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ѴմҾѴҧ ͧ͡ҧȵѹ͡ 㹵Ӻԧ ;йظ ѧѴйظ ˹͵ԴѺҧѴдçѴѡô (ҧ) ԴѺҹɮ ȵѹ͡ԴѺѴҨҡǧ¹਴Ѵ çѺҧѴ§ ȵѹ ԴѺ» 繷ԹͧѴд ŻҡСȢ鹷¹Ѵخմҳʶҹͧҵ»СҪԨҹມ 52 ͹ 75 ŧѹ 8 ԧҤ .. 2418

ѴخմѴҴ˭ظҵ͹ ࢵ͡ѹ “¸” ͹˹ 觹͡Сاظ ҹѹͧ͡ӻѡ ͡ѹҤͪͧҳ͹աҧاظ dzᶺѧ仴«ҡҤ਴ͧѴѹظҳʶҹͧѴخմǹ Ҿҡشͧظ˹觷赡ʹҶ֧Ѩغѹ1


еظҵ͹·Ѵخմ2


Ѵخմ͹ѴὴѺѴ§ еҧѺúóѧóӤѭѪ¾ҷ (ͧҪ .. 2252-2275) Ѵ§Ѵҹѹͧ͡Ѵخմǹ鹺ó¡ѵ ǹѴخմǺó¾͹تҫ觴ç˹觾ػҪ ѧ˹ 繡ѵͧ Һ (ͧҪ .. 2275-2301)3

ѴخմúóѧúóѴ§ 2 ó㹻 .. 2254 кóա 3 նѴ 㹻 .. 2258 էҹͧѴʾ 7 ѹ ѧ鹹ѺúóѴخմ Ѵ觹ѴѺúاѡդӤѭ㹷 2 Ѫ ¾ҷ¾Һ ѹؤҹͧʧآ “ؤͧ” ظҵ͹ Ѫ¾Һȹ鹡§ 10 ա͹¡ا駷 2 ˵ع ѴخմǨ֧ѧҾͧҳʶҹաѴ ᶺ4

ӤѭѴ

ѴخմἹѧٻ׹ ѹ˹价ҧȵѹ͡ Сͺ ʶ ਴ ҧǷȵѹ͡-ѹ ਴¢Һͺ 㹡ͺᾧѡ ͡ᾧѴҧ˹繷駢ͧе˹ѡ¹ 繷зѺͧҪѧʶҹ㹡ʴ稻зѺʹ๵áúóѧó ǹҧҹѧҹҤҧҹ仡Ѻǡᾧա


ἹѧѴخմ ʴѡɳ᡹иҹͧἹѧẺ᡹5


ࢵطʢͧѴѹ˹ȵѹ͡ (դͧѴҧͧѹФͧѧżҹ Ѩغѹҹ˹Ѵ繶) աᾧ׹ҷ 4 ᾧҧ 63 256 дҹջе٢Ҵ˭繫駴ҹ 2 е ѹѡɳзⴴ蹢ͧʶһѵ¡ظҵ͹6

ҤâҴ˭ҹ˹ѹɰҹ (Ҵ 12×40 ) еٷҧҴҹ˹ 3 е е١ҧբҴ˭һе٢ҧ ǹҹѧ 2 е ͺе繫 ˹͡ͺе»ٹٻʹҧ (㹻ѨغѹѺúóҾ͹ҧó)7


਴иҹ8


਴਴иҹѴخմ 駶Ѵҡë§鹰ҹͧͧЦѧ਴çѧ ҹ պѹ䴷ҧ鹴ҹȵѹ͡ 2 ѹ Ҿش իҡͧҹ਴ȷ 4 ѡɳ繷çЦѧҹỴ ͧ਴иҹ٧ҷͷ 14.50 ҹзѡԳءҹᵡʴ֧÷شǢͧ਴ Ǵ¢ԧдѺҹзѡԳͧͧ਴ ԧա÷ͺѡ 2 ѡ ѡɳšҷ

ҹзѡԳѡҹûپ鹴Թ͹- Ҵҧ ѹ §ͺ»зѡԳ Ѩغѹѧ §紷çѳçҹȵѹ§˹ зȵѹ§ ⾸좹Ҵ˭躹ҹзѡԳҹ˹

ҡҤâҴ˭ͨҡ਴ ѹɰҹʶ辺ҧ ҡ觡ҧҹ˹дҹͧʶ਴좹Ҵҧѹ Ҩ਴èѰԢͧؤӤѭظҵ͹


ѧҹҧͧʶѧҷŧ çҧѧ§Ҥ9


ʶҤá԰ͻٹ Ἱѧٻ׹ҢҴ 27.80 ҧ 15.40 躹ҹ١͡ҧҹա÷Ӻ١͡ 2 آҹ˹дҹѧ͡ҨҡҤպѹ䴷ҧ鹴ҹҧ 2 ҧ ҹͧآ繰ҹԧҾǹ˭͹ҧó

ѧͧҤ§ҹ ʹҹ˹ ѹ͡ з ǹҧҹѹѧŧ ѧҹ˹- աЪͧ˹ҵҧԧѺѺ˹ҵҧ͡ ͧŧѡմ 8 ͧ ˹ҵҧ繷çѹŧͧѺ°ҹԧ ˹ҵҧǹҡѧ ѧպҧѧҾ͹ҧó ջеٷҧ 3 е 駷ҧҹ˹ѧ е١ҧ繫çҷբҴ˭һеٴҹҧ ҡ 2 Ѩغѹ§ 6 ٻ ǹѧѧŧ ҹء㹾ʶաâ˭ ʴ֧áҧҡ˹觤 Ἱѧٻ׹ ҧǧ١شз


˹ѡ֡ͧ ¡ѹ “˹ѡ¹”10


ҹ˹͹͡ᾧࢵط իҡҤ 2 ѺúóмѧҤó ѹɰҹҨ繾е˹ѡͧػҪʴҷçҹúóѴ ѧҡҨҡ­ͧѴ Ǻҹ¡Ҥù “е˹ѡ¹”11

˹ѡ¹ѹ˹价ҧȵѹ͡ Ἱѧٻ׹ҢҴ 30 ҧ 14.6 պѹ䴷ҧҹҧѧҹЪͧ˹ҵҧ鹺ҹ 11 ͧ 繷ç ǹҧЪͧ˹ҵҧ 10 ͧ dz觡ҧͧҧЪͧеٷҧҴҹ 1 ͧ ѧʡѴ 2 ҹ 鹺Ъͧе 3 е е١ҧբҴ˭ش ǹҧաЪͧе٢Ҵ§ͧҧآҤ Ҥ 2 10 §ҹ






Wat Kudi Dao
Wat Kudi Dao has been deserted, and situated outside the city island in the east at Phailing, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. The north connects to Wat Pradu Songtham and Wat Chakkrawat (deserted). The south connects to a road leading to a village. The east connects to a road running from Chedi Wat Sam Pleum and opposite the path leading to Wat Maheyong. The west connects to grove wood which is the area of Wat Pradu Songtham. The Department of Fine Arts declared and registered it as a national historic site with the declaration in the government gazette, volume 52, part 75, on August 8, 1875.

Wat Kudi Dao was a big temple in the late Ayutthaya period. It is situated in the area with the belief that once it was the north area of the city “Ayothaya”, and is outside Krung Si Ayutthaya Island in the north of the Pa Sak River. It is believed being a community of the ancient city before the foundation of Krung Si Ayutthaya. Around the area, there are still the ruins of buildings and the remains of chedi in Ayutthaya period. Contraditionaly, the historic site of Wat Kudi Dao is still in very good condition, transfering from the Ayutthaya period (1).

The door façade in the late Ayutthaya period at Wat Kudi Dao (2)

Wat Kudi Dao is compared as the twin of Wat Mahay Yong because both of them were grandly renovated at the same time in the reign of King Thai Sa (1709-1732). Wat Mahay Yong which is situated in the east of Wat Kudi Dao was renovated by King Thai Sa, but Wat Kudi Dao was renovated by the king’s younger brother who was the Crown Prince or Prince of the Front Palace at that time. Later the prince became king in the name of King Boromakot (1732-1758) (3).
Wat Kudi Dao was renovated two years after the renovation of Wat Mahay Yong from 1711 to 1715. After that there had been ceremonies for 7 days. Therefore the renovation showed that this temple was very important in both of the two reigns, the reigns of King Thai Sra and King Boromakot, which is said being the era of peace or the “Golden Era” of the late Ayutthaya period. The reign of King Boromakot ended 10 years before Krung Si Ayutthaya was lastly defeated in the second time. As a result of frequent renovation, Wat Kudi Dao is still in the better condition than any other historical sites in the same area (4).

Important Things inside the Temple

The layout of Wat Kudi Dao is rectangular, and turns its face to the east comprising the ubosot, the chedi, and the vihara lined from east to west. They were surrounded by Chedi Rai (small chedi) inside the walls built with indented corners. Outside the wall in the north, there was a residence of royalty (Tamnak) for Krom Phraratchawang Boworn Satharn Mongkhol (a prince) to stay and watch the renovation of the temple. The base of this building is still seen and parallel with the south wall.

The layout of Wat Kudi Dao showing the chief core of the plan in single-cored range (5)

The religious area turns to the east (Originally, there was a canal (khlong) running across Khlong Hantra and Kholng Kramang. Nowsdays, the front of the temple is a road). The area was surrounded by walls with indented corners on the four sides. The wall line was 63 meters wide and 256 meters long. There were two big gates on each side of the walls which was the characteristics of the architecture in the late Ayutthaya period (6).

The big building in the front was assumed to be the vihara (12 X 14 meters). There were three doors in front of it. The middle door was bigger than the other two. But there were only two doors in the back. The door frames had triangular facades. There were patterns of mortar molded like the top of a stupa (Nowadays, due to the renovation, it is nearly in complete condition) (7).

Chedi Pratarn (the main or chief chedi) (8)

Maha Chedi or Chedi Pratarn at Wat Kudi Dao was situated next to the vihara, but only the base of the bell-shaped body is left. The chedi was in Langka (Bangladesh) style. The base was with indented corners. There were two sets of stairs in the east and both of them are in ruins, and also the remains of subordinate chedi on the four corners. The chedi were bell-shaped and situated on an octagonal base. The Maha Chedi left is 14.50 meters high. There are long cracks on the four sides of its base, showing that the chedi is subsiding. The base of the chedi was decorated in the form of lion legs with the shins of two indentations which are very strange and unlike the other chedi.

The clues of the area around the base of the chedi called “Lan Prataksin” shows that it was laid with planks of light green and gray stone. The planks are in squares with different sizes. This area was surrounded by a corridor. Nowadays, it was completely damaged, leaving only the posts with the decorated tops in the northwest and the southwest. There is a big bodhi tree (The tree under which the Buddha got his enlightenment) on the north of Lan Prataksin.

The remains of a big building next to the main chedi were assumed being that of the ubosot, but Bai Sema was not found. The remains of the buildings in the north and the south of the ubosot are different sizes of chedi which might have been used to contain bone ashes of important people in the late Ayutthaya period.

The side walls of the ubosot, which the roof tumbled down completely, displays the structure with rows of posts inside the building.

The ubosot was a building built with laid bricks and mortar. Its layout was triangular with 27.80 meters long and 15.40 meters wide. It was situated on the base with lotus-like shape over ridgepoles. In the south, there were two levels of lotus-like base over ridgepoles. There was a porch exserting from the building in the front and the other one in the south, and two sets of stairs were on both sides of each one. The bases of the porches were in lion-leged shape and most of them are nearly complete condition.

The walls of the ubosot are left with only three sides: the north, the east and the south. The west wall tumbled down. The north and the south walls were made in artificial and real windows which leaves only the clue of black lacquer on 8 windows. The window facades were made in small gables placed superimposedly to the main ones called “song banthalaeng” and with the bases imitating lion legs under them. Most of the window facades tumbled down leaving only some nearly complete facades. There were three doors in the front and in the back. The middle doors were bigger than the other two and their facades were made in the form of casles. Inside the building, there were two rows of round columns. Nowadays, only six columns are left. The tops of the columns were made in the form of lotuses, but the roof tumbled down completely. The base of the Buddha image inside the ubosot was enlarged. This shows that the ubosot was renovated more than once. Its layout is rectangular; however, some parts of the building was dug, drilled and destroyed.

The building used as a royal residence called “Tamnak Kammalian” (10)

In the north outside the wall of the religious area, there were remains of a building with two storeys, which the walls were completely renovated. It was assumed to be the residence of the Crown Prince (Phra Maha Uparat) who went to control the renovation of this temple. Later, it might have been used as the sermon hall, and the people called it “Phra Tamnak Kammalian” (11).

Tamnak Kammalian turned to the east. The layout is rectangular with 30 meters long and 14.6 meters wide. There was a set of stairs on the longer side, and there were 11 windows on each side of the second floor. The upper parts of the windows are in sharp curves, but there were only 10 windows on the first floor. A door was in the middle of each side of the first floor. Both sides of the wall were chiseled. There were three doors on the second floor. The middle one was the biggest. Yet there was only one small door on the first floor, connecting the porch and the area inside the building, and there were two rows with ten columns in each one; only their bases are left.

References

1.Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 111.
2. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A Picture in Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, p. 48.
3. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 111.
4. Referred.
5. Wichatcharoon, Batthama. (2000). A picture in Karnseuksa Phanphang Samai Ayutthaya nai Khet Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (Studying Ayutthaya Laypout in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Area). Bangkok: The Department of Achitecture, the Graduate School, The University of Fine Arts, p. 186.
6. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 111.
7. Referred.
8. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 135.
9. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk (Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 134.
10. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk (Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 135.
11. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 111.

Ѵҷͧ
Ѵҷͧ

 

Ѵҷͧ਴Ӥѭ ͡СاظҴҹѹ§˹任ҳ 2 2 Ӻҷͧ ;йظ ѧѴйظ 鹷·٧ҡдѺӷŻҹҧҳ 3 Ҿ鹷·繷Һ׹˭ҧҹ˹ͧͧ͢йظ ҹȵѹ§ͧѴҷͧԴ͡ѺҾ Ѵ价ҧȵѹ§˹繤ͧҹҤ繤ͧشҳ (٤ҹҤ) ҹȵѹ͡§˹繤ͧ ҹȵѹͧ͡ҷͧ仨ôҧǧ蹴ԹŢ 309 (ظ-ҧͧ) ѺûѺاҧ纹ӢҴ˭ з駢ͧкҪҹ稾йҪ

Ѵҷͧ躹⤡觾鹷ͺչӷ֧ 繾鹷طԤӤѭҧͧѾظҡѺͧѾҷ 2 ؤ¢ͧ¡ا 㹤ʧ¡͹¡اظҤáաâشͧҹҤͤдǡ㹡äҤҧйôҹžաѺѴҷͧ


ҷͧ 繾਴ҷͧ1


ѵԤ

ѵԤҢͧѴҷͧ ͧҧ ˵ءáҧ Ңͧáҧ ѧբصԷ͹ҧҳ բѹɰҹѹ ҪǴظҡ Ѵҷͧ ʶһѪ¾ µظ ѹ֡ “...ѡҪ 749 ȡ (.. 1930) ʶһѴҷͧ...”2 ´֧觡ҧ¹ ǡѹѧк 㹤ʧҺçͧ觾ժ˹ظ㹤¡ا駷 1 .. 2112 Һçͧçҧ਴ͷѺͧ਴ͧѴ觹 ´ǡѺٻẺͧ਴蹡ѹ

˹ѧͤâͧǡا ˧Ǵ (çͧ) 繼ҧ਴ҷͧ .. 2112 ѹ繻շµͧ¡اظ֡ 㹤âͧǡا¹ѧ “...;˧ǴѧзѺйظҹ ôҧ਴˭ͧ˹ Ӻŷҷͧ ҹ਴ ਴ҷͧ ѧҡ訹ءѹ...”

âͧعǧѴ “...Ǿ˧Ҩҧ਴ҷͧԹ¡ ҷͧ Ǩ觷ӡéͧ繡˭˹ѡ˹Ǿ˧Ҩ¡ѾѺ...”3

㹢з辧Ǵ˹ͺѹ֡ й˧繼ҧѴҷͧҧȾѾ觡Ѻй³·ҧѴ˭ŷҧô (ѴѲ) ǹѹ֡ͧ The History of Japan Together with a Description of the Kingdom of Siam ͧ ѹ ᾷШӤзٵͧŹԹҧѧ Ҿѡ اظ 23 ѹ ҧѹ 12 Զع¹ ֧ѹ 4 áҤ .. 2233 ¹˵ؾҴҾ਴ҷͧ͸Ժ “...ҧ਴ͧ繷֡ ժªФ˭˹͡ѵ觾 觶١ŧЪСͧѾ˭ͧͧ١ŧ 繼ǡҾ鹨ҡӹҨûͧͧǾ кóҡҾͧ...”4

˵ءóѧشǡѺѴҷͧ Ѻúѹ֡ վطѡҪ 2499 ѰŨ . Ժʧ 繹¡Ѱ óѧó਴иҹѴҷͧ µͧ䩹 ١ ੾١ǷӴ·ͧ˹ѡ 2,500 ͧ觾ط 㹤Ǻó਴ҷͧ ѴҷͧѺʶһѴʧա5

;ԨóٻẺʶһѵ¡Ѵҷͧ öػǷҧ͢԰ҹ 3 Ƿҧ ѧ6

ǤԴ 1 ѴҷͧʶһҢ稾 (.. 1931-1938) ѧ¡اá ˧Ǵպç֧ͧçҧ਴ͭ Ѵ һҳ稾һҷͧ ਴Ẻѧŧ ֧աҧ਴ẺºҹẺͭóТ 稾Ǻ ֧çóǹ´

ǤԴ 2 ਴ҷͧҧͭ ͹ҧاظҪҹ հҹҴẺͭ ǹ਴Ժͧҧѧ֧ѡɳѹѹ

ǤԴ 3 ਴ҷͧҧͤ稾йҪçзطѵժоػҪ աúóѧó¹Ẻ਴˧ǴѪ稾һҷͧ

ҳʶҹѴҷͧ

ѡɳἹѧͧѴҷͧѴҧ᡹ȵѹ͡-ȵѹ ਴ҷͧ繻иҹͧѴ ʶҧȵѹ ҹ˹ʶ਴ͧ Һҹ 2 ͧ㹵˹觷ҵáѹ ҧȵѹ͡âҴ ਴ 2 ͧ§ǡѹѺ਴´ҹ˹ʶ ҧҹͧ਴иҹ਴Һաͧ˹ͧ հҹ԰ٻѵաͧ˹§ѹ ѡɳἹѧӤѭѺȵѹ繷ȷʶ ਴਴ٻç¡Ѻ਴иҹա 4 ͧҹ˹ʶ ǹ鹷ҹȵѹ͡駢ͧù਴ ͺ¡ᾧٻ׹7


ἹѧѴҷͧ ʴ´ͧ觡ҧѴ
Żҡ , Ҫѧҳ, çӹѡº¡Ѱ, .. 25118


ᾧ 繡ᾧ԰ͻٹʶ ਴ ʴࢵط ѡɳ繡ͺٻҤ÷ 3 ѧ͡ѹ Ҵҧ 119 ἹѧͧѴѡɳФٻҡҷ 243 ͺ 688 ᾧǹ˭ش§ҡҹ ҹ ջеٷҧ 6 е ੾дҹȵѹ͡ѧҡ紻еЪͧҧҪѴਹ繻еٷի ҧ 2.13

Ҥٻ׹ Ҵҧ 10 25.30 շҧ 2 ҧ ҧҹȵѹ͡еѹ Ҵҧ 1.90 㹾ỴҴ鹼ٹҧ 70 ૹ 2 ҧͧ ҹҧ 4 ҹ 3.30 ҹءաҧ 8 7 ٧ 1.50 лиҹ觺ҹ˹ҡдҹѹ˹价ȵѹ͡ ѹѺѹ˹价ҧȵѹ 4 ͧ9


਴ҷͧ10


਴иҹ਴ҷͧ ਴԰ͻٹ դ٧֧ 90 (2 5 1 ׺) ǹ਴Ѵ˭਴Ӥѭ͡дҹѹ͡§٧਴ҷͧ§ 2 (2 6 1 ׺) ਴ҷͧҡ㹻Ѩغѹ ҨѺúóѧó਴٧ҧѪ¾ҸҪҶ֧¾ྷҪ (ҧ .. 2112-2246) աúóѧó˭ա¾Һ ظҵ͹ 蹤 հҹѡԳ 4 ٻѵ ª鹾Ǵҹ 69 鹷 2 ҹ 63 鹷 3 Ǵҹ 49.4 Ъ鹷 4 Ǵҹ 32.4 4 ҹպѹ仨֧ҹѡԳ鹺ش 鹹հҹͧͧ਴ٻ仢ҧ վоطٻдɰҹ 1 ͧ11

٧繰ҹỴ Сͺ°ҹ§˹ҡдҹ ͧЦѧ ѧ ǹ˹͢价繻ͧ䩹 ʹ ١ǹ ͧѧǵµѵԹ աëѰŨ . Ժʧ ͻ .. 2499 㹤駹١Ǵ·ͧ˹ѡ 2,500 ѹ¶֧úóЩͧ 25 طȵɢͧ

ʶҤ׹ ҧ 11 40 آ蹷駴ҹ˹дҹѧ ջеҷҧȵѹ͡еѹҹ 1 е еٷҧǴ·һеٵ͹ͧ վоطٻҷ¶ͻٹҧҸ 6 ͧ 蹰ҹءվлиҹ觪ش ѧŴ12

ѧ¡ا駷 2 ѴѴҧ ਴ѧʶҹӤѭҧطʹҷդԹҧҡҺ ѧ蹷ҡ ҷͧ ͧ ع ԹҧҹʡѪŷ 3 觡اѵԹ ѴվҨӾա駹Ѻ .. 2500 㹻Ѩغѹ ҧͧҧѧѴ觹ҧ͹й÷ç֡


ἹѧѴҷͧ ʴèѴҧ觡ҧἹѧѡҧ鹷ҧͧѴ
ẺͧҧҡѺͺ᡹᡹˹13






Wat Phukhao Thong
Wat Phukhao Thong is an important temple situated outside the city island about 2 kilometers in the northwest at moo 2, Phukhao Thong sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. Its general area is 3 meters higher than the normal sea level, and the area is mainly wide lowland in the north of the city island. The southwest of the temple connects to the Chao Phraya River. In the northwest, there was an ancient dug canal (Khu Khai Mahanak). There was also a long canal in the northeast, and the east of the temple connects to the public highway number 309 (Ayutthaya Ang Thong). The area was improved and used as a big reservoir and the statue of King Naresuan the Great is situated on it.

Wat Phukhao Thong is located on a mound surrounded by lowland that can be flooded. It was an important battle field for both times of war between Ayutthaya and the Burmese. Mahanak Canal was dug before the first war for comfortable communication between the city on Lob Buri River and Wat Phukhao Thong.

Phukhao Thong field with Chedi Phukhao Thong in the distance. (1)

History
In light of the history of Wat Phukhao Thong, its contruction, duration and reasons of the construction were not clearly indicated in the account of antiquities. There was only assumption in Ayutthaya royal annals indicating that Wat Phokhao Thong was constructed in the reign of King Ramesuan or in the early Ayutthaya period with the memorandum saying that “ In the era 749, year of the rabbit, the nineth year (1387), Wat Phukhao Thong was constructed ” (2). But the details of the construction was not mentioned. At the same time, it was mentioned that in the war when King Burengnong defeated Ayutthaya in 1569, he commanded constructing a chedi covered the old one at this temple. On the contrary, the details about the form of the chedi were not mentioned, either.

In a book containing the testimony of Ayutthaya people indicated that King Hongsawadee (Burengnong) constructed Chedi Phukhao Thong in 1569, the year that Krung Si Ayutthaya was defeated by the enemies. The testimony by Ayutthaya people revealed that “At that time, the king of Hongsawadee (Pegu) was still staying in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. He was pleased to have a big chedi built at Thoong Phukhao Thong Subdistrict and named the chedi “Chedi Phukhao Thong” which has been lasted to the present ”

A testimony by Khunluang Ha Wat indicated that “ Then the king of Hongsa (Pegu) constructed a chedi at Thoong Phukhao Thong (Phukhao Thong field) and named it “Phra Phukhao Thong”. Then there was a grand celebration and the king of Hongsa moved his troops back ” (3).

The north annals showed that King Naresuan Hongsa (the king of Pegu) constructed Wat Phukhao Thong in the northwest to compete with King Narai who built Wat Yai Chaimongkhol in the southwest, but the synopsis, “The History of Japan together with a testimony of the Kingdom of Siam”, of Mr. Kaempfer, a German doctor in the envoy group from the Natherlands, who aimed to go to Japan, dropped in Ayutthaya and stayed there 23 days during June 12 to July 4, 1690 wrote down in the annals with a picture of Phukhao Thong, with the explanation translated as follows: “ Siam people constructed the chedi in memory of the place where they defeated the king of Phakho who was killed and his troops were destroyed. As a result, they were not conquered by Phakho, and got back their independence ” (4).

The lastest incident involving Wat Phukhao Thong which was written down was in 1956 when Field Marshal P. Phibulsongkhram was the Prime Minister, he commanded renovating the main chedi at Wat Phukhao Thong by increasing plong chanai plee (lotus-like top of the chedi) and Luuk kaew (the ball shape on top of a chedi), especially the ball was made of real gold weighing 2,500grams in order to celebrate 25th century of Buddha era. After the renovation, Wat Phukhao Thong was founded and monks began staying there again (5).

According to the architecture of Wat Phukhao Thong, it can be concluded with 3 viewpoints:
For the first viewpoint, it is believed that Wat Phukhao Thong was constructed in the reign of King Ramesuan (1388 1395). Later, Krung Si Ayutthaya was firstly defeated; King Hongsawadee Burengnong commanded constructing a chedi in Peguan style at this temple. In the reign of King Prasat Thong, the chedi trumbled down. It was newly constructed in Thai style on Peguan styled base which had been renovated from time to time, and it was renovated again with some other decoration in the reign of King Boromakot (5).

For the second viewpoint, it is believed that Chedi Phukhao Thong was constructed by the Peguan before Krung Si Ayutthaya was founded as the capital. The base was slope in Peguan style, but the chedi was built in twelve-indented corners, the style of the late Ayutthaya period. So it was not in agreement with the former idea.

According to the third viewpoint, it is believed that Chedi Phukhao Thong was constructed after King Naresuan defeated Phra Maha Upraracha (the Burmese Crown Prince) when they fought each other on elephant backs. The Chedi was renovated imitating the main chedi in Hongsawadee (Peguan) in the reign of King Prasat Thong.

Ancient Remains in Wat Phukhao Thong

The plan of Wat Phukhao Thong was located in the east west direction. Chedi Phukhao Thong is the main chedi in the temple. The Ubosot was situated in the west. In front of the Ubosot, there were 4 small chedi with two of the chedi balancedly located on both side. In the east, there was a small vihara with two small chedi lacated in the same line with the chedi in front of the Ubosot. In the south of the main chedi, there was a small flat chedi and a square base made of bricks of the other small chedi. The plan emphasized the importance of the west where the Ubosot was situated, and the chedi in front of the Ubosot were made with twelve-indented coners like the ones of the main chedi. But there were no small chedi around the square walls with indented corners in the east where the vihara is located (7).

The plan of Wat Phukhao Thong showing details of buildings inside the temple.

Source: The Department of Fine Arts, (1975).The Ancient Palace. Bangkok: The office of the Prime
Minister Press.

The walls made of bricks surrounded the Ubosot, the chedi, the vihara and showed the religious area. They were in the form of a square surrounding the three buildings which connect to each other with 119 meters wide. This made the temple in the form of a cross with 243 meters long and 688 meters wide. The walls are mostly damaged and only lines of the bases are left, and are supposed to have 6 entrances. The entrance in the east is still left with its post, and it is only a door without the facade on top with 2.13 meters wide.

The vihara is a rectangular building with 10 meters wide and 25.30 meters long. There are two entrances, one in the east and the other one in the west. They are 1.90 meters wide. Inside the vihara, there are two 2 rows of octagonal columns with the width of 4 meters between the first columns of the two rows, and the length of the rows are 3.30 meters. The base of the Buddha image is 8 meters wide, 7 meters long and 1.50 meters high. The main Buddha image was seated on a round wooden piece of wood turning his face to the east with 4 Buddhist monk images turning their faces to the west.

Chedi Phukhao Thong (10)

The main Chedi or Chedi Phukhao Thong was made of laid bricks and mortar. It is 2 sen 5 wa and 1 kheub (90 meters) high. On the contrary, the Chedi of Wat Yai Chaimongkhol which is situated outside the city island in the southeast is 2 meters (2 sen 6 wa 1 kheub) higher than Chedi Phukhao Thong. Chedi Phukhao Thong in the present was said to be renovated with visible height in the reign of King Maha Thammaracha (during 1569 1603), and there was another grand renovation in the reign of King Boromakot or in the late Ayutthaya period. The renovation comprised construction a squared base with 4 levels in the south. The first level was 69 meters long; the second one was 63 meters long; the third one was 49.4 meters long; and the fouth one was 32.4 meters long. There is a set of stairs on the four sides leading to the top level. On the fourth level, there was a square base with a curved tunnel leading into the chedi, and a Buddha image is situated inside this room (11).

Higher than the base mentioned, there was an octagonal base consisting of a lowest base called Tarn Khiang or Na Kradarn, the body of the chedi in the form of overturned bell shape, and a part over the chedi body called Banlang (the part over the bell shape). The top of the chedi comprises the ring-shaped parts over the Banlang called Plong Chanai, the spherical shape over Plong Chanai called Plee and the ball on top called Luuk kaew (glass ball). The top parts were all damaged. Chedi Phukhao Thong was renovated again when Field Marshall P. Piboonsongkhram was the Prime Minister in 1956. At that time, Luuk Kaew was remade of real gold with 2,500 grams in memory of the 25thanniversary of the Buddha’s centuries.

The Ubosot was a square building with 11 meters wide and 40 meters long. There was a portico in the front and the other one at the back with a door in the east and the west side. The door facades were composed of patterns and the top parts of the door-posts were decolated with patterns called laifuang. Inside the Ubosot, there were 6 Buddha images in the attitude of meditation and made of sand stone surrounding the base of the main Buddha image which is also damaged.
After Krung Si Ayutthaya was completely destroyed, this temple had been deserted, but people had still come and paid respect to the main Chedi. The evidence appeared in the poems called Niras Phukhao Thong (A trip to Phukhao Thong) written by Sunthorn Phu who went to pay homage to the Chedi in the reign of King Rama III of Rattanakosin. Buddhist monks stayed in the temple again in 1957. Nowadays, a statue of King Naresuan riding a horse is situated in the middle of the road leading to the temple.

The plan of Wat Phokhao Thong displaying location of buildings balancedly to the spaces inside the temple

References

1.Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 125.
2. Office of Archaeology and National museums 3, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, the Department of Fine Arts. (2002). Karnburana Chedi Phukhao Thong (Renovation of Chedi Phukhao Thong). Bangkok: the Department of Fine Arts, the Office of Archaeology and National museums 3, Phranakhon Si AYIUtthaya, p. 32.
3. (Referred), p. 33.
4. (Referred)
5. (Referred), p. 35.
6. (Referred), p. 40.
7. (Referred), p. 16.
8. Malakul, Associate Professor Momluang Pratheep. (2005). A picture in Krung Si Ayutthaya Barithas. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, p. 76.
9. Office of Archaeology and National museums 3, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, the Department of Fine Arts. (2002). Karnburana Chedi Phukhao Thong (Renovation of Chedi Phukhao Thong). Bangkok: the Department of Fine Arts, the Office of Archaeology and National museums 3, Phranakhon Si AYIUtthaya, p. 18.
10. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, p. 66.
11. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 88-90.
12. Office of Archaeology and National museums 3, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, the Department of Fine Arts. (2002). Karnburana Chedi Phukhao Thong (Renovation of Chedi Phukhao Thong). Bangkok: the Department of Fine Arts, the Office of Archaeology and National museums 3, Phranakhon Si AYIUtthaya, p. 21.
13. Wichatcharoon, Batthama. (2000). A picture in Karnseuksa Phanphang Samai Ayutthaya nai Khet Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (Studying Ayutthaya Laypout in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Area). Bangkok: The Department of Achitecture, the Graduate School, The University of Fine Arts, p. 265.

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