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Ѵ¸ҵdz͹˹ͧ͢ࢵ͹ѡͧ¸ 㹷ͧӺѹ ;йظ ѧѴйظ ¡աҧ Ѵ¸ Ѵ ӹҹ㹾Ǵ˹ dzͧѴ繾Ҫѧ¸ ͡ѵ黡ͧͧ¾鹷ѧҧѴ ֧ Ѵ ѹٹҧͧͧ¸ӻѡ ͹ͧʶһҡاظ ˹ͧʹ

ӹҹѴѴ¸ҹ繵ӹҹẺǡѹѺӹҹҧѴط 觵ҧѹçҵӹҹѴ¸ٹҧͧͧ͹ҧظҹѹͧ͡СاظҴҹӻѡ ǹӹҹѴطҾҴҹͧСا1

稾й³Ҫ 稾оطҨʻͧѴ 稾оطҨٻ繼 “ҷҴ” (ҴѺ͹蹴Թ) 稾й³Ҫ ҡվغѴաٻ˹2

͡ҡ ¾Һ վԡٻ˹觪 “͹” ŧ¹㹡اظҨ­͹ “оҡ” ˹觾ҪҤнԻʹҸ Ѵ 稾Һȷçʶһ繾ѧҪͧҧ Ѵнҧ (ѧѴصôԵ㹻Ѩغѹ) ¡اظҤ駷 2 .. 2310 ͧ駻ǧվҪҸԺջͧҡѹ駵Ǣ¡ ѧҪͧ繼ͧͶԪҤǪҭ Ѵͧᴧ᷹ʶһҵ “Ҿнҧ” 繡ҾнҧվʧѾع֡ ѧ稾ҵҡԹاշç¡Ѿ任Һ .. 2313 ͧҳࢵͧҾнҧ ǹҾнҧ˹٭3

кҷ稾ШŨ Ѫŷ 5 觡اѵԹ ͤʴ稻о㹻Ѫ .. 2451 çк ѴѴҳ ¸ Ѵշҧй¸ ѧ 鹷㹺dz֧͡ѹͧ¸ҵ繵 ѧеҨ֧ա¡Ѵ¸ ʹͧѺ͹4

ѴͧѴخմ 觻ѨغѹͶҹ˹Ѵ µҡͧèѺͧѹҷҧ͹˹ 觡ҧࢵطʷѧһеٷҧҴҹ˹ҷȵѹ͡ Ժͧ ٧ҳ 2.50 Ѵ਴ 2 ͧ ҧѪŷ 5 ͺèѰԢͧ͸ԡѴЭҵ ҡ繾ʶҧ躹ҹ繾ʶظ5


਴Ѵ¸6


Ѵ¸Ѵ ҡѡҹ㹾ǴظҶ֧úóѧóС ҤѴǧʷӤѭպҷҧʹظѴ˹ ¾й³Ѵ稾оطҨϼᵡҹ㹤ûԮ ͧͼ “ҷҴ” 繪ҴӤѭͧҪӹѡظ7

. ҡ ¹Ҷ֧Ѵ (Ѵ¸) ˹ѧ͹ҧҡ԰ظ “਴çѧỴ躹ҹ٧ ਴ʹѡŧѧҹѡԳ٧ҡ š 繷˹ҡ͹ ͧЦѧ鹻ٹ繡պǫ͹͹ պѹ䴢ͧ਴ҹ˹дҹѧ ѴӴԹ¢¤⾸좹Ҵ˭Դçҧ ѴẺª Ҩ繢ͧ ҧѴҧʶ ẺҵԴ˹ʶѹ˹觫е١ᾧͪҧ¾й³蹾й³ԧѹ˹ ֧Ҩһѧó˭¾й³ ਴ҹԺͧ١ͷǡʶ᷹ Իͺ Ѵ繷 Ѵͧ躹͹ ѧͧҢͧç˹ šçҹ਴觡٧ҡ ҧҨ繰ҹ਴Ǩ֧ѧó ҧ਴Ỵѧ

Ҿ·

1. еҺdzط ҹȵѹ͡еѹմҹ 1 е ѧѴਹ§ҹǤͷȵѹ͡ еٹիһеٷͧҧ͹Ǩآ͹ 2 պǤк˧ һеԺͧ ٧ҳ 2.50

2. ਴ һеٷҧȵѹ͡਴ҧТ 2 ͧ ਴ç ҹѡɳԧ ͺҡͶ 繢ͧҧѪŷ 5 觡اѵԹ ͺèѰԢͧ͸ԡ ¹աͧ˹觺èѰԢͧѧ - ҧ (ͧ͸ԡ )

3. ʶ ҧҡҹ բҴҧҳ 9 ǻҳ 15 վлиҹҧԪ ٹ 繾оطٻѺúóТӺ͡ лиҹͧкҷ稾ШŨʴһԴͧ Ҿлиҹͧ§ҡ ʶѧ Ѵҧ令˹ Ҵ֧شش ¸ҵмѧªҡͧ лиҹͧѨغѹдɰҹҹء٧ 1.44 ˹ҵѡҧ 3.50 ٧ҳ 4.90 ʶѧآѹçҧҹ˹ м͡ѧآͧҹժŴ 㹪ѧҧʶҡҹ ҧآѹͧҧ͹ͧ ѨغѹʶҧѴ鵡觷

4. лҧ ѧʶ ҹԺͧѡԳ٧ 3.66 պǤӺ˧ͧ ҧǤ˧ª鹷ͧժͧٻҡҷҹ 7 ͧ Ѩغѹѧ٧ҡҹѡԳ任ҳ 3.00 ʹлҧѡŧ ѧҡ繡պع Ҩ繽ͪҧѧ 稾һҷͧ

5. ਴иҹ ѡɳаҹҧ٧ 1 պǤӺ˧ ҧ 1.90 ѡԳ٧ҳ 7 պǤӺ˧ ҹ਴ç 8 պǤӺ˧ ѹ鹴ҹѹ͡ 1 ѹ Цѧçͺապǫ͹ 2 ¡պѡɳ͹ ѧ 8 ҹкǶǹҳ٧ 30 ਴ͧѡɳФ Ѻ਴ѴҸҵ ä ѧѴ¹ҷ ѡԳ٧ 㹨ѧѴйظ 龺਴ẺǡѹѴҧ ਴ͧѡɳз繾ɡ਴蹵çͧЦѧ繡պ˧¢Ҵ˭ дѺͺͧЦѧ Ѩغѹ§ҧǹҹ

6. Ѩغѹ§ԹԹ٧ҳ 1 ѹɰҹҤҧǡѺʶѧ ʶѧ Һһٴ¡ͧԹ 8 ҧ 40ૹ ˹ 5.3 ૹ ͻپͧաͧԹ 4 áçҧ

͡ҡҧҹͧͧ਴١Ѵࢵѧ վʧӾ աû١ҧد ҡ­ 繷¢ͧ繷СͺԸշҧʹҢͧǺҹdz ѨغѹҧѴ鵺ࢵط¹ҷʶ ооطٻҾͧҳʶҹҳѵ¹ ͧ繤¹͡ҡ਴иҹ

Ѵ¸ (Ѵ) ѺûСȢ鹷¹ҳʶҹ觪ҵ .. 2486 »СҪԨҹມ 60 ͹ 39 ѹ 20 áҤ 2486


ʶ 㹻дɰҹлٹ鹻Դͧ ҧԪ ˹ʶվоطٻҧҸԻдɰҹ8






Wat Ayothaya
Wat Ayothaya is located in the conserved area called “Muang Kao Ayothaya (the old city of Ayothaya)” at Hantra Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. It is also called “Wat Si Ayothaya” or “Wat Derm (The original temple)”. According to the north historical annals, it was believed that the area of this temple was once the royal palace in Ayothaya period. Later the king governing the city donated the area to build the temple. As a result, the temple is called “Wat Derm (the original temple)”. It was the center of Ayothaya City on the bank of Pa Sak River. This happened before King U-Thong founded Krung Si Ayutthaya as the capital at the area called “Nong Sanoh (a swamp of a kind of water plants called Sanoh).

The legend of Wat Derm or Wat Ayothaya is the same as that of Wat Phutthai Sawan. It is only different with the belief in the legend of Wat Ayothaya that the center of the old city before the foundation of Krung Si Ayutthaya was in the east of the city Island on the Pa Sak River, but the legend of Wat Phutthai Sawan indicated that it was on the bank of the Chao Phraya River in the south of the city island (1).

In the reign King Narai the Great, Phra Buddha Khosajarn was the abbot of the temple. The abbot was the one who wrote “Rachowat Chadok” (A book telling about the existence of the Buddha and used to teach kings), and presented it to the King. Later Phra Ubalee became the other abbot of this temple (2).

Later, in the reign of King Boromakot, a monk named “Ruan” went to study in Krung Si Ayutthaya. He got “Prian (graduate of theology)” and was promoted to “Phra Phakul Thera” which was a clerical title of the monks who practiced transcendental meditation at this temple. After that King Boromakot promoted him to the rank of the abbot of Muang Sawangkhaburi at Wat Phra Fang (a temple in Uttaradit now). When Krung Si Ayutthaya was lastly destroyed in 1767, there were no heads to govern the chief cities. Many warriors promoted themselves to govern the chief cities. The abbot was believed by city people that he was proficient in magic spells. Therefore, he was disrobed, put on red clothes, promoted himself as “Chao Phra Fang” and became head of Chao Phra Fang clique by having many monks as army leaders. Finally, King Taksin of Thon Buri moved his troops to suppress him in 1670. The chief cities which belonged to Chao Phra Fang were defeated. Chao Phra Fang ran away and disappeared.

King Chulalongkorn, the fifth king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period), took a trip to Ayutthaya in 1908 and stated that Wat Derm was an ancient temple built since Ayutthaya period. It was khammawasi temple (a temple in a city, town or village) situated in the middle of Ayothaya City. Therefore, the area has been believed being Ayothaya City since then. Later, the temple was newly named “Wat Ayothaya” in agreement with this belief (4).

The temple was situated on the canal near Wat Kudeedao. Nowadays, the canal has become the road in front of the temple which is situated at the mouth of the canal connecting to the other canal called “Hantra” in the north. The remains left in the religious area are the gate-posts of an entrance in the east. The gate-posts were made in twelve indented corners with 2.50 meters high. Next, there are two chedi constructed in the reign of King Chulalongkorn used to contain bone remains of abbots and their relatives. Next to the chedi, there was an ubosot newly constructed on the base of the old one in Ayutthaya period (5).

The old chedi at Wat Ayothaya (6)

Wat Ayothaya or Wat Derm was not mentioned in Ayutthaya annals about the renovation or restoration. On the contrary, it is believed that it might have been a royal temple, the place for the important abbots to stay and took religious roles in Ayutthaya period; for example, in the reign of King Narai, there was Somdej Phra Buddha Khosajarn who had great intellect in the Tripitaka. This abbot was believed to write “Rachowat Chadok”, a very important chadok (A book telling about existence of the Buddha) of Ayutthaya court (7).

Nor Na Parknam wrote and told about Wat Derm (Wat Ayothaya) in his book, Ha Duan klang Sak It tee Ayutthaya (Five Months among the Remains in Ayutthaya), “there is an octagonal chedi in Langka style (spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base) situated on a high base which can be seen from the distance. The top of the chedi tumbled down, but the part on top of the bell-shaped chedi called “Banlang Than Taksin” was built very highly. It is strange and I have never seen the chedi like this before. The body of the chedi in bell shape was molded in the form of lotus petals overlapped each other similar to ones on top of a column. There are two sets of stairs, one in the front and the other one in the back of the chedi. The old Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stones) of Wat Derm were made of white sand stone with the pattern of a big leaf from bodhi tree (the tree that the Buddha got his enlightment) in the middle. They are the old style of Bai Sema and the original ones that are left. The temple was rebuilt with a new ubosot and the bai sema were put in front of it. Another thing is the door façade made by the craftman in King Narai’s reign, and a Bai Sema in King Narai’s reign was put against it. As a result, it is believed that the temple was grandly renovated in King Narai reign. The chedi with the base made in twelve-indented corners was completely damaged and the ubosot was built instead at the area. The area around the temple was originally lowland, but the temple might have been built on a mound. The clue of it is still remained. Remarkably, the base of the chedi was built very highly. It may be the base of the original chedi which was renovated, and afterwards the octagonal chedi was built over it.

The General Remains
1. Two gates leading to the religious area, one in the east and the other one in the west. Visibly, there is only a gate in the east with no façade. A small building with four gable ends of two levels called ruankaew chaturamuk was built on each gate-post. Figures of overturned and faced up lotuses were put under the small buildings. The posts themselves were made in twelve-indented corners about 2.50 meters high.

2. When entering through the east gate, there is a pair of chedi, one on the left and the other on the right. They are square chedi with the form of lion legs under them. After asking a scholar, he said that the chedi were laterly built in the reign of King Chulalongkorn of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period). One was used to contain bone ashes of a head of monks named Tai, the abbot of the temple at that time. The other one was used to contain Mr. Sang’s and Mrs. Kasem’s bone ashes (the abbot’s, Tai, parents).

3. The present ubosot was constructed on the original base with 9 meters wide and 15 meters long. A Buddha image in the attitude of subduing the mara made of molded mortar is situated inside. It was said that the image was recently renovated. Once, King Chulalongkorn went to cover the original main Buddha image with gold leaves. The Buddha image might have been very beautiful, but due to the fact that the old ubosot did not have the roof, being deserted and uninterested, the Buddha image was naturally damaged or was destroyed by people who made profit from the image. The present main Buddha image is situated on the base with 1.44 meters high. The width of his lap is 3.50 meters long and he is 4.90 meters high. The old ubosot had two passages in the north and in the south. It was also said that both sides of the passages were built with levels. Later when the new ubosot was built on the original base, passages were not built on both sides. Nowadays, the ubosot was already decorated and painted.

4. Phra Prang (stupa) was situated behind the ubosot. The base of Phra Prang called Tarn Taksin was made in a square with twelve indented corners and 3.66 meters high. The base was built with two levels in the form of lotuses turning face down and up. On the second level between the lotuses turning face down and up, there were 7 apertures in the form of crosses. Nowadays, Phra Prang leaves only the remains about 3 meters higher than its base. The top of the stupa tumbled down. Only the patterns called “kleeb Khanoon” were seen, and they were said to be the style of craftmen in King Prasat Thong reign.

5. The main chedi has the base with the lower level in square with one meter high and with the models of lotuses turning faces up and down. The higher base is 7 meters high and also with the models of lotuses turning faces up and down. The base under the body of the chedi was octagonal and in the models of lotuses turning faces up and down, too. A set of stairs leads to the east side. The chedi is bell-shaped with two levels of models of lotus petals around it. The end of the lotus petals is graceful. On the top of the bell-shaped chedi, there is an octagonal base with small posts called “sao harn” on it with lotus-shaped models on top. The remains of the chedi are about 30 meters high. The chedi is nearly the same as that of Wat Maha That at Amphoe Sankhaburi in Chai Nat because they both have high bases. There is also the same style of Chedi at Wat Mae Nang Pleum in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. The special style of this kind of chedi is that the bell-shaped body contains very big models of lotus petals turning faces up decorated around it. Nowadays, only some parts of them are left.

6. Wihan (Vihara) is left only its monud about one meter high. According to the assumption, it might have been built the same time as the original ubosot. Inside the ubosot and the vihara were covered with ceramics made from baked clay in octagonal form with 40 centimeters wide and 5.3 centimeters thick. The floors covered with the ceramics mentioned were also put inbetween with square ceramics.

Additionally, the south of the main chedi is the area for monks’ accommodations. There were many monks staying in the area. Monks’ dwellings and a sermon hall were built on it. The people around the temple have used the area for religious rituals and ceremonies. Nowadays, the religious area was newly decorated with paintings inside the ubosot, Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone), and the Buddha images. The decoration made the ancient remains and the antiques changed. Only the main chedi still shows the ancient style.

Wat Ayothaya (Wat Derm) was declared and registered as a national historic site in 1943 with the declaration in the government gazette, volume 60, part 39, on July 20, 1943.

Inside the ubosot, there is a Buddha image molded with mortar and covered with gold leaves in the attitude of subduing the mara. In front of the ubosot, there is also a Buddha image in the attitude of doing meditation (8).

References

1. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 112-113.
2. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province, p. 45.
3. Referred, p. 46.
4. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 113.
5. Referred.
6. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A Picture in Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, p. 47.
7. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 113.
8. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A picture and caption in Khumeu Chom Silapa lae Sathapattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon SiAyutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 138.

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ѴѴҳ ҧ¡اظҪҹ Ӻźҹ 6 ͧ͡ҹȵѹԴѺҾ ͧ Ѻ਴·ѺѴѵҸҪ Ѩغѹҡͧҡͧçdz਴· 繡دҳ԰ͻٹѧ˹ ѴѴ ѧ¡ѹ “Ѵ” ҧ “ѴҪ” ҧ 㹻Ѩغѹ¡Ѵ1 ҡҧѪ ѹɰҹҧ¡ 415

ѴѴغըӾ 觾غͧ繾ҪҤ 稾 Ҹ ¾ع оʧѹѺԺͧٻ ͡仵駾оطʹҺǪźص׺оطʹѧѧҷջ ;.. 2296 ѵاѧҵԴ͢;ԡʧ͡仿鹿پоطʹ㹻ѧ 觡ѧҡ Ҿԡ ѹ˵ѧԴطʹҿ鹿٢ա ԡʧغ仺Ǫն֧ 700 ٻ 300 ٻ ֧¡ҡѹ “غǧ” ;ǧ׺Ҩءѹ2


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Ѵ繷駤¾ҷء駷¡Ѿاظ ͤǺ鹷ҧҤҧ ˹Ѵ繺dzҡžշҺèѺҾ ѹ繨شطʵӤѭͧظ㹡͹¡ѧŨҡ¹͡ѧ㹾й ҹѧͧѴѧ繷觡ҧժ¡ “觻઴” ѹ繺dzաúѹҧ¡Ѻ С÷Ѵҧҹȵѹ çѺҪѧǧظ Ѵ˹㹷駢ͧ͢ҡظա

ѧҡاظ㹻 .. 2310 ҷѴ鹨Ѵҧ ѡҹǶ֧Ѵ 㹹Ⱦкҷͧع ͹˹

“Ѵ
͡駨ԧͨШ㹤¹
਴١Ҵ
­ʶدԪشѧ
֧Ѵ
ͧ˹ǧѧѧ
صçѷһзѧ
ҧҧͧ
ѧǪѴҷ
֧ҧѧͧ
͹ءըԹҤͧ
دͧ”

¤㹡͹ʴ繪Ѵ “ѧѧ” ʴһѧó ѧѧͧ鹨繼 ͡ҡ稾ҹ ҿҡǧ͹ѡ (ͧԹ) 觻ٵͻբ طѡҪ 2289 蹴Թ稾Һ 觤繤ӤѭͧѴ ֧Һóѧóǻ .. 2328 - 2348 ͹˹ҷзǧ㹻 .. 2350

ѺúóѧóѪŷ 1 觡اѵԹ Ҫҹ “ѴҪ” հҹ繾ǧѭ 㹻 .. 2449 çѺѪŷ 5 աҧ 1 ѧ 1 ѧ ҡ­ 1 ѧ ѧҡ鹡աúóЫСҧҤеͧҵʹ4

Ѵ਴иҹçҹзѡԳ繻иҹͧѴ õҧȵѹ͡ оʶҧҹѧͧ਴иҹҧȵѹ ǹЦѧӷҧȵѹ͡ ࢵѧ

دԷӷ繡دͧ鹹鹻Ѩغѹ Ҥ÷çҾԵáҼѧ 4 ҹ ͧطѵ෾ ûŧҹ окҷѡɳ Ѫŷ 5

㹾ط ʶ о਴ ҳࢵҧҧ˭ աᾧͺ

˹Һѹ´͡ٹ鹻Сͺٻѵҧ ժͿСһٹ ѧاͧԹ վоطٻٹͧ ਴çѧҢҴ˭ѧ ٧ҳ 20 ҹѡԳͧ鹻дѺԧͺҹ ȹТͧѡҳҷǴçͧ਴ѧá ʴѴҧ¸5


Ѵ .ظ6






Wat Thammaram

Wat Thammaram is an ancient temple built since Krung Si Ayutthaya was the capital. It is situated at Ban Pom Subdistrict, moo 6, outside the city island in the east and on the Chao Phraya River, some distance across Chedi Si Suriyothai and Wat Kasattrathirat. Nowadays, if we look across the City Island at Chedi Si Suriyothai, we will see an ancient monk dwelling made of laid bricks and mortar on the river. Originally, its name was Wat Tharama or Wat Thamma. Later, it was named “Wat Thammawat” or “Wat Ratchathammawat Worawihan”. At present, it is called “Wat Thammaram” (1), and assumed being built not less than 415 years ago.

This temple was the place where Phra Ubalee who was a Buddhist prelate stayed. King Boromakot sent Phra Ubalee, Phra Ariya Muni and another twelve monks to Langka Island (Bangladesh) to ordain people and to promote Buddhism on the island in 1753, according to the invitation of the Langka king who wanted to restore Buddhism in Sri Langka (Bangladesh). At that time, Buddhism in Sri Langka was in recession, and Buddhist monks were very rare. As a result, it led to the restoration of Buddhism in Sri Langka. Phra Ubalee ordained about 700 monks and 300 novices. Thus Buddhism there has been called “Ubalee Wong” or “Phra Siam Wong” till today (2).

Wat Thammaram (3)

Wat Thammaram had been used as the Burmese camp every time the Burmese moved their troops to invade Krung Si Ayutthaya, in order to control the water communication due to the fact that north of Wat Thammaram is the place where the Lop Buri River connects to the Chao Phraya River. In Ayutthaya period, it was the Thai important stronghold in moving troops to help protect the city. Behind Wat Thammaram, there was a wide field called “Thung Prached”, the place used for fighting between the Thai and the Burmese troops. Becauuse Wat Thammaram is situated in the west opposite the Royal Palace in Ayutthaya period; the temple was also used as the boat landing in Ayutthaya time.

After Krung Si Ayutthaya was defeated in 1767, Wat Thammaram was completely burnt down by the Burmese. As a result, it was deserted. There is evidence mentioning about Wat Thammaram in a part of lyrical poetry “Nirat Phrabat” written by Sunthorn Phu:

“Temples and temple grounds on the banks
are true according to the writings.
Chedi remains are left everywhere
and sermon halls are in ruins.
Wat Tharama made me in sorrow.
The temple where the Crown Prince,
or prince of the back palace,
had trust to renovate it.
Once it was shiny with beauty, but now deserted.
Being sympathy for Wat Thamma,
newly built in the name of Wat Tharama,
It’s like my suffering in thinking to have jewellery
and a golden crown to put on my body.”

The content in the poem shows that “Phra Wanglang (Prince of the back palace)” newly renovated it. This means Prince Anurakthewed (Thong In) who was born in the year of the tiger, 1746, in the reign of King Boromakot. He might have placed importance on Wat Thammaram and renovated it during 1785 1805 before his death in 1807.

Later, the temple was renovated again in the reign of King Rama I of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period). The king gave the name “Wat Ratchathammawat Worawihan” to the temple. It was a royal temple in Aranyawasi (the forest side). In the reign of King Rama V in 1906, a vihara, a hall for keeping the Buddhist scriptures and a sermon hall were built. After that the temple has been continuously renovated and mended (4).

Inside the temple, there was the main chedi in the round shape situated on a square base. There was also a vihara situated in the east, and the ubosot was situated behind the main chedi in the west. The hall for keeping the scriptures and the bell tower were by the river in the monks’ area in the east.

The monk dwelling on the river has two stireys. Now it is used for keeping the Buddhist scriptures, and is a Thai style house with mural paintings on the four sides of the wall. They tell biography of the Lord Buddha, the meeting of gods, lying down and doing meditation with corpses, and royal pictures of King Rama V.

Inside the religious area, there were the ubosot, the vihara, and the main chedi. The area was very wide and surrounded by walls.

Regarding the vihara, its gables contained molded flowers with models of various animals. The gable ends contained molded apexes (chorfah) and toothlike ridges (Bai Raka) on the sloping edges of the gables. The roof was covered with tiles made of baked clay. There were many Buddha images made of molded lime inside the vihara. A chedi in spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base (Song Langka) was behind the vihara. It was 20 wa (40 meters) high. Its base was doubled levels and decorated with molded lions around it. According to archeologists’ idea, the shape of the chedi was in early “Song Langka (spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base)” and shows that it was an old temple built in Ayutthaya period (5).

Wat Thammaram, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province (6)

References

1. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province, p. 47.
2. Chumpengphan, Pathum. (2001). Athibai Bhumisathan Krung Si Ayutthaya(Explanation of Krung Si Ayutthaya Geographical Sites). Bangkok: Chormo Dek, p. 71.
3. A picture in “Kharawan yuan Krung Si Ayutthaya: Thedsakarn Tiew Thai 5 Phark (A Caravan Visiting Krung Si Ayutthaya: Seasons of Thai Festivals in Five Regions)”. On line in Travel Time at http://www.travelthaimagazine.com/index.php?lay=show&ac=article&ld=538695272&Ntype=52.
4. Ayutthaya Study Institute. (nd.). Ayutthaya: Kwamsamphan tangdan Sassana rawang Prathed Thai kab Prathed Sri Langka (Relationship on Religion between Thailand and Sri Langka). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Rajabhat University.
5. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province, pp. 47 - 48.
6. Bloggang. com. (2008).A picture in “Bai Thamboon Wai Phra Gao Wat @ Ayutthaya Tornrab BeeMai Duaykan Nakha (Going to Do Merit for Nine Temples @ Ayutthaya to Welcome the New Year Together)” Retrieved December 25, 2008 on: http://www.bloggang.com.mainblog.php?id=yui-chan&month=25-12-2008&group=13&gblog=4.

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Ѻҹ
֡Ҵ٧ҹٹѡҵ
֡Ҵ٧ҹٹѡҵ

      ѹظ áҤҹ ʶҺѹظ֡ҹ .ҹѹ പ .ѹѵ ŷ ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ Ѵçͺҧ׺ҹǾҪɰԨ§ ӹѡ֡ҷʹç֡Ҵ٧ҹ ٹѡҵ .ù¡ ͧǤԴзɮ 㹾кҷ稾Ǵҹҧ Ҩ繷ɮǡѺԹ Ф öӤҡçһءѺͧ ¡֡Ҵ٧ҹ㹤駹ѺõԨҡ .ͧ 觡ҧ դԷҡèѴԹҧ㹤駹
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ûЪ͹ء͹ѡǴҵŻͧ

      ѹ áҤ ҹ ˹͹ѡǴҵŻͧ ѧѴйظ 觴ԹҹʶҺѹظ֡ ѴЪ͹ء͹ѡǴ ШӨѧѴйظҢ ͧЪ Ҥ ҡҧѧѴйظ ·ҹԷ Ǽͧ ҪèѧѴйظ繻иҹûЪ Ф͹ءûСͺ ˹ǹҪ÷Ǣͧ ѡ Թ ¸ ѲѧѴзѾҡøҵǴѧѴйظ ʹС˹͹ѡ ͧԷҪѯйظ 觼ʵҨѹԾ ˹˹͹ѡ 軯ԺѵԧҹŢ繼§ҹšôԹҹͧ˹͹ѡϷӤѭСûЪ ѧ
ҹ...
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ԨͺСѺþѲҤسҾԵ

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ҹ...
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ЪСûШʶҺѹظ֡ 駷 /

      ѹѧ÷ áҤ ҹ ʶҺѹظ֡ ѴЪСûШ ʶҺѹظ֡ ͧЪШʶҺѹظ ѺõԨҡ .þҷ ó ͸ԡú 繻иҹûЪ ¼ЪСͺ Դ ح ҡѴѭԧ سʹѡ ѹԭá Ţҹءù¡ͧúǹѧѴйظ ͧ͸ԡúսԨкԡԪҡ .ҧ .ظ ҵԧ .Թ ¼ͧ .Դ ʹ§ ʶҺѹظ֡ҷءҹ ФҨçسز
ҹ...
Ԩ¹ Шӻ
Ԩ¹ Шӻ

      ѹʺշ áҤ .. ʶҺѹظ֡ ¼ʵҨѹԾ ӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ Ҩ§ 䵪ع .ҹѹ പ Ҩѹѵ ŷ ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ ºؤҡ йѡ֡ ӹǹ ѹӺح¹ ͧѹҾ Ѵѭԧ ѧѴйظ 繡׺ҹ͹ѡѲ ླշҧоطʹҷէ餧׺
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ԡǹš¹¹ҧ͢·ҧѲԻѭҷͧ

      ѹѧ÷ áҤ ʶҺѹظ֡ҹ .ѹԾ ӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ Ҩ§ 䵪ع д.ҹѹ പ ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ Ѵçš¹¹ҧ͢·ҧѲ Իѭҷͧ ç¹ҧԹ (Ҫҹ) ͺҧԹ ѧѴйظ ¨ѴԨͺǹš¹¹ҹŻѲ Իѭҷͧ ѺԻѭҷͧ ç¹ Ҩ йѡ¹ ӹǹ 觨ҡèѴçä駹Ѻسҵҧ ѧ
           . ֡¹ Իѭҷͧ ҡҪǺҹͺҧԹ
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ûЪŹԸԾѲҧҹŻѲ

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ҹ شʹŻѵ 駷

      ѹء ѹ¹ ҹ ʶҺѹظ֡ .ҹѹ പ ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ йҧǻҾ Ѱ ˹ҷʶҺѹظ֡ ӹԵѡ֡ ӹǹ ҹ شʹŻѵ 駷 Ѵ ٹŻҪվҧ (ͧҪ) ҧѹ - ѹ¹ ٹŻҪվҧ ͺҧ ѧѴйظ ѺõԨҡ Ͼ ¸ҹԹ ͧ 繻иҹ㹾ԸԴҹ йԷ Ǽͧ ҪèѧѴйظ õ㹾Ը 㹧ҹԭ٪ҧЪҧ͡ ҹҡǻ շѡ ͡ѡɳԻѭ дѺʹҹŻѵͧ ѺѺͧ͵ҵðҹ ... ҨѴԷȡçҹѵŧҹ ͡ҹ˹Թ Сö·ʹ ʺó ѺʹٻẺý֡ԪҪվҹѵ ҷ ŧѡԴͧ õ͡д 繵
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ç¹ͧ˹ (ǹԵ) ʶҺѹظ֡
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ҹ...
ûЪС˹͹ѡ ѧѴйظ
ûЪС˹͹ѡ ѧѴйظ ԷҪѯйظ

      ѹ ԧҤ ҹ ˹͹ѡǴҵŻͧ ѧѴйظ ԷҪѯйظ 觴ԹҹʶҺѹظ֡ ѴЪС˹͹ѡ ѧѴйظ 駷 / ͧЪ͹ ʶҺѹظ֡ ԷҪѯйظ ѺõԨҡ .þҷ ó ͸ԡúԷҪѯйظ 繻иҹûЪ ФСûСͺ Ҩѭ ྪ , ʵҨظ ҵԧ , Ҩط ԭ , ѡԪҡèҡӹѡҹѾҡøҵǴѧѴйظ , ѡԪҡѲ طҹѵʵظ , س ԭ ʹС˹͹ѡ ͧԷҪѯйظ Ҩ§ 䵪عҨѹѵ ŷ ѺԴͺҹ˹͹ѡ 繼§ҹšôԹҹ ͧ˹͹ѡ ӤѭСûЪ ѧ
ҹ...
Դ
ҹ...
ûСѹسҾ֡
ҹ...
ྐྵ´ͧҧ
ྐྵ´ͧҧ

 

ྐྵ´ͧҧ1


ྐྵ´ͧҧͧ͡价ҧѹ͡§˹ dz觷˭ ҹ´ Ӻǹԡ ͧ ѧѴйظ ѹɰҹҧµ鹡اظ

“͹繹 稾ҡا
ʴ价ʹ๵êҧ͹ྐྵ´...
ͫ ͧʵѧ (Ť͹)
͡Ҷ֧ͧͨ
ҪҳҨѡժҧѺý֡
ͧǶ֧ 2 ͡”

                                        ҷǧ ǫ/ .. 22202

“ྐྵ´” ¶֧ çͤ͡ѺѡѺѵ ྐྵ´Ѻ 繡ç ѵ˭੾Ъҧ ͧӤ͡«ا駵 ҵ͡ѧŧ㹴Թ ٧ҵǪҧ硹 èѺҧ ¡ѹ ͧ ͡ػóӤѭ㹡äͧѺҧ͹㹤͡3

ྐྵ´ͧҧ ʶҹѺ㹡èѺҧ ͤѴ͡ҧѡɳЧͧҤѡɳ ͹㹧ҹ֡ʧ ͤҪҧ ѹ繡觺حҺ觺þѵҸҪ

ྐྵ´ͧҧҧѺѺҧҹ ʹյ ҧ繾˹Ӥѭش ҹ֡ʧ ͧҡҧդçҹ աѧҡöԹҧءҽҴͺء ҧ֧繷Ѿҡ÷դҡ ѧԹ͡͹š¹Թա ҧ繢ͧբͧҡѵ ੾Ъҧ͡ҡ ͡ѹҾ蹴ԹպحҸԡҡ֧ҧ͡4

ྐྵ´Ѵͧ ҹ˹ͧ͢Ҫѧѹ ֧蹴Թ稾ҸҪ .. 2123 ô¡ᾧҪѧҹȵѹ͡价өй鹨֧çôྐྵ´价Ӻŷ˭ ͵ӺǹԡѨغѹ ྐྵ´㹻Ѩغѹкҷ稾оطʹҨšҪ ôա˹ еҾкҷ稾йǨ֧ôա֧ 2 5

“ྐྵ´ͧҧ” 繤͡Ҵ˭ͧ 鹹͡԰ԧԹ٧ ҧѧվѡ繢ͺ ԧԹ 4 ҹԴѹ 鹻е٢ͧҧҹȵѹ͡зȵѹ ԧԹҹȵѹҹҧҴҹ ǹҹ˹зպѹԧԹҹ 2 ѹ 㹽ѧ§ٻ׹ժͧҧԹҹе 226 çҧྐྵ´ͻдɰҹоԦ ෾觪ҧ ҹ͡һѡ§ѹ¨лѡͺҡҧش᤺شçҧྐྵ´¡ “ա” dz繷ѡҧ ͹е͹ྐྵ´

е٪ͧش 繪ͧзԧԹѺҧԹʹԧԹྐྵ´ ջе٪ͧشҧҹ˹зҹ 2 ͧ Ѱūྐྵ´ѧ .. 2500 شͧش 2 ͧ ҹ˹ Ѩغѹ֧ѧʹҹ§ 2 ͧ6


е᤺ ¡ “ͧ” Ѻ͹ҧྐྵ´ 1 7


äͧҧҤʵ Сз¾кҪͧâͧҡѵҹ աоIJԺ繼ʹͧкҪͧ ҡõ͹ŧҧҾѡա ѹҨ֧͹ྐྵ´ 40-50 ͡ ͤѴ͡ҧͧѡɳ ǹ͡лһ

˹ҷͧҧ “ͪҧ” 觺ѧҧ֡Ҵ¡ “ҧͧ” Ͷѹǻҳ 5 ç “ǧ” ҴҧҪҧ硹 ͧ价ѧͧҧҷͧ 觡äͧҧͧҸ ʺóоСѧ ͧҡҧҨе㨵Դͺྐྵ´ʹ ͨҡ鹡͡Сӫ觷Өҡ˹ѧ¤ͧͪҧҵǹ ͹й͡份֡繧ҹ

¾кҷ稾ШŨ Ѫŷ 5 Ѫش·ҪҸԺ觻ôաèѺҧ ҡѴԸաäͧҧ 觹ҫʷ 2 㹢йخҪ÷ʹ๵ ա˹Ѻù꡺ҴԵ ·ʹ๵ ѹ 15 Ҥ .. 25058 кҷ稾ѪŻѨغѹ ѴԸաäͧҧҶҪҸԺഹ е .. 2540 繵 աͿ鹾Ըդͧҧǧ繡ҸԵ ྐྵ´йظ觹 ЪҪ


Ҿʴäͧҧྐྵ´ͧҧ .йظ9


Ѻҵآ ѺҡѵзѺʹ๵áäͧҧ10






The Elephat Kraal
The elephant kraal is situated outside the city island in the northeast in the area called Thalay ya (Grass land) at Ban Phaniad village, Suan Prik Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. It is assumed to be built since early Ayutthaya period:

“This evening, the King of Siam
Went to watch wild elephants in the kraal
Meusier Grandstance (Falcon)
Told me about an incredible story that
There were 20,000 trained elephants
In the Kindom of Siam”.
A Christian Priest, De Soisiy/1659

“Phaniad (Kraal)” means a cage or an enclosure used to catch animals. If it is a kraal to catch birds, a cage made of small pieces of thornless bamboo is used. In contrast, if it is for big animals like elephants, a big stable made from logs is employed. The logs are driven down into the ground, left only the height a little higher than an elephant’s body. To catch an elephant, Thai people called it “Khlong (to catch with a loop)” because a loop made from rope is utilised as a tool in catching elephants which were chased into the enclosure or the trap (3).

The elephant kraal was used to catch wild elephants in order to select elephants with good characteristics according to “Tamla Khotchaluck (A royal treatise telling about good characteristics of elephants)”. The selected elephants would be utilized in wars, or to search for auspicious elephants (white elephants) which would show the accumulated merits of the kings.

Additionally, the elephant kraal was used to catch elephants to train for work. In former time, elephants were used as the most important vehicle. They were utilized both in daily life and in war time due to their great strength and energy. They also had great power and could travel through thick forests. As a result, elephants were very valuable, were also exported and exchanged to other goods. Elephants had been compared to the former kings’ merits, especially white elephants which were very rare. It had been believed that the kings who had many white elephants had a lot of accumulated merits (4).

Formerly, the kraal was situated at Wat Song in the north of Chandrakasem Palace. Later, in the reign of King Maha Thammaracha in 1580, he commanded expanding the east city wall to the river bank. Therefore, he commanded moving the kraal to Thalay Ya or Suan Prik Sub-district at the present. The kraal left nowadays was renovated by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, and it was renovated twice in the reign of King Nangklao Chao Yu Hua (5).

“The elephant kraal” was a stable made with two lines of walls. The outer wall, having resting places on the top, was high and made of laid bricks. The wall was divided into 4 separated sides, and each side was connected by a beam. There was an entrance in the east and the other one in the west. On the west side, there was a larger yard. There were two sets of stairs leading to the resting places in the north and the south walls. The inner wall was made of logs driving into the ground in rectangular form allowing one elephant to walk inbetween each pair of logs. There were 226 logs in total. In the middle of the kraal, there was a small tower used to place Ganesha (the god of elephants). Outside the entrance of the kraal, two rows of logs were pieced into the ground and connected to the entrance in the form of a cone turning out widely like “peekka (a crow’s wings)”. It is the area used to rest elephants before chasing them into the kraal.

A narrow door called “song” used to chase one wild elephant to go through it into the kraal (7).

A kind of entrances or an aperture through a wall called “Pratu Chongkud” was made through the outer wall for elephants to go into the kraal. Originally, there were two pratu chongkud in the north and in the south wall. When the government renovated the kraal in 1957, the two ones in the north were blocked. Nowadays, there are only the two ones in the south (6).

To catch an elephant using a loop according to the elephant treatise could be done under the king’s permission by the Department of Elephant Affairs and Brahmin called “Phram Pheutthibat”. First, wild elephants were chased into the wing-shaped area. A day after, 40 50 elephants were chased at a time into the kraal in order to select only elephants with good characteristics, and the left ones were released back to the forest.

The person who caught elephants with a loop is called “Mor Chang”. He sat on a good-trained elephant called “chang khlong”, and carried a rod called “mai khanjam” with 5 meters long. At the end of the rod, there was a loop called “buang bard” with the width nearly the same as an elephant’s foot. The loop was used to catch a wild elephant at a leg. Catching elephants was used with a lot of concentration, experiences and power due to the fact that wild elephants were frightened and ran wildly around the kraal. Later, a lasso called “chuak prakam” made from buffalo skin was used to lasso an elephant at its neck. Finally, the elephant was trained for work.

Wild elephants were lastly caught in the reign of King Chulalongkorn, the fifth king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period). Catching wild elephants was held at the kraal to show King Zar Nicholas II who was still the crown prince then, and the other time, it was done to show Grand Duke Borisvaladimirovice of Russia. Later on January 15, 1962, King Bhumibol, the present king, arranged a ceremony to show the King of Denmark of how to catch wild elephants. Since 1997, catching wild elephants according to the royal treatise has been rekindled with only demonstration at the kraal in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya to show it to general people.

A picture showing catching wild elephants at the kraal in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya

A pavilion with three porticos called “Plabpla Trimuk” for the king to sit and watch the catching of wild elephants (10).

References

1. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 140.
2. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, p. 323.
3. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A Picture in Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, p. 121.
4. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 138.
5. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province, p. 28.
6. Referred.
7. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 140.
8. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon SiAyutthaya).Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 141.
9. Khaolamai, Itthiphan. (2009). “Prawatsat Kwamplianplang Chang Thai kab Prathed Thai (History of the Changes of Thai Elephants and Thailand)”. Retrived July 17, 2009 on http://www.vchakarn.com/varticle/39016.
10. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam ThaiPhranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 140.


 

ҹ㹻ྪ1


ྪõͧйظ dzҡҾӻѡҺèѹ ԴҹǹҴ˭ ҡԹྪͧ价觵ç ҧҹͤ Ѵѭԧ ҧҹͤ ѴҧШ ¡اظҺdz繷ʹԹҢͧǵҧҵ ֧繵Ҵ˭Ǻҹ¡͹¡ѹ Ҵǹ ˵طdzǹժ ҧШ ֧͵Ҵǹ觹繵ҴǹҧШ仴

اظջᾧͧӹǹҡ ྪ繻ҡ÷Żҡúóǻྪҧ鹵Ẻҧѹ 繻׹˭ٻỴ͡仨ҡǡᾧͧ ʹ԰ŧ ǹʴ繵ѹͪͧ駤ǧ ѨغѹྪѧҾóǹ˭

ҪǴéѺǧ԰ 繩ѺѺѹҹͶҡش ǢͤǢͧѺҧᾧͧл “ѡҪ 911 Сȡ (.. 2092) ...鹹͡ᾧйظ (2515,457) á͡ᾧйظ 駹 çѺ蹴Թ稾Ҩѡþô ´㹾ҪǴéѺҪѵŢ (2516,188) ǹ觡ë觨Сѹй ˹ҷᾧͺйù 觻ྪúšѹ˹ (40 ) ҧ׹˭Ժ (20 ) ׹çšѹ (10 ) ͹觡ᾧйù鹵¡кǹ ѧŧ仵 駤仵繪˹ ׹çѺ¹鹡ҡ ⷹ㹡ҧ͡ (10 ) ͺй ֡ҵй”2


ͧҤǧ3


;ͧʶһҡاظҢ .. 1893 ᾧúҧ ѡɳԹԹ´ѡҧ 稾Ҩѡþôçзѧ׹˭ ͧҡ¹׹˭ظ ֧ô Тǡᾧй͡仵Դ¹ҡ´ͧ繡԰ͻٹ ǹú԰Ѻŧ ҧ׹˭ӹǹҡШзͧҧ 稾Ҩѡþô õ͹ͻ׹˭ķͧ4

ҧҡûͧѹй㹤á ѧըشͧҧ ˵ͧ¾йҢ֡㹻 .. 2112 з蹴Թ稾ҸҪ㹻ѡҪ 942 çȡ (.. 2123) ͡ᾧاй͡仵ԧ ´㹾ҪǴ ѺҪѵŢ (2516,606) Ҵ¡ú ػ 稾й СʴҾͧ·ͧç ֧ʴ稡Ѻʧ ¾Ԩó “駹鹢ҧҤ͡Ԩó¶ǹ駷зҧ Ըյҧ稾ҨѡþôҾй繷 ҡѧͧ˹繷Ѿ˹Һ ¡ѧչ¡Ҥ稾Ҩѡþô Ңҧ˧ǴԸյѴѧҧͧ˹ ֧ŧҾйظ繷 Ҵͧ˹ŧ㹾йظ ͧ˹ҧ¤˹ ҧաҧ˹觫͹ йôҹѹ͡ ҧӹҹ˹ ֡ҵҧ ǹشͧѡ¹Ң˹Тش¢˹͡仨”5

¿ѧ ѧ ủ ǽʫ蹴Թ稾й³ͻ .. 2229 ѹ֡ͧǢͧ㹻ѵʵ觾ҪҳҨѡ һҡ÷Ӷ١ҷشͻҡ÷ҧ鹵ẺŹͧҷǧԹԡѹõͧ˹ ҧѧҧ觫觹Ҩлͧѹͧ鹨ҡè ժͧŧ շҡͻͧѹ6

ᾧйظҷҧ㹤駹鹤դ蹤çҡ з㹾Ǵþҡ “;˧ǴժԧѺ件֧ͧ˧Ǵ ͻᾧͧ˧Ǵ ҧᾧاظ价 蹤çҡ”7

ѧҡاظ .. 2310 ǻྪá١ҧ Ǻ .. 2397 кҷ稾Ш Ѫŷ 4 ʴ稾ҪԹç签ҪŶʹյҪ稾к йظ ʴһзѺѺ㹻ྪù зçдԨҧҪѧŧ㹺dzѧྪ (Ѩغѹç¹ྪ) ѴóѴѺѧ ѧʴ稾ҪԹ价ʹ๵þҪѧѹǡç¹Ҫķ ʶһҾҪѧѹ᷹еѴʹʹѴШӾҪѧ8

¾кҷ稾ШŨ աõǨͺʶҹͧйظ繤á ¾ҳҹѡ (˹㹢й) ͧáʷзçѡҪѧҳ繷ç签С㹾ҪԸѪ 㹤駹鹾ҳ Ǩ١ᾧЫҡҧ 㹢й 16 ѹ֡ѡɳѳҹͧྪ “ྪ 繻˭Ѻͧѹ֡ҷҧӵçйôҹ ͡仨ҡǡᾧ˹ ҧ繾鹴Թҧ պѹ԰ԧԹ㹻 վ鹴Թջе٤ҡٻ µԴҹԴԴ͡ ҡҧ 4 ͡ (2 ) ٧ 5 ͡ (2.50 ) ѧҤժͧǧʹ件֧ԧԹ... բ֡ҵԴй ҡ׹˭㹻 蹻ѡŧ㹪ͧҧ ´Դͧҡѹ˹Һҹе ǹ礧е駻׹˭շҧ”9

ѡҹҧҳբͧᾧͧçdzྪê ᾧͧ԰áդ˹Ҷ֧ 6.50 ¡繼ѧ 2 ҧ դҹ԰ѧͧ ͧ繪ͧ 觶´Թ԰ѡ ǡᾧͧ蹷ͧ 觹ҨШѴҧ¾й³ դ˹Ңͧᾧ§ 1.50 ǹ٧һҳ 6.50 10


ྪ 躹觾й »ͧѹú֡ѵ蹼ҹ件֧Ҫѧ11


ҹ㹻ྪ12






Pom Phet
Inside Pom Phet (1)

Pom Phet is situated on the city island on the river where the Pa Sak and the Chao Phraya rivers connect to each other. As a result, it causes a big area of whirlpool. Standing at the fortress and looking at the opposite side, there is Wat Phananchoeng on the left, and on the right is Wat Mai Bangkacha. In Krung si Ayutthaya period, this area was used to moor foreign traders’ ships and Chinese junks. Therefore, it was a big trading market, and people called it “Talard Namwon (The market of whirlpool)”. Additionally, the area was called “Bangkacha”; as a result, the market of whirlpool was also called “Talard Namwon Bangkacha (Bangkacha market of whirlpool).

Krung Si Ayutthaya was once encircled by a lot of fortresses. Pom Phet was already renovated by the Department of Fine Arts. It was constructed in western style and was a gun turret in octagon form extended from the city wall, and was made of bricks and laterite surrounded by Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone). The western style was showed by the half-circle cavern. Nowadays, this fortress is mostly in complete condition.

The royal chronicle by Luang Prasert which is mostly believed and accepted displayed the details involving the construction of the city wall: “In the era 911, year of the cock (1549) Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya city wall was commanded to construct (1972, p. 457)”. The city wall was firstly constructed in the reign of King Maha Chakkrapat. The details in a royal chronicle written by a king (1973, p. 188) revealed that “Phraya Ram who took charge of protecting the city and was responsible for the wall around the city ordered to build Pom Phet and the other fortresses with 1 sen (40 meters) in between; cannons were placed with 10 wa (20 meters) in between and with a kind of guns called “Jarong Mondok” with 5 wa (10 meters) inbetween. Actually, the former city wall was on the old line, and was not torn down and built on the banks of the rivers. Phraya Ram ordered to build a row the soldiers’ camps along the rivers and place a lot of “Jarong Mondok” guns at each camp. Additionally, he ordered to build “Hor Tone” (single forts) 5 wa (10 meters) away from the rivers’ banks and around the city wall so as to prevent the enemies to bring their boats to attack the city.

The half-circled cavern (3)

When King U-Thong founded Krung Si Ayutthaya in 1350, the city wall, fortresses and watch towers were only the mound pounded into it with camp-posts. Later, King Maha Chakkraphat feared that they could not bear the attack of cannons; due to the fact that people started to use the weapons in war; the king commanded tearing down and extending the line of city wall to the banks close to the rivers, and changing the city wall from the old one made of wood to the new one made of bricks and concrete. In addition, the fortresses and watch towers were changed to be made of bricks and laterite, and a lot of cannons were placed on the fortresses and the places between bai sema (leaf-like boundary stones). Moreover, in this reign, the Portuguese taught Thai to cast cannons made of alloy (4).

The city wall firstly built might have been deficient and reckless. As a result, Krung Si Ayutthaya was defeated by the Burmese in 1569. In the reign of King Maha Thammarachathirat in the era 942, the year of the big snake (1580), the city wall was torn down, extended and built on the banks of the rivers. The details in a royal chronicle written by a king (1973, p. 606) indicated preparing to go to war. In summary, when King Naresuan declared the independence of Thai people at a town called Khlaeng, he went back to Ayutthaya and prepared for a war. He considered that “comparing carefully between advantages and disadvantages, King Maha Chakkrapat’s way of fighting by using the city as the stronghold and employing the power of the north city as the compressed troops were unusable because Krung Si Ayutthaya has less soldiers than those in the reign of King Maha Chakkrapat, and Hongsawadee (Peku) also knew the ways to reduce the power of the north cities. He decided to use Krung Si Ayutthaya as the only stronghold. People were told to move and stay inside the city wall. The provincial cities were deserted. Formerly, the other bad point was the east of the city which was very far away from the river. It was easy for enemies to invade. Therefore, the king commanded digging a canal in-between the river and the city wall, and extending the canal to connect the river” (5).

Mr. Francois Henry Turpin, a French man entering into Krung Si Ayutthaya in the reign of King Narai in 1686, wrote down the details about Siam people in “History of the Kingdom of Siam” that the fortresses which were built correctly were the ones constructed according to the plans of a Dominican Christian priest from Portugal. The government also built many fortresses that could protect the city from invasion if only they had less people, but more soldiers for the protection (6).
The city wall built at that time might have not been only very strong, but the Burmese chronicle also indicated: “When the King of Hongsawadee (Peku) reached his city, he commanded tearing down the city wall and building the new one, and using that of Krung Si Ayutthaya as the model because he saw that it was very strong.” (7)

After Krung Si Ayutthaya was destroyed completely by the Burmese in 1767, Pom Phet was deserted. Until 1854, King Mongkut, the fourth king of Rattanakosin, spent a night at a pavilion at Pom Phet when he went to do the merit for the former great kings and Queens in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. The king wanted to build a palace in Pom Phet area (Now, it is the area of Pom Phet Community School). He required Wat Suwan Dararam to be the palace temple. After that he went to Chandrakasem Palace; he then changed his mind, and turned to develop Chandrakasem Palace instead and raised Wat Sena Sanaram as the temple of the palace. (8)

The physical geography of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya was firstly checked in the reign of King Chulalongkorn by Phraya Boranburarak (The rank at that time) when the King adjusted the Ancient Palace as the place to celebrate the fortieth anniversary of his coronation. Phraya Boranburarak checked the city wall and the fortresses. It revealed that there were 16 fortresses. He also wrote down that “Pom Phet was a big fortress used to guard enemies in the south corner of the city. This fortress was built extendedly with three wa (6 meters) thick from the wall line. The ground floor was in the middle of the fortress; there was a set of stairs inside leading to the top. On each side of the fortress, there was an arch with clues of hinges showing that there were doors used as entrances. The cavern on the fortress was 4 sok (2 meters) wide and 5 sok (2.50 meters) high. The roof of the cavern was opened and led to the top. When enemies invaded, cannons might have been pulled up into the fortress. Posts made of hard wood were pitched into the ground to close the entrances in front of the doors. Cannons might have been put in the space on top of the fortress”. (9)

The foundation of antiquities of the city wall near Pom Phet area indicated that the old city wall firstly built with bricks was 6.50 meters thick. The wall was built with two partitions connected with poles made of bricks. As a result, they provided square rooms covered with soil and broken bricks. On the contrary, the second generation of city wall, which might have been built in the reign of King Narai, was only 1.50 meters thick and the height including the Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone) was 6.50 meters. (10)

Pom Phet is situated on the bank of the city. It was used to prevent enemies’ war ships to attack the royal palace. (11)

Inside Pom Phet (12)

References

1.Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A picture in Ayutthaya, a Historic City, a World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, pp. 98-99.
2. Poompongphaet, Patiphat. (2007). Kaeloy Pongsawadan Ratchathani Krung Si Ayutthaya (Detecting Historical Annals of Krung Si Ayutthaya, a Capital). Bangkok: Thai Quality Books, p. 151.
3. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 137.
4. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 136.
5. Poompongphaet, Patiphat. (2007). Kaeloy Pongsawadan Ratchathani Krung Si Ayutthaya(Detecting Historical Annals of Krung Si Ayutthaya, a Capital). Bangkok: Thai Quality Books, p. 154.
6. Referred.
7. Referred, p. 155.
8. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province.(2003). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province, p. 18.
9. Poompongphaet, Patiphat. (2007). Kaeloy Pongsawadan Ratchathani Krung Si Ayutthaya(Detecting Historical Annals of Krung Si Ayutthaya, a Capital). Bangkok: Thai Quality Books, p. 155.
10. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, p. 321.
11. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk (Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 41.
12. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 137.

Ѵ˭
Ѵ˭

 

Ѵ˭ ͧ͡йظҴҹѹ͡§ҧʶҹö 㹵ӺŤͧǹ ;йظ ѧѴйظ


਴Ѵ˭1


ѹɰҹѴ˭ Ѵҧҵ¾ͧѧҧاظͻ ..1893 ҹѡ ¾ͧشȾͧ·鹾Ъҵä ҢзŧȾʶһҾ਴о Ѵ2

ѴѴͧʧ׺Ҩҡӹѡͧѹѵѧ 鹷ҧԻʹҸж͡úҹӤѭ ͸ԺʧӹѡѺ觵稾ѹѵ 繾ѧҪ¢ (ǹѧҪ«ͽҹѹ 稾оطҨ 鹡֡ҾûԮ)

ѴѡҹǴҨ¡ա˹ “ѴҾ” Ѵ ¤Ѵͧ͸ԺʧѧҪ ҳ¡ʧ “”3

ͧҡѴպdzҧҧ˭ҡ 繾ǧ駡اظ Ǻҹ֧¡Ѵ Ѵ˭ СͺѺҧ਴ͤǷйúоػҪ觾 ظһСȤҳҨѡա駹ѺͧѰóҡâͧͤ¡ا駷 1 .. 2112 ѧ ֧ͧҧ਴ “” ͧ˹觢ҷѴ ЪѴ֧¹ҡѴ “Ѵ˭”

ӹҹ .. 2091 ͡ عǧҸҪԴѺشҨѹҾʹҫҪѵԵͨҡ稾ҪҸҪ оվЪ 13 任êԵ Ѵ⤡ ǷشҨѹҪɡعǧҸҪҪѵ Ҫ÷ѵ蹴Թ蹴Թ繷ؤ蹹 ԴСӨѴعǧҸҪ شҨѹѺص÷Դ¡ѹ ǡԴӨѴعǧҸҪҨ¾ǡ¡ѹ ǡ˹բعù෾;ǧ عԹ෾ Ҫʹ ǧȺҹҹҡ ç 4 Դ֡ҡѹáӨѴعǧҸҪѺشҨѹ ѭԭҪҫ觷çǪ ѴҪдɰҹ 鹤ͧҪѵԵ ҾҪл֡ҵŧѹ ͹ѹ鹢عԹ෾ ʹ ǧ Ҫ ҡѹ§¹͸ɰҹ ʶѴ عǧҸҪҪѵ 42 ѹ ١عù෾ѺǡѺоêԵѺشҨѹкصëԴ¡ѹ ѭԭҪҼǪ鹤ͧҪѵ çй 稾Ҩѡþô4


ʶҪҷӡ§¹͹ӡִӹҨҡعǧҸҪ5


鹶֧蹴Թ稾йҪ .. 2135 ç ˧ǴչѹçҪʼػҪ¡ͧѾ ¨лҺظӹҨ 稾й¡ͧѾ͡仵֧֡骹ҧѺػҪҷӺ˹ͧͧؾó 稾йժªпѹػҪ鹾Ъ캹ͪҧ 駹öеաͧѾ֡ᵡѺԹ ͧҡͧѾҧ ԴѹѾǧҹͧ 稡ʧ 稾йҪçø¡ͧҹ êԵ·Ѿ¡ͧʴѹ 稾ѹѵѴǶ¾оâ;Ҫҹ Ƿйçҧ਴繷֡õȷ骹ҧࢵͧؾó˹ ҧ਴˭ѴҾ 繤Ѻҷͧ觾˧Ǵҧúظҹաͧ˹ ਴ͧ稾й÷çҧ鹹颹ҹ “਴”6

;طѡҪ 2309 ը 蹴ԹзȹԹ ;ҡѧاظ ֧͹ 12 ˹ҹ ֧çСسô ҵҡ (Թ) ͹繾ҡᾧྪ ǵ繹¡ͧѾ ྪú繡ͧ˹ ǧʹ繡ͧ˹ع ¡Ѿ͡ҡй仾ѹ Ѵ µշѾҫ觨Тŧҡѹ ;ҤºҧТ͹ǧѴôѵҶ֧ҧ觵çѴѧ ྪú ͧ˹͡ú աѧҡ֧ͧѾͧ͢ ШѺྪú ҡᾧྪáѺǧʹը֧¡Ѻ仵 Ѵ (Ѩغѹ¡ “Ѵ”) ѴԪ7


ἹѧѴ˭ ʴdzͺѴ
Żҡ , Ҫѧҳ, çӹѡº¡Ѱ, .. 25118


ӤѭѴ

Ѵ˭ ѹ˹价ҧȵѹ͡աᾧͺ (130.80×183.70 ) 㹻ѨغѹҧѴ¾鹷价ҧѹ͡ ѴǹõԾйҪ ҧѴ㹻Ѩغѹ١ѧѺ¶ѴҹҹѧͧѴ ҹʹöҧҹ˹ ѧ鹼ҷӺح͹ѧѴ֧ͧҷҧеٷ˹ ͧԹҹࢵѧͷͧʧ ֧ࢵط

ҹþй͹Ҵ˭ѡѡѧ §ҡᾧ 3 ҹ ҧ稾йҪ վй͹;ʹ԰ͻٹдɰҹ ѹоѡ价ҧȵѹ͡ 价ҧͧ١ѡǧ⪤ش¨ѧ ͧѨغѹͧҧ .. 2508

Ѵ繾ʶ (Ҵ 15.90 ×44 ) ҹ˹Ңͧ਴ ᾧҹҧͧͧʶѧ͹ ͡ѹҹ;ʶҢعҧоҪ (Ҥ;Ҩѡþô) Ҫѹ§¹ ͵ѴԹҨѹӡִӹҨҡͧѵعǧҸҪоشҨѹ

ͧѧʶ繡ᾧǢͧ਴ (Ҵ 60.60×71.60 ) 觴ҹ㹢ͧᾧǹ§ ѧҤͺվоطٻдɰҹͺ蹡ѹ Ѩغѹ§ҡҹ

਴Ѵ˭ѭѡɳⴴͧŷҧҹѹͧ͡اظ з਴ҷͧѭѡɳⴴ蹷ҧҹȵѹ ҹҧͧ਴٧˭ ҹͧҹ਴ȵ 4 ҹ˹Ңͧ਴պѹҧѧͧͧ਴繰ҹỴ ǹ˹͢令ͧЦѧǹʹ ҹ¢Ңͧѹҧ鹹дɰҹоطٻ觢Ҵ˭

ͧͧ਴ ҡâش鹷ҧҹҳվաطèؾкԡҵçҧͧ ѧ鹾鹷˹ͧͧͧ͡਴鹡礧дɰоطٻ蹡ѹ

ҡѡɳʶһѵ¡ͧͧ਴բͶ§ҧԪҡ ਴繡ѹ㹻Ѩغѹ鹹ҨŻ¾й³ŧ Żظҵ͹ҡҷŻظҵ͹ Ǥ ѡҹӹҹоǴèкѴҧ鹵µظ 觡ҧҧ աúóѧó¹ŧ㹷ءؤء ФҺóѧóͧ¹Ҩ¶֧ҧ ¶֧Ҩеͧʧǹѡҵҧͧҹ鹫ǤԴ觻ҡ 100 һշҹҹ


Ҿ鹢ͧ਴Ѵ˭9


ҹѧͧ਴͡Ѻǡᾧ繾âҴ˭ (Ҵ 15.30×39 ) ùҡհҹءдɰҹоطٻ ͺࢵط਴좹Ҵҧ ͺ 24 ͧ ҹ਴ҧèѰ

਴ͧ਴çҴ˭ѡѡ¡ѹ ਴ѧ ͧЦѧ躹ҹѷٻỴ ѧẺ ҹ ǹʹ繺Ƕ ͧ䩹л հҹ侷 躹ҹ٧ͧ Ъհҹ§ͧѺҹѷ١͡ 鹺ԧ ˹ҡдҹ١ѡдѺ觤٧ҡҪҧ10

ҹѧѴ͵˹ѡ稾йҪ ҧ .. 2535 ҧ .. 2544 㹻дɰҹкٻ稾йҪ ʹķ dzͺ˹ѡٻ誹 ӹǹ 52 11


Ǿоطٻ鹢 ºдɰҹ§§12






Wat yai Chaimongkhol
Wat yai Chaimongkhol is situated outside the city island in the southeast on the railway station side at Khlong Suan Phlu Subdistrict, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province.
Wat yai Chaimongkhol (1)

It is assumed that Wat Yai Chaimongkhol was built since the reign of King U-Thong after the foundation of Krung Si Ayutthaya in 1350. The king commanded digging out the royal corpses of Chao (Prince) Kaew and Chao Thai who died of cholera to do the cremation and commanded constructing a chedi and a vihara on the cremation area, and named it “Wat Pa Kaew” (2).

Wat Pa Kaew was the temple of the Buddhist monks deriving from Phra Wannarat Maha Thera in Langka (Bangladesh) who emphasized meditation affairs. The abbots of this temple were appointed to the rank of Somdet Phra Wannarat and were placed as the right supreme patriarch (For the left supreme patriarch, he was in the domestic side and was appointed as Somdet Phra Buddha Khosachan and emphasized studying the Tripitaka).

According to annal evidence, Wat Pa Kaew was also called “Wat Chaophraya Thai” or Wat Phraya Thai which means the temple of the abbot or the supreme patriarch, due to the fact that Buddhist monks were also called “Chao Thai” in the ancient time (3).

Since the temple area was very large, and had been a royal temple in Ayutthaya period, people have called it Wat Yai (big temple), together with the constructing of the main chedi after King Naresuan defeated Phra Maha Upraracha (the Corwn Prince) of Burma. Ayutthaya declared itself as an independent city again after being a dependent country of the Burmese when it was firstly defeated in 1569. Therefore, King Naresuan commanded building the grand chedi “Chai Mongkhol” at the temple; additionally, the name of the temple was changed to “Wat Yai Chaimongkhol”.

According to legend, it was said that in 1548, Khun Worawongsathirat and Thao Sri Sudachan executed Phra Yodfah, who would have become king next to King Chai Rachathirat and who was only nine years old, at Wat Khok Phraya. Then Thao Sri Sudachan allowed Khun Worawongsathirat to reign. The officials who were faithful and could not cope with the betraying wanted to eliminate Khun Worawongsathirat, Thao Sri Sudachan and their kids. There were many groups of officials who wanted to get rid of Khun Worawongsathirat. Four of them were Khun Phirenthorathep who was a member of the royal family, Khun Inthorathep, Meun Ratchasaneha and Luang Siyot, Ban Ladtakfah. The four men gathered, discussed and determined to eradicate Khun Worawongsathirat and Thao Sri Sudachan; and respectfully invited Phra Thian Racha who had been ordained at Wat Ratpradidthan to succeed the throne. After they had an audience with Phra Thian Racha and seeked advices from him, they went to the ubosot at Wat Pa Kaew to guesstimate using candles and prayed. Khun Worawongsathirat occupied the throne only 42 days. Then he, Thao Sri Sudachan and their kids were captured and executed. Phra Thian Racha disrobed and succeeded the throne in the name Somdet Phra Maha Chakkrapat (King Maha Chakkrapat) (4).

The ubosot that Phra Thian Racha guesstimated using candles before seizing the power from Khun Worawongsathirat (5)

Later in the reign of Somdet Phra Naresuan Maharat (King Naresuan the Great) in 1592, King Nanthabureng of Hongsawadi (Pegu) sent his son who was the crown prince to move the troops in order to conquer Ayutthaya. King Naresuan moved his troops and fought against Phra Maha Upraracha (The crown prince) on elephant backs at Nong Sarai Subdistrict in Suphan Buri. King Naresuan got victory and killed Phra Maha Upraracha by cutting him at the neck. The prince died on his elephant back. But the king could not completely defeat the enemies because his other troops could not catch up with his troop. When the war finished, King Naresuan was very angry with the army leaders. The king commanded executing them because they could not move the troops to catch up with his. Somdet Phra Wannarat (The abbot) of Wat Pa Kaew blessed him and asked the king not to kill the army leaders. The abbot suggested constructing big chedi to celebrate his victory in the fight on the elephant backs, one in Suphan buri and the other one, the grand chedi at Wat Chaophraya Thai in order to be in the couple with Phukhao Thong, the chedi built by a king of Hongsawadi (Pegu) when he defeated Ayutthaya in a war. The chedi that King Naresuan commanded constructing was called “Phra Chedi Chaimongkhol” (6).

In the reign of King Suriyad Amarin in 1766, year of the dog, the Burmese moved troops and had blockaded Krung Si Ayutthaya until the rainy season. The king promoted Phraya Tak (Sin) to the rank of Phraya Kamphaeng Phet and appointed him to be the navy leader. Phraya Phetchaburi was the leader of the front line. Luang Sornseni was in the reserve unit. They moved the navy troops from the city to Wat Pa Kaew to wait and attack the Burmese troops that were moved to join the blockading troops. When the Burmese troops from Bang Sai and Wat Bodsat at Khanonluang camps reached the field at Wat Sangkhawad, Phraya Phetchaburi in the front line moved his troop to fight. The Burmese troops had more soldiers and blockaded the Ayutthaya navy troop. They captured Phraya Phetchaburi and killed him. Phraya Kamphaeng Phet and Luang Sornseni withdrew their troops and stopped at Wat Kruay (Nowadays, it is called “Wat Kluay) and at Wat Phichai (7).

The plan of Wat Yai Chaimongkhol displaying all the area around the temple

Source: The Department of Fine Arts.(1968). Phraratchawang Boran (The ancient palace). Bangkok: The
Office of the Prime Minister Press (8).

Important places inside the temple

Wat Yai Chaimongkhol, turning to the east, is surrounded by a rectangular wall (130.80 X 183.70 meters). Nowadays, its area has been enlarged to the east. A garden to glorify King Naresuan was arranged. Its entrance connects to a road behind the temple with a carpark in the north. Therefore, people coming to do merit have to enter through the north gate, which they have to pass the monk residences or monk dwellings before entering the religious area.

On the left side, there is the vihara for the reclining Buddha image. The vihara is in ruins leaving only three sides of the wall. The vihara was constructed in the reign of King Naresuan the Great. A reclining Buddha image made of laid bricks and mortar is situated inside the vihara. The image turns his face to the east and his head to the south. The original image which was completely damaged was dug out. The present image was newly built in 1965.

The ubosot (15.90 X 44 meters) is next to the vihara and in front of the main chedi. Both of the side walls of the ubosot was superimposed, and believed being the place that Phra Thian Racha (Later, he became King Maha Chakkrapat) and some noblemen guesstimated using candles in order to decide to seize the power from Khun Worawongsathirat and his queen, Thao Sri Sudachan.

The wall of the main chedi (60.60 X 71.60 meters) is behind the ubosot. Originally, inside the wall, there was a peristyle passage covered with a roof around the main chedi with a line of Buddha images situated in it. Nowadays the passage is left with only some posts.

The main chedi at Wat Yai Chaimongkhol has a remarkable symbol and can be seen from the distance in the east of Krung Si Ayutthaya. While Chedi Phukhao Thong is the other remarkable symbol and can be seen in the distance in the west. The lower base of the main chedi is square, big and high. There were small pagodas on the four corners of the base. A set of stairs leads to a room inside the chedi which is situated on an octagonal base. Above the base is the bell-shaped part and the pointed top. On the left and the right of the stairs, there was a mondop (a small square hall with a pyramidal roof) used to situate a big seating Buddha image.

According to archaeological exploring inside the room in the main chedi, there was a hinding place containing Buddha’s relics in the middle of the chedi and under the room. Therefore, it is believed that the room above the hinding place was used to situate Buddha images.

There was some argument about the architectonic characteristics of the main chedi that the chedi seen nowadays might have been in the artistic style after the reign of King Narai or the arts of the late Ayutthaya period, not of the early Ayutthaya period. In other words, although the evidence in legend and annals indicated that the temple was constructed in the early Ayutthaya period; many construction materials have been changed and renovated from time to time. Because “renovation” according to the original Thai belief may mean pulling down and wholely rebuilt it, not conserving and keeping it according the original style, which was the modern concept happening about 100 years ago.
A picture of drawn patterns of the main chedi at Wat Yai Chaimongkhol

Behind the main chedi and next to the wall surrounding it, there is a big vihara (15.30 X 39 meters). But the base for the Buddha image was not found inside it. Around the religious area, there were 24 different sizes of pagodas believed being built to contain people’s bone ashes.

The main chedi is big and round; people called this style “Song Langka (Spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base)”. The bell-shaped part is situated on an octagonal Than Pat (Lotus-flower-shape pedeatal base). The base over the bell-shaped part (called banlang) was made of marble (called luuk-kaew-kai) with no pillars (Saohan). The top of the chedi comprises a spreading out overturned-lotus (called Buathala), the ring-shaped parts (Plongchanai) and the pointed cone part (Plee). All of the top parts mentioned were put on a square base situated on the other high two-leveled square one. Each level has a marble base inbetween. The upper part of the chedi was decorated with poles and patterns arranged abreastly and it is higher than the lower part (10).

King Naresuan’s royal residence is situated behind the temple. It was begun constructing in 1992 and finished in 2001. The statue of King Naresuan made of bronze is situated inside it. Fifty-two molded figures of fighting cocks are placed around the residence (11).

The line of Buddha images newly molded and situated on the original place inside the passage along the wall surrounding the main chedi.

References

1. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk (Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 59.
2. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 72-77.
3. Yupho, Somporn. (1968). “Wat Yai Chaimongkhol” Phraratchawang lae Wat Boran nai Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, Promthang Roopthai lae Phanphang (“Wat Yai Chaimongkhol” the Royal palace and Ancient Temples in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, together with Pictures and Layouts). Bangkok: The Department of Fine Arts, p. 55.
4. Referred , p. 56.
5. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). A picture in Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 72-77.
6. Yupho, Somporn. (1968). “Wat Yai Chaimongkhol” Phraratchawang lae Wat Boran nai Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, Promtang Rooptai lae phanphang (“Wat Yai Chaimongkhol” the Royal palace and Ancient Temples in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, together with Pictures and Plans). Bangkok: The Department of Fine Arts, pp. 56-57.
7. Meewongsom, Saroj. (1998). Prawat Wat Samkhan nai Ayutthaya (Important Temples in Ayutthaya). Bangkok: S. T. P. World Media, p. 61.
8. Malakul, Associate Professor Momluang Pratheep. (2005). A picture in Krung Si Ayutthaya Barithas. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, p. 59.
9. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). A picture in Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 72-77.
10. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A Picture in Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, pp. 77-78.
11. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 123.
12. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk (Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 119.

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Wat Na Phra Mane
Wat Na Phra Mane is located on the right bank of Lob Buri River and on a canal called Sa Bua. It is in the north of the Ancient Palace at Wasukree Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. The area was a highland, but the monks’ residences were rather on lowland. The religious area is on the highland; as a result, it is not flooded in the rainy season.

This temple was constructed in the reign of King Ramathibodi II in 1503 with the original name “Wat Phra Merurachikaram”. It was the place where King Maha Chakkraphat signed a contract to cease fighting with King Burengnong of Hongsawadee (Pegu) in Songkhram Changphuak (the war for white elephants) in 1549.

The temple was reconstructed in the reign of King Boromakot. Later, Wat Na Phra Mane was renovated again in the reign of King Nangklao (Rama III) in 1835 and in 1838. The things we see nowadays are the mixture of the new things and the old ones transferred from Ayutthaya period, the third king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok) period, and the presesent reign (King Bhumibol). Remarkably, this temple was not destroyed when Ayutthaya was lastly defeated.

In the reign of King Mongkut, he commanded Phra Petracha and Phraya Boranburanurak to have glaziers covered the Buddha image in front of the temple with lacquer and decorated with pieces of glass (1).

The Important Things inside the Temple

The main ubosot of Wat Na Phra Mane was constructed in early Ayutthaya period with the length of 9 rooms (about 41.50 meters long). It is situated on a high base that makes the ubosot visibly large and high. The ubosot has been renovated until the reign of king Rama III with the gables made of carved wood covered with lacquer, gold leaves and pieces of glass, and with the figures of a god, Vishnu, mounting on a garuda standing on a naga’s head. Under the figures mentioned is Ra-hoo (a mythological monster who is supposed to cause eclipses) surrounded by 26 figures of deities clasping hands in token of worship. At the monks’ seating area, rai suparp (a kind of Thai verse) and garp-yanee (a kind of Thai poetical composition) were engraved. There are three doors in front of the ubosot. The middle one is decorated with casle-like top and it is the biggest according to the belief that it is the door for only very important people. Later, the door was adapted to be a window with façade instead of a door (2).

The Gables of the Ubosot at Wat Na Phra Mane

Inside the ubosot, there are 8 pairs of octagonal columns. The top of the columns were made in the form of closed lotuses to support the large roof. Khan and Kheu (Horizontal pieces of supporting wood of a roof) were decorated with beautiful carved wood, the same as the ceiling that was decorted with carved wood showing the meaning of beautiful stars in the sky.

The most beautiful thing in the ubosot is the biggest crowned Buddha image of the late Ayutthaya period with the lap of 4.50 meters wide and 16 meters high. The Buddha image is in the attitude of subduing the mara and turns his face to the south. The image’s face is graceful, peaceful and respectful, and his name is “Phra Buddha Nimit Wichitman Molee Si Sanphet Boromatrai Lokanat”. The Buddha image is strange because he is crowned. Prince Damrong Rachanuparp said, “The main crowned Buddha image at Wat Na Phra Mane may be more beautiful than the others of the Ayutthaya period” (4).

The crowned Buddha image may mean Phra Si Araya Mettrai who will get enlightenment as the fifth Buddha and will come to preach and lead human society to the adsolute excellence in the future. It is believed that now he is still a god staying in heaven. As a result, he is crowned like the other gods. On the other hand, it can be explained that in the history of the Buddha, once the Buddha wanted to torture the mara (the devil) named Chomphubodee because the mara boasted of his property and beauty. The Buddha formed himself with more beauty than the mara. Therefore, the mara surrendered to the Buddha. It was a way of the Buddha’s subduing the mara.

“Phra Buddha Nimit Wichitman Molee Si Sanphet Boromatrai Lokanat” (5)

The old vihara (the white one) was constructed at the same time as the ubosot and in the same reign. It was built with laid bricks and mortars the same as those of the ubosot. The main Buddha image is seated in the attitude of subduing the mara, but in the style of Chieng Saen era. The image was completely damaged. In 1950, Mrs. Luan Weerawat had royalty to reconstruct him. Nowadays, the image is placed in the abbot’s residence, and the woman named him “LuangPoh Saen”. In the vihara of Phrakhu Buddha Wihansophon (Liang), an old abbot, a Buddha image in the attitude of walking was placed instead. (6)

Another vihara called Phrawihan Sanphet or Wihan Noi is located beside the ubosot. People like to call it Wihan Phra Khanthanrat or Wihan Khian. It was constructed in the reign of King Rama III by Phraya Chaiwichit (Phuak) in 1838. The patterns on the molded mortar were covered with gold leaves. Both the doors and windows had patterns of foreign plants and flowers which were very popular in the reign of King Rama III, especially the patterns of vases, flowers and small Chinese sets of altar tables.

Inside the vihara, there is a large Buddha image in Dvaravati style. His name is “Phra Khanthanrat” seating with his feet putting on a blooming lotus. It is said that this Buddha image was moved from Wat Na Phra Mane in Nakhon Pathom Province, the place where many Buddha images in Dvaravati style were discovered, and two of them were moved to Ayutthaya (The other one is placed at Chao Sam Phraya National Museum).

The Buddha image in Dvaravati style (7)

The characteristics of the Buddha image in this style are remarkable as follows: (8)

1. The radiances around the head comprising flames shows the influence of Chinese style.
2. The end of the Buddha image’s robe shows the Buddha’s left knee which is rather strange from other styles of the Buddha images in Thailand. This is the same as the images of Phra Si Araya Mettrai which were very popular in China in the Tang Dynasty.
3. Both of the image’s hands were placed on both knees which was different from the other styles known in Thailand.
It is a pity that the mural paintings painted in the reign of King Rama III which were the most beautiful in Thailand were damaged according to the time, rain water and uncare of the people involved. The blurred paintings still display people’s travelling, and beautiful and strange shops. All the paintings are very rare nowadays.

Source: The Department Of Fine Arts. (1976). Phraratchawang Boran (The Ancient Palace). Bangkok: The
Office of the Prime Minister Press.

Mondop Nakprok was in front of Wihan Noi. It was constructed the same time as Wihan Noi by the same constructor. The main Buddha image in the canopy (Mondop) was in the attitude of seating and meditating with the protection of nagas spreading their hoods to shade the Buddha (The style is called Nakprok in Thai). Nowadays, the image has been kept at the National Museum in Bangkok by the Department of Fine Arts (10).

References

1. Meewongsom, Saroj. (1998). Prawat Wat Samkhan nai Ayutthaya (History of Important Temples in Ayutthaya). Bangkok: S. T. P. World Media, p. 46.
2. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 98-100.
3. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 129.
4. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province, p. 40.
5. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 116.
6. Meewongsom, Saroj. (1998). Prawat Wat Samkhan nai Ayutthaya (History of ImportantTemples in Ayutthaya). Bangkok: S. T. P. World Media, p. 49.
7. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A Picture in Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, p. 16.
8. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 98-100.
9. Malakul, Associate Professor Momluang Pratheep. (2005). A picture in Krung Si Ayutthaya Barithas. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, p. 73.
10. Meewongsom, Saroj. (1998). Prawat Wat Samkhan nai Ayutthaya (Important Temples in Ayutthaya). Bangkok: S. T. P. World Media, p. 50.

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