kind of plants called yanlipao, 14) polishing and dying, 15) mechanics, 16) ceramics ware, 17) agriculture, 18) creation of artificial things, 19) Thai desserts, 20) pitching clothes, 21) artificial flowers, 22) applied paintings, 23) making bread into flowers, 24) making khon (a kind of Thai dramatic arts) masks, 25) work with metal, 26) polishing and dying furniture, and 27) carving.
The Arts and Crafts Center has a pier called Tha-rua Chaiyut, a medium sized pier on the Chao Phraya River, for tourists travelling by boats to the Center. It can receive hundreds of tourists and big boats can be moored there comfortably. The pier has two wide floors that tourists can see beautiful views of the Chao Phraya River from it.


Phra Tamnak (The Royal Residence)


Phra Tamnak is a Thai-styled house in the central part of Thailand with the first floor higher from the ground, and built with local materials. It is a beautiful house in the old style and was built as the royal residence for the King, the Queen and the royal family. The residence is surrounded with beautiful flowering plants and an artificial water fall.


Festivals and Customs Held at Bangsai Arts and Crafts Center (6)


Bangsai Arts and Crafts Center always holds festivals and annual festivities as follows:
Arts and crafts products contest is held at the end of January every year. It is a fair with demonstration of local products and shows about Thai arts and culture.


The Arts and Crafts Center also arranges Loy Krathong and boat racing in every November. Nang Noppamas contest is also held with many other contests: parades, krathong (a leaf cup made from banana leaves and fresh flowers), and hanging lamps, together with some performances: local games, long boat racing, international long boat racing, and selling arts and crafts products.

References
1. Sathitanont, Wanida. (2000). Soon Sillapacheep Bangsai, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya:
Moradok Loke (Bangsai Arts and Crafts Center, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: the
World Heritage). Bangkok: Dansutthaporn Karnpim, p. 170.
2. Sathitanont, Wanida. (Referred), p. 173.
3. Prawat kwambenma khong Soon Sillapacheep Bangsai (The History of the Arts and
Crafts Center) Retrived August 21, 2010,
from http://www.bangsaiarts.com/artO.html
4. Referred as above.
5. Sathitanont, Wanida. (Referred), p. 174.
6. Rattanapanusorn, Anant. (n.d.) Rengkarnfeunfu Karntongtiew pua Yiewya Setthakit
(Ayutthaya) {Accelerating Tourism for Better Economy (Ayutthaya)} in
Ayutthaya Moradok Loke 2540 (The World Heritage Ayutthaya 1997), Bunga
Wattana, editor. Second publishing. Ayutthaya: Tianwattana Publishing, p. 53.

10ҳҪҹԹ

ҳҪҹԹ ( പФػ)1

 

 

ѵ

ҳҪҹԹ ( പФػ) ԴѪŷ 5 ѹ 28 Ҿѹ 2414 ҹ˹Ѵش ͧҧ͡ 繺صâعķسð (പ പФػ) ѵ˭Ҵķ Ѻҧ ķسð վͧ 6 1. ǧЪó (Գ പФػ) 2. ҾԾԸѡ ( പФػ) 3. ҧ പФػ 4. ҳҪҹԹ ( പФػ) 5. ҧѡѵ (͹ ѡ) 6. ¾ പФػ

֡

ç¹е˹ѡǹҺ

ҳ ֡ҷӹѡѴ ҺԴ件µҴҿǪس ֧¹ͷç¹ҭ֡ӹѡع ( Ҩҧ) ¹ç¹е˹ѡǹҺ㹻 2428 ¹ 3 öͺ駻¤ 1 л¤ 2 ͧç¹ ѺҧŪ٧¤ ˹ѺҪҹҧŵ;ѵ кҷ稾ШŨǷçʶ "¾ä١" ҴçҪҹҾ ҺѧçҺԴ ҳ ¶˵ءó駹Եҵʹ

ѺҪ㹡ا෾

ͨҡç¹ǹҺ й鹡Ԩç¹ѧԭ˹ ҪǧкصҹͧҪѤ¹¹繨ӹǹҡٷ͹ ҷáԨ ( ҷ) Ҩ˭ ªǹѡ¹¹¤ṹ繤٪͹ ҳ ֧ѺҪäá繤ç¹е˹ѡǹҺ㹢з§ 18 ͹ 1 Ҵç ѺҪ㹡зǧ ¶١è¹ ҡ͹¹͡ ѵõǨç¹ǧ з觻 2435 ١ѺҪ÷зǧäѧ ˵оҺǧ͡йҸԻоѹ쾧 ͧʹҺաзǧФѧѵ Դ;з½Фͧ¾ ֧͵ "¹͡þ" ˹ҷŢҹءûШӾͧ 㹻ǡѹ Ҵç ç¨ҡзǧҡáзǧҴ ֧ǹҳ ѺҪ÷зǧҴ 㹵˹¹͡ ͻ 2436 һ 2439 ѺҪҹѭҺѵ繷ѹز͹Ҫ ˹觼¡ѧ (ѧ˹ҷἹûͧͧͧ) ҳ ӧҹ㹡 2 ֡ҡûͧͧ㹪ǧͧ

ѺҪͧ

㹻 2439 ¹觵ظ ѧҴǧҴ عؾԾѲ Ժŵʢ;ѹز͹Ҫ (ҳ) 繢ǧҴ ֧çСسô ҪҹѭҺѵ͹ǧ͹ѡ 繢ǧҴظ ҹ˹觻 ҪԪԵ (ҡ ) ѡҡاظ (ҪèѧѴ㹻Ѩغѹ) ǹ׹˹ ˹觹ҧ ԺŨ֧ǧ͹ѡѺҪ᷹Ǥ §˹觻աѺҪҹѭҺѵ͹繾͹ѡ 繵˹觼ѡҡاظ 3 յ ѺҪҹѭҺѵ͹繾ҳҹѡ ѴԺظ

2446 عؾԾѲ Ժظ ѺкҪͧô ҡкҷ稾ШŨ 价çѭҡ䢤ӺҡŻҨԳ ֧çСسô ҳ 繼駵˹Ժظ᷹֧ 3 ֧Ѻô Ѻ˹ ӴѺȪ鹷 1 (çѺҵ Ѫŷ 6)

2454 кҷ稾خ çҪԵ駤ͻ ҳ Ҫԡ繾ͻ ͹ӴѺ繹¡ͧ˭ յ˹觵ѧѺͧ繼ѭҡʹѡҴԹᴹظ ѧҪͧѡ աѧѺҪҹ­÷Ҵ з觻 2455 ѺҪҹѭҺѵõ¹ҪԹ繾ҳҪҹԹ Թѡվ¾ еաա͹ҵ

2459 ԴõºҤ ػҪѭҡ˹ԺҤ ҳ ػҪҤظ ѧԡºҤѪŷ 7 ֧ѺԺظ͹ з觻 2472 ҳ 58 кҷ稾л çСسô ҪҹкҪҹحҵҳ ͡ҵ˹Ժ оҪҹºӹҭҨʹԵ ͡ҡ˹ ҳ ѧѺҪػ¡ἹҳҪѳԵҨСҪѭѵҴҪѳԵʶҹ .. 2476

ҡѵԡѺҪâͧҳ ա¹ѪŶ֧ 3 Ѫ ҳ ѧѺҪظ͹ ¡价͹ҪҴ· 駹ФǪҭҧҹҳлѵʵظ кҷ稾ô任Шӷ ѡҹ׹ѹҡйԾͧҴç

"ѵԢͧҳ ѺҪͧšѺ͹Ҫǡѹ繢Ӥѭҧ˹ ѺҪ ͶѴ觡ҹ Ш㹨ѧѴ 繵˹觪鹵Ө֧ػҪ ѹ繪٧ش㹢Ҫͧ ¶蹷ѺҪ͹ 蹹оҳ çسز੾ظ͹ кҷ稾Ƿ 3 ѪŨ֧ôѺҪ÷ سزԢͧҳ 2 ҧСͺѹ ͤö㹡ûͧҹͧҧ 1 ͺҳظҧ 1"2

㹴ҹö㹡ûͧҹͧͧҳ Ҵç ¡ҧԸѭҡ˹շâͧҳ

"...С 蹷ҧ ҳ ҧ ҧͧա ¡طóͧ˹ á駾Ҫѭѵѡɳࡳ .. 2448 ҡѹź˹ҺǪѹҡ ֧зǧҴ¡ ŷҪѭѵԹ任֡Ҥèзҧ ҧҡź˹պǪ繡ýҽ׹Ҫѭѵ èѺҵҿͧɵ ҳ ʹͤҤѧ ҨѺ觵蹡ѹ˹ѡ Ѵ礧ҡѹ˹һ ʺ§áǻʴ§վ µͧҺü´աҧ˹ һǪѴա ͹Ѻҡ ͤҹҪѭѵ ҷͧ繷êǤ繡ʹ͹Թ礧֡ͧ͡ зʹ繨չ зǧҴ͹ѵԵ繢ͧҳ ࡳä駹鹡 ֧Ѻ͡ѹҾҳ ҷʵԻѭҤ˹..."3

ҹҳ

ǹöҧҹҳչ ҳ 繼դǪҭǡѺظҧҡҴç "öͧҳ 㹡ûͧҹͧ ѧ 蹾º öͺҳբͧظ ͹ռº"

ҳ ͺҹ˹ѧ;ҪǴõѧ硹ѡ¹ зѺҪйظҡԹҧǨҳʶҹҳѵصҧ Ƕ֧˹ѧ;ҪǴ Ǩҵѧǧ͹ѡ쨹繾ҳ դǪҭǡѺظҧҡ ҹм蹪ͺҳաҡѹ Һ֧кҷ稾ШŨ ʴ任зѺ ҪѧҧԹ ôçѡҳ ӷҧʴ价ʹ๵ҳʶҹҧ 㹾йеͧظ 觡Ҵç ¡˵ءó˹觷кҷ稾 Ѫŷ 5 çʶҳ ǡѺҷ㹾з觺ҧԹ

"...˹稾оطǧʴŧ;з觾кҧԹǻо ¡ҳ ʴ 价зѧзѺ ;¼ҹзԾʹ ҷҧ ʶҳ 'ҷ駡اʹдѺШ' ҳ Һʹͧѹ 'дѺ' ͹ 'Ҩ֧һдѺШ' ҳ Һʹͧ '˹ѧ;ҪǴ蹴Թһҷͧ ˹觾й³Ҫ躹»ҷ ʹպҵŧͧʹҷШŧҵͧͧ й³ѹ´¿' 稾оطǧ 'ͨԧ' ôҼʴ;з觾ҡѹçӢͧҳ Ѻ駷ԴͧǴ..."5

зԾʹ

ͧҡ蹪ͺ㹡ŧǨ鹷ҧ ҳ ҳѵبӹǹҡѡ ҳ ֧Ǻѵ觢ͧӤѭ㹺dzاкdz§繨ӹǹҡѡҪѧѹ 㹻 .. 2445 Ҵç çйҳ Ѵ繾ԾԸѳ¡ "ҳԾԸѳ" ֡çҾз繷 㹻 2447 кҷ稾ШŨվҪô ѵصҧ ҡçҾзѡеʴdzҤþѺҨآ е§Ҥôҹ˹зȵѹ͡ ͨѴѵ Ҩ֡ леҡҧ ;ԾԸѳ "ظҾԾԸѳ" ѹ 12 Ҿѹ 2479 ŻҡСظҾԾԸѳ繾ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ 㹹 "ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ѹ"7

ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ѹ

¹ "ظҾԾԸѳ" դѹ¡ҾԾԸѳʶҹ㹡ا෾ ЪҪ֧繨ӹǹҡ кҷ稾ШŨǡôʴ价ʹ๵ ;кҷ稾ШŨʴûѧ㹻 2451 ͧ (Hamburg) վҪŢҶ֧Ҵç "͹ا ͡Դ֧ҳ ѹ˹ѧͧ"8 ;ҳ ҾҪŢԹ͹ѺѺҪҹ˹ҧŨҡ÷Ѵ駾ԾԸѳ

ҪѧҳظظҾԾԸѳҳ شШѴ駢鹹 ֧ѭѡɳͧѧѴ ǵҧ 駷ᢡҹᢡͧйѡͧ Ҷ֧ظǨеͧ ҳ ѺͧҪóҡҧҧ¡ѹ ഹä鹷 2 ͧഹ ҹԹᴧ 2 ͧȻ خԵժ 2 ͧԵ еιո͹鹷 1 ͧȺѹԤ

ШҡͺСͺѺҧسªҳ ҳ ѺҪҹõѡҧ ҡ 㹻 2447 кҷ稾ШŨô ҳ 繡ҷԡ;شѺй Ѻ þѹ Ҵç оһЪҡԨèѡ ( عҤ) 㹻 2450 кҷ稾ШŨ çҳâ зç駾ҳ Ţҹء 2457 кҷ稾خ çóзçҷԡ;شѺйë觾ҳ ç˹ 繡ô 㹻 2469 кҷ稾л çҪѳԵôҳ ػ¡Ἱҳ

ҹʹ

Ѵش

͡ҡҧõԻѵԷҧҹҳ ҳ ѧ繺ؤӤѭ㹡÷ӹغاоطʹա ¡úԨҤѾ컯ѧóѴ9 Ѵش10 㹤ͧҧ͡ ѧѴ ǹйظҹ ҳ ѧç˹觻ѴԺ ʹǨѺѴҧ Żҡըӹǹ֧ 543 Ѵ ͷ 2,138 Ѵҧҹѡդª աѧͧҡ ͧҡѰŧ㹷Ѵ кҧ觶֧Ѻҧҹ㹹 ͡ҡѧդ਴԰ªա ҳ ֧ѰŤҨѴѴҧ¹ ʹԸդ

  1. ¡ҷҡ价л١ҿ׹ ͻ١͹Ѵҧҧ ҹ鹤´ѧ¨ С¤ҵѰŹ鹷ԴԷԻͧռ
  2. ÷԰Ѵҧ鹤Ҵ
  3. ԹҷҤԹҪἹ˹觵ҧҡ Ѻ黯ѧóѡ਴ʶҹͧҳèѡ
  4. Թǧա˹觫¡ԹŻ (Թҡ÷纨ҡԹҧ) 觾蹴ԹçطȾҪҹѺѡѴ ҡѺԹҪŹ
  5. Թҷʹ᾵˹Ѵ Ѩ纵 繻ªѴ ѰšҤǺ÷ ѴվʧѴ ѴҧҺǡԹҪ 繷عѺѴѡѴҳ

ͤҺ֧кҷ稾 ç;Ҫķ ç "ҳ ԴҹѴ蹹 繤Դҡ"11 ֧çСسô Թõʹ Ẻҧ蹷ӵ

ҹ

͡ҡ ҳ ѧҧسٻѺظաҧ ;кҷ稾ШŨʴä ҳ 繼ѡǹǺҹҺԨҤԹҧѵ͹óçػйظ Թ 70,000 ҷ ֧ҧçҺŪ "ѭҸҪط" (çҺžйظ㹻Ѩغѹ) çҺἹѨغѹáظ ҧ稡ѧԹ ҳ ֧ѡǹкзѹԨҤԹҡ 20,000 ҷ ҧʶҷͧк ǡѹ "ʶһѭҸҪط"

鹻ªԵ

;ҳ ͡ҡҪͧ ŧҧҹ㹡ا෾ ͡Ե ͺҧѡ ѧѺҪҪѳԵ Ͷ֧ 2475 ҳ ¡С ҡäҵҧ͹ آҾ·شŧ ֧͹Ԩ ѹ 30 ¹ 2479 64 ѺҪҹȻСͺͧ 8 õͪҾ

 
9͵ն çʴ

͵ն çʴ

 

͵ն çʴ

ѵ

͵ն çʴ Ͷ ʴ Դѹ 21 Ȩԡ¹ 2444 Ӻ ͺا;йظ㹻Ѩغѹ ѧѴйظ1 繺ص ͧ Ѻ ҧԹ ʴ վͧ 5 1. ҧ ͧ¹ 2. ҧ´ غ 3. ͵ն çʴ 4. ..ǧ ʴ (֧ѧ) 5. »԰ ʴ2

֡

ç¹Ѵ෾Թ

͵ն֡ҷç¹ҧШӨѧѴйظ (ç¹ظԷ) ͻ 2453 ҡԹҧ֡㹾й÷ç¹Ѵ෾Թ㹻 2460 ç¹֡Ѵ㹻 2461 ͧնѴ¹֡ҵͷç¹ ֡㹻 2467 ҧѺҪ÷ͧѾ ͵նѧ֡Ԫҡ ҹ͡Ҫ¹ǴԪҷӹѡҹا з๵ԺѳԵ㹻 2473

ѺҪ

ѧ֡Ҩҡç¹ ͵նѺҪ÷ʹҸԡ÷ Ѻ繹ѡ¹ѹ 29 ѹҤ 2464 һ 2466 ԴѭҺѵ繹͵ ͹͹繹 з繹͡㹻 2472 ѺҪҹôѡҪԹǧçʴͻ 2475 㹪ǧѰŨ . Ժʧ աûС¡ԡôѡ ǧçʴ֧͡ҡôѡТ;ҪҹҪԹ繹ʡ ͵ն֧ʡŸçʴ繵3

͵ն çʴ 繺ؤ˹觷Ѻɮ㹡¹ŧûͧͻ 2475 觢й§͡ ǧç ç˹觼ѧѺúǧ 2 ѧҡ¹ŧûͧԵҪ˹ҷçҹ㹴ҹͧդ˹ҧҡ 㹪ԵҪ ѺҪҹȹҵ 㹻 2477 ա 4 յ繹͡ з觻 2486 ֧ç繾͵4

ôç˹觷ҧͧ

㹷ҧͧ ͵նҷҧͧѺ觵ҪԡҼ᷹ɮû 2 (ºزҪԡ㹻Ѩغѹ) 㹤ѰդáѰŢͧѹ͡ Ҿžžʹ ͻ 2476 Ѻ觵Ѱѹ 8 ԧҤ 2476 ѧç˹ŢҸԡäѰմ ҡѺ觵ѰҡáзǧҴѹ 12 Ҿѹ 2478 ѰŨ . Ժʧ ͵նѺ觵ѰҡáзǧصԸѹ 20 ѹҤ 2481 ѰŨ . Ժʧ 仨֧ 2487 ֧鹨ҡ˹ ҡ͡ҡ˹觹¡Ѱբͧ . Ժʧ 駹㹢зѰѰŹ鹷ҹҡŧҹӤѭҡ ҷ Ѻ觵˹ҤзٵѹԹҧ͹ͨѡѧ Թ (͹ʧš駷 2) 㹡ùӵ鹾⾸ҡԹһ١ѴҸҵ ҧࢹ ا෾ ѧ´ç˹觻иҹѲ觪ҵԴ5 ѧҡ鹵˹Ѱ ͵ն͵駾äѰ٭ 繾äͧʹѺʹع»մ § ҧ յ˹˹Ҿä Ҫԡäӹǹҡ

մ §

ҧç˹觷ҧͧ ͵նթҫ繷ѡѹǴǧͧ "Ѱ鹷ͧ" "¡鹷ͧ" ˵ҨҡԻҫöԻҧҷŻ º ö¡繢͸Ժ ѡҧҪԡ繴;ä¤ҹ Ѱը繹¡Ѱ

㹪ǧͧѾ蹺ءһͻ 2484 繤˹觷͵նʴöԧҷŻ ¡þٴ¡ͧѾѺ èѰࡳ繷仪úѺǡíͧҨз Ш÷䶹 觨觼ʺ§âҴŹ í蹨աѧ㹡ú ѧҡࡳ 蹵ͧҤҪ·䶹 ҡҷŻѧǷҧԡԴࡳɮ仪ú6

ôç˹觷ҧͧ

͹»մ § Ѻ˹觹¡Ѱѹ 24 չҤ 2489 ͵ն çʴ Ѻ觵ѰҡáзǧصԸ з觹»մ § ͡ҡ˹ѹ 21 ԧҤ 2489 ͵նѺҧ㨨ҡҪԡҼ᷹ɮ鹴ç˹觹¡Ѱ վкҪͧô 觵繹¡Ѱѹ 23 ԧҤ 2489 Ѻ繹¡Ѱդ 8 ͧ

㹪ǧ͵ն çʴ Ѻ˹觹¡Ѱչ 繪ǧѧʧš駷 2 觻ȡѧԡĵ ༪ԭѺѭҷҧҹͧҧ㹡ûŴͧм١ѹѹ繼ҨҡʧѺ ФеͧѡѹҪԡͧ˻ЪҪҵ աѧʺѭҷҧɰԨ Ҥͧվ٧ Թҧعç âҴŹ

Ѱž͡նʺ㹡ѭǡѺôԹºµҧ ö¡͡ 2 »á͡èҪԡͧ˻ЪҪҵ ѰèҡѺµҪԡͧ˻ЪҪҵķ˻ЪҪҵԻСѺҪԡѹ 15 ѹҤ 2489 ǹ繷ͧ͡èѴ觢ͧ˻ЪҪҵԵѭҷ׺ͧҨҡѰŹ»մ § ѭҴѧѰ͡ҪѭѵǨѡѹǩѺ 2 .. 2489 Ըը٧ͤҢ¢Ѱ ǡѹѰѧԹèҵͧѺѰԡѧ͢ͼ͹ù͵ŧ èҤ駹ʺѹ 24 ѹҤ 2489 ¢ػ ҧѹ 1 Ҥ ֧ѹ 31 ԧҤ 2490 Ѱ¨еͧѴҢǢѧ繨ӹǹˡʹѹ ѹ鹡ҤҢ繵ѹ 20 ͹ Թ¾ա ѹ 4 ͹ Ѻ 35 繵 觡˹繢ҵðҹ㹡͡

ѧҡ ѰšԴ͡ѺѰѧԨóҤҢ ͧҡѧաѡͺ觢͡͡ šèѹ 28 ԧҤ 2490 ŧͧǹŧѹкѭҩѺ͹ ѹ 31 ԧҤ 2490 еѹ 1 ѹ¹ 繵 ѰѧɵŧԹҤҫ͢Ǩҡ繵ѹ 31 ͹ ǹҧѰµŧ ¨ҤբͧͧءԹҧ (International Emergency Food Council-IEFC) ͧ ШѴ駢᷹ ֧鹻 2491 ôԹâͧѰŪش֧ҡѺһ¾鹨ҡͼ١ѹǡѺ觢ǵŧóẺ ѧѺҤҢ鹴7

͡ҡ ͵նѧ䢻ѭɰԨ¡õ "ͧþ" ¡ëͧ͢ᾧҢ¶١ЪҪ͵֧ҤԹ٧ ¡纸ѵ÷ѹԵù¨ҡЪҪ¡͡ѵš 駹ҷͧӫ繷عͧͧҵ͡ЪҪ8 ҹºµҧ ѧö䢻ѭɰԨǧ ա駷ҧѰй¡Ѱա١ǹ㹡觢͡¹͡зâҴŹ ¹ӢǪ鹴仢§ѡѺ§ѵЪҪͧ㹻 ͡ҡѧͧöԤҡѰԡöШӵ˹ѰɰԨͧҵԡѧջѭ ա駡óäͧкҷ稾ҹѹԴšѧöᨧШҧ ҡѭҷ¤ҹ㹢й鹫觹¾äЪҸԻѵչ¤ǧ ǧ ˹ҾäԴԻҧǹҹ֧ 8 ѹ 8 ׹ Դ͡ѹ ҧѹ 19-27 Ҥ 2490 աö·ʹ§Ի·ҧԷ繤á ЪҪ֧ʹ繨ӹǹҡ ¡ҡԻ¤駹繡Ի¤Ӥѭ˹㹻ѵʵͧ

ǧ ǧ

繷äЪҸԻѵԺ¡Ի ͻѭ˭ҧ Դ㹢й աѰŢͧ͵ն çʴ Сͺ¾äѰ٭оä˪վҧعç ѧҡԻ´Թ 8 ѹ աŧ 觼ŻҡѰѧѺҧ㨨ҡ§ҧҼ᷹ɮ ѰŨ繽ª㹡Իҧ㨴ѧ ŷ¤ҹʹ͹鹷ЪҪ͢͡Ңͧ¤ҹ ԴʡѹҧعçѰ ͵ն֧ʴҷҧͧ¡͡ҡ˹ѹ 28 Ҥ 2490 Ҽ᷹ɮáѺ繹¡Ѱաѹ 30 Ҥ 2490 ֧Ѻ繹¡Ѱ· 2 Ѱž͵նѧʺѭҷ˹ѡ˹ǧ ੾лѭͧɰԨлҡͧͧЪҪ ʹͩŢͧѡͧ9

Ѱ 2490

ʹǧҷ͵ն çʴ ç˹觹¡Ѱ á· 2 ҡȷҧͧ仴¢ǡûѵԨҡӹҨ͡ ͧ͡ . Ժʧ ǴѧǾ͵նѺǡѹʴҷззҹҧ ɳ˹ѧ; "͹աûѵءѹ ûѵѡ" з㹤׹ͧѹ 7 Ȩԡ¹ ֧ͧѹ 8 Ȩԡ¹ .. 2490 з͵նҹȷǹ ù͡Ҫë觹 żԹ سѳ, ѹ͡Ҩ Ҩʧ, ѹ͡ɴ Ѫ, ѹ͡ ҹ, ѹⷶ ԵԢ, ѹⷻ ʶ ͡ҵԪ سѳ ӡѧִӹҨҡѰž͵ն çʴ ҧ˵ؼ㹡÷Ѱ Ѱž͵ն çʴ ׺ӹҨͨҡѰŹ»մ § öѴáѺѭҤѴ駡ѹ㹪ҵ ѹ˵ѡҡ˵ءóäͧѪŷ 8 СͺѺա÷بԵѻǧҪ

㹤׹鹤ѰԹ¹ӡͧѧöѧǹ˹觺ء价Ƿ ǹ ͤǺǾ͵ն çʴ ¡Ѱ йöѧաǹ˹觺ء任еٷºҪҧѧǧͤǺ »մ § »մź˹仡͹˹ҹҹ ͺǹ»մբй§ ҹ˭ԧٹآ § ١ ҹ10 駹§ҹҡ͹˹ҷԴѰ§ ͵ն͡Ѻ»մ § ºҪҧǵŧѰŨ͡ѹ 11 Ȩԡ¹ 2590 褳ѰáִӹҨ¡͹11

鹻ªԵ

ѧҡҺѰ ͵նź͡ҡǹ÷ѹ 仫͹ʶҹٵ˹ ͹Թҧ·ͧ з˵ءó㹻ʧŧ ·ԧͧз ͵ն֧Ѻѧ Ե㹺鹻Ѻͺҧʧ

شӹҨͧ͵ն çʴ ѺդӤѭҧ 繡شŧͧӹҨͧɮô Ѱä駹繡âѴӹҨҢͧ»մ § ٭仨ҡͧ ·ТѴ»մ § ͡ҡӹҨҧͧ 觷»մյͧ¡ͧҧöѺһաµҺ鹪Ե

͵ն çʴ ֧ѭѹ 3 ѹҤ .. 2531 çҺžخ 87 Դӹҹ¡鹷ͧҷŻ зӤѭ繹ѡЪҸԻҧԧŧ12

 
<< ˹á < ͹Ѻ 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 ˹ҶѴ > ˹ش >>

Ѿ 352 - 360 ҡ 697