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Ԩèͧҡ˹ҧҹеҴ͹ؤ¡اظ㹧ҹ觿 ظôš Шӻ
Ԩèͧҡ˹ҧҹеҴ͹ؤ¡اظ㹧ҹ觿 ظôš Шӻ

      ѹ - Ҿѹ ҹ ѧѴйظ Ѻ ʶҺѹظ֡ ԷҪѯйظѴԨèͧҡ˹ҧҹеҴ͹ؤ¡اظ㹧ҹ觿 ظôš Шӻ 鹺dzѧѴҸҵ ѴѧҢ

ҹ...
ҹҹҪҵ ѹ¡Ѻõ ЪҵԵѹҤ -
ҹҹҪҵ ѹ¡Ѻõ ЪҵԵѹҤ -

      ѹ - Ҥ ҹԷҪѯйظѺͧúǹѧѴйظ ѷ µ ӡѴ ŹԸµ çŹԸçõѧʵʵ ѴҹҹҹҪҵ ѹ¡ѺõЪҵԵѹҤ - dz Ҥ ԷҪѯйظ Ѻʹ㨨ҡؤŷءҤǹҧҡ

ҹ...
ѵԤҢͧҳʶҹԷҪѯйظ

ǢԨ : ѵԤҢͧҳʶҹԷҪѯйظ
Ԩ : .ѹԾ ,ʹ ؾø
: ʶҺѹظ֡
ʶҺѹ : ԷҪѯйظ
ա֡ : 2553

ԡҹ/ǹŴ
ѴҧШ
ѴҧШ

 

ǡᾧͧѴҧШ


ѴҧШ (¡ѴҧШ) 4 Ӻ ѧѴʧҹԡ ҳࢵ鹷Ѵ繷ҺҾлѡ ¡ӷӻѡҺèѺҾ ٹäҷӤѭظ çͧѴѭԧлྪ dz˹ѴҴǵʹ ҳʶҹѴ ਴ͧ˭ҹç ҧظзӡúóѧ

ѴҧШ ҧѧѡҹ͹ ͡㴡Ƕ֧Ѵ Ƕ֧駢ͧѴ ѧ

Ǵ˹ Ƕ֧ “ѡҪ 406 (.. 1587) ç ȡ ԭȾ (ҧ´͡ҡ) ҾҪҹԧҧШ ʶһ繾 ѴҾйҧԧ...”

ҪǴéѺǧ԰ѡùԵ “ǻը ѡҪ 936 .. 2117 شͧҹѹ͡¡ ˹ ҧ֡ѴҧŧҨҧШ Тǡᾧͧҹѹ͡ŧҶ֧...”

ҪǴéѺҪѵŢѪ稾Ҩѡþô ͹ʧҧ͡ ;˧Ǵ¡Ѿاظ 7 ѹ “й鹾ҵҹŵҹ¡ѾѺͧҪҪʧ֧ʹ˹ѴخҧШ 觢¡ҷʹе...” Ѫ稾ҸҪ “ѡҪ 924 ը ѵȡ (.. 2105) 稾оط觾й ش٢ͽ·Ⱥþ Ҫѧ˹ŧ仺èҧШ ҧԺ ֡ ¡ᾧ͡Ӣͺ͡йûҪ Ҫŧ仺èྪ...”

ѨغѹࢵѧʢͧѴҧШҤʹʹФ ҡ­ҧ 11 20 Ǵҧ .. 2519 Ҥ پ鹻 دʧӹǹ 9 ѧ Ҥ 7 ѧ ͹յ 2 ѧ

ǹࢵط ʶ ਴ 躹Թ٧ աᾧͺ ҹᾧ鹻ٹٻǤ ѧᾧ鹻ٹ͹͹ѹ 3 ͹ ᾧ紷çѳ

ҹеٷҧࢵط ÷§ѧʡѴѧ Ъͧǵ§ѹ繨ѧ 㹪ͧ§԰ٻǴǤ¤֧ѺͧǷ§ͧѴѲ վоطٻҧԪµ躹ҹ˹ҼѧʡѴ ҧ˹蹵ѧþоطٻẺǴշӴԹ 3

鹷ҧáѺʶ਴躹ҹѡɳТͧ਴Ẻҹ

ʶҧ袹Ҵվлиҹ繾оطٻ͢ҧԪ 㹫͹ẺоطԹҪ ѤǡӴ»ٹ׹й ҹТ ѧлиҹվоطٻٹ鹷ش躹ҹ ͺʶҷӴԹǹǹҷӴԹ 駾ԧҹ 㹺dzѴѧվоٻӴԹѡա 2 - 3 ͧ

ѡɳŻҡѴҧШдѧ ҡԨó੾਴਴ẺҹҡҨоԨóѴ餧ҧǾطȵɷ 21 ѹ繪ǧŻҹŧاظ



վоطٻ˹ҵѡҧ 120 ٧ 150 Ǻҹ¡ “оطǵ (ǧ͢)” վоطٻͧͧѡҡԹʶ оطٻͧͧ١Ѵ dzʶ ͧѨغѹһ鹵ͧǾ лдɰҹ˹ǧ͢ Ҥ÷ӡúó .. 2546


оطǵ (ǧ͢)


ѴҧШС͹ӡúó


ѴҧШ


ѴҧШЪǺҹ¡ “ѴҧШ” ҧ .. 2200 Ѻا .. 2210 Ӻ͡ҢͧǺҹ͡ѹ ѴҧШ繷駤¢ͧظ ͵Ѻâͧdzྪ


ʶѴҧШ


ҹѧ繫ҡᾧҳСоطٻ






Wat Mai Bang kaja
The original wall line of Wat Bang Kaja

Wat Bang Kaja (Firstly, it was called Wat Tailaem Bang Kaja) is situated at Moo 4, Samphaolom Subdistrict. The monks were under Maha Nikai (One of the two demonizations of Buddhism). The area of the temple is lowland on the Chao Phraya and the Pa Sak Rivers. It is the junction that the Chao Phraya connects to the Pa sak and was an important shopping center in Ayutthaya period. Wat Phananchoeng and Pom Phet can be seen across the rivers. In front of the temple, there was sand beach along the river bank. For ancient remains, there is a big chedi on the square base which was built in Ayutthaya period and renovated later.

It is not known when Wat Bang Kaja was certainly built because there is no evidence mentioning about the name of the temple. Only the location of the temple was mentioned as follows:

The north annals indicated that “Chulasakkarat (The Thai small era) 406 (1044), year of the big snake, the dead body (of Nang Soidokmark) was moved for the royal cremation at Bang Kaja cape. After that a temple was built and called Wat Phrachao Phranang Choeng since then ”.

The royal annals of Luang Prasert Aksoranit stated that “In year of the dog, Chulasakkarat 936 (1574), the east moat called “Kheu Na” was commanded to dig deeply and widely from Wat Maenang Pleum to Bang Kaja and enlarge the city wall to the bank of the river ”

In addition, the royal annals written by King Maha Chakkrapat during the War for White Elephants when the king of Hongsawadee (Pegu) had moved his troops to blockade Krung Si Ayutthaya for 7 days indicated that “at that time, Phraya Tani Si Sultan moved a naval fleet with 200 boats to help fight the Burmese. The fleet stopped in front of Wat Kudi Bang kaja. The next day, the fleet was moved and stopped at Pratuchai ”, and also in the reign of King Maha Thammaracha, it was wriiten that “In Sakkarat 924, year of the dog, nearly the end of the year (1562), the king commanded improving the city. A moat was dug in the east from Pom Mahachai at the Front Palace to Bang kaja with 10 wa (twenty meters) wide and three wa (six meters) deep and expanded the city wall to the bank of the river from Pom Mahachai to Pom Phet ”.
Nowadays, the monk dwelling area at Wat Bang Kaja contains some buildings: sala kanplian (the sermon hall) with 11 meters wide and 20 meters long, Hor Suadmon (The building for praying) built in 1976 with ferro-concrete and the floor covered with pieces of wood, and 9 monk cells - seven of them made of wood and the other two made of ferro-concrete.
For the religious area, there are the ubosot, the vihara and the chedi situated on a high mound surrounded by a square wall. The base of the wall was molded in figures of overturned lotuses and the top of the wall was molded with three superimposed curls of lime. The posts on the corners were made with ornamental knobs called “Songman”.
Going through the gate to the religious area, there is the vihara leaving only the remains of the back wall pierced vertically and orderly with lines of holes, and bricks were lined up inside the holes the same as those of Wat Chaiwattanaram. There is a Buddha image in the attitude of subduing the mara in front of the wall. In front of the image, there is an altar used to situate three heads of Buddha images made of sand stone in Dhavaravati style.

The area between the vihara and the ubosot was situated on a square base. It might be the characteristics of the chedi in Lanna style.

The small ubosot was newly built. The main Buddha image in the attitude of subduing the mara also newly molded is situated inside it. The Buddha image is situated under the façade like that of Phra Buddha Chinnarat. The figures of Buddha’s followers putting their palms together and made of molded lime are situated on the left and on the right of the image. Another damaged Buddha image made of molded lime is situated on a base behind the main one. There are Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone) made of slate around the ubosot, but the original Bai Sema were made of sand stone and were put against the bases of the new Bai Sema. In the aera of the temple, there are also two or three Buddha images made of sand stone, but the heads were disappeared.

Considering the characteristics of the arts appear in Wat Bang Kaja, the chedi in Lanna style might have been built in 21st Buddhist century, the time that Lanna arts propagated to Krung Si Ayutthaya.

In the vihara, there is a Buddha image with the lap 120 inches wide and 150 inches high. The villagers call him “Phra Buddha Sawetmongkhol (Luangpo Khao)”, and there are also two Buddha images believed to be brothers and carved from the stone in the ubosot. Originally, the two images were cut, left only their heads and placed in the old ubosot. Later, the present abbot ordered molding the images’ bodies and connecting them to the heads. Then, the two images are situated in front of Luangpo Khao’s vihara, and the vihara was newly renovated in 2003.

Phra Buddha Sawetmongkhol (Luangpo Khao)

The old vihara at Wat Bang Kaja before renovation

The New Vihara at Wat Bang Kaja

People usually called Wat Bang Kaja “Wat Mai Bang Kaja (Mai means new)”. It was built in 1657 and was enrolled as a Buddhist temple in 1667. It can be believed according people’s saying that this temple was used as the Burmese camp in Ayutthaya period and also used as a base to fight against Siam soldiers at Pom Phet.

The ubosot at Wat Bang Kaja

The remains of the ancient city wall and a group of Buddha images in the area behind the vihara

ʶૹ૿
ʶૹ૿

 

ʶૹ૿1


Ѵѡح᫿ 駷ҧ͹ͧ͡йظ dzҾ ҧ .. 2209 稾й³Ҫ ºҷǧǽʷԹҧҡاظ ҷǧѧ ͵ ѺѡǪա 2 ҹ Ҥкҷǧ稾й³ҪͷŢͷҧʶç¹ ͻСͺԸշҧʹ֡ ѺҪҹԹ ҧʶç¹Ҥ ¡ “¹ѡح᫿”2

ԹͧѴѺҪҹҡй³ ʹѧçѴʴ㹡áҧ԰աͨҧʶ좹Ҵ˭դ 120 ص ( 36.5 ) ͤ´ҹ˹ 2 ѧ

͡ҡѧ ç¹ҹ ç¹͹ҹʹظ ç¹Ӥѭش С͹ʹ㹻 駨չ ´ ҧ١Ѵҧҧعç Ѵ觹͡ҡպҷǧдѺ٧֧ 12 ͧ ѧպǧ˹ ҡªҵա 40 ͧ Ҩҡ չ ѧ ⤪Թչ ͭ

ѭҷҧͧ㹪ǧ¹ѵҪǧ繾ྷҪҪǧҹǧ .. 2231 Ѵѡحૹ᫿ ҷǧ ѡ¹Ǥҷԡ Ъǽʷ駾ͤзõҧѺšз ѹͧҡ¹ʹҢͧͧѵ ФѹѺŤ͹ 駹Ѵʶ١ ǽʶ١ѺѧСͧýʶ١Ѻ͡ҡҧ͡͡ҡ

Ѻҡ˵ءó ѹҧ繷ҧâͧѺʡصŧ §ʵʹҢͧҺҷǧ«ԵѧԹ ա 3 յҾྷҪҷçҷǧͿѴʶç¹ҹâ駾ҪҹԹ 500 ­ʴ ç¹ҹѧٹҧ֡ҷҧʹҢͧѡ¹ҡҵԵҧ ͹

ա 40 յ㹻 .. 2274 شѪ¾ҷ ԴѴ駷ҧʹҧعҧ-ʧͧʹҾطѺҷǧ觺ҹ ҷШ֧çҨ֡Ҵ¢ 4 С ;ѧҪкҷǧ ҧ˹һеʶૹ᫿

4 С ͹ȹ褹 ͭ Ф ѡǹҹ¹ʹ繪Ǥ¹ ѧҪ˹ѧ͹ʹҤʵ Һ ͭ ҭǹ Ҩչ ǵ¹ʹҾط

ա 36 յ Ҩ֡ͧ«Ե١ҷǧ 㹢зͧѾҡѧաاظ ҹ “¹ѡح᫿” Ǥ¹;¾繡ͧѧҴ˭ 㹷ش¹ѡح᫿١ҷҶҹ ͹˹ҷاظҨоѧ 15 ѹ ѧҪ ҷǧ ǤҷԡҨѺ١ӡѺ繷ʷ

ҹͺҹѡح᫿ 繷Ⱦ᷹ͧѹлһ 11 ͧ нѧȾѡحӹǹҡ ѺͿաա 60 յ ¾ѧҪ͡ǨҡʫѪŷ 3 觡اѵԹ ʶѺáҧ ѨغѹѴѡحૹ᫿ç¹ жբͧѧѴйظա3


õѺ͹ѡҧ4






Saint Joseph’s Church
Saint Joseph’s Church is located in the south of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya City Island on the Chao Phraya River. It was built during the reign of King Narai in 1666 by Bishop Lambert de la Motte and the other two priests. The missionaries had an audience with King Narai the Great and asked for a piece of land to build a church and a school in order to do religious affairs and educate children. A piece of land was given and a church and a school were built and made of wood called “Khai Nakboon Joseph (Saint Joseph’s camp)” (2).

King Narai gave the piece of land to the church and also the materials including wood and bricks, and a big church was built with 120 feet (about 36.5 meters) long with two towers in the front.

In addition, there was Ban Nane School which taught Christianity to Asian people in Ayutthaya and became the most impoetant school because teaching Christianity in China, Japan and Vietnam was strongly forbidden. This church not only had 12 high-ranked priests, but also had 40 young priests form China, Japan, Tangkia (Tonkin), Khochinchina, Morn (Pegu) and Siam.

The political problems during changing king and dynasty to King Pate Racha of Of Ban Phluluang Dynasty in 1688 had an affect on Saint Joseph’s church, the priests, the Catholic students, the French people and soldiers due to the attempt to change the king’s religion and the relationship with Falcon. The temple and church were destroyed. French people were captured and the French troop was chased out of Bangkok Tower and Siam.

With regard to this incident, the relasionship between Siam and France ended, leaving only the attempt to propagate Christianity of the Jusuit priests. Three years later, King Pate Racha allowed the French priests to rebuild the church and Ban Nane School, and donated 500 French francs to the church. Ban Nane School was still the center of learning Christianity of people from various countries.

Forty years later in 1731, the last year of King Thai SA’s reign, there was a religious conflict between Buddhist noblemen and monks, and the priests of the French village. King Thai Sa commanded making a stone inscription with 4 items of prohibition for the Buddhist monks and the Christian priests, and putting it at the door of Saint Joseph’s church.
The four items of prohibition were: not to teach and give a sermon to Siam, Morn (Peguan), and Lao people, not to persuade them to change the religion, not allow the abbot to write books to teach Christianity in Thai, Pali, Morn (Peguan), Lao, Yuan (Vietnamese) and Chinese, and not to blame Buddhism.

Thirty-six years later, the stone inscription of the prohibition for the Jesuit missionaries was destroyed while the Burmese were attacking Krung Si Ayatthaya. The French village became “Saint Joseph’s camp” where Christians moved in and became a big troop. Finally, the Saint Joseph’s camp was destroyed and burnt down by the Burmese 15 days before Krung Si Ayutthaya was defeated. The papst, the priests and Catholic people were captured to be slaves in Burma.
The French or Saint Joseph’s village, the cemetery of 11 Pope’s representatives and a lot of holymen, was resurrected 60 years later by the supreme patriarch Pa le Goi from France, who came to Thailand in the reign of King Rama III of Rattanakosin (Bangkok) period. The church was rebuilt in the same area. Nowadays, Saint Joseph’s church comprises a good modern primary school in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (3).

The interior decoration has been conserved in good condition (4).

Referrences

1.Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 35.
2. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 163.
3. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Textbook Projects, pp. 171-173.
4. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silapa lae Sathapattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 163.

Ѵšظ
Ѵšظ

 

ѴšظѴҴ˭աѴ˹觵ҧҹѹͧҪѧҳ dzǡѺѴɰѴЦѧ (Ѵ⾸) µҧҹͧͧҧ觵çѴɰ ѨغѹࢵӺŻе٪ ;йظ ѧѴйظ

ѴšظѴҧظҵ͹ҧ Ѩغѹѡѡѧͺ оطٻ԰ͻٹҧʹ§ͧ оطٻͧ Ѩغѹдɰҹҧ ѹоѡ价ҧ˹ ͧ 42 ٧ 8 оѡ С˹عõ駵ç մͧ͡Ѻ ѡɳТͧҧоطٻҧʹظҵ͹ ǹкҷ͹ҡѺͧ Ѩغѹѡɳ繾оطٻçͧ 觹Ҩ繡¡اظҵ͹2 оطٻͧдɰҹ þѧŧѧͧҧ Żҡâش觾оطٻҧʹ .. 2497 кó .. 25322


оطʹ3


ѴšظҵѺҪѧҳѴྪ ҹ觵ѹͧͧ ;ԨóҨҡ觡ҧբҴ˭ ʴѴѴդӤѭ˹ظҵ͹ ǹͧࢵطѧǡᾧͺ ҹ˹˭袹Ҵͧ آ駴ҹ˹дҹѧ (Ҵ 20.10×49.50 ) ´ҹ¢Ңͧ˭âҴ硡 з 2 ѧͺբҴ§ѹ (ѧҢҴ 14.10×36.30 ѧ¢Ҵ 13.20×35.40 ) ÷ 3 ѧ Ѩغѹ§鹰ҹ4

آ¢ͧ˭͡Ѻ§ҹҡ Ǵҹ 67.50 վлҧ٧ 30 ͧиҹͧѴ ѺúóҾóش Ѵ繰ҹͧʶ (33×17 ) ͡§ҹѴ֧繾й͹ѹоѡ价ҧ˹ 价ҧȵѹ͡ ǹùѧ5


ἹѧѴšظ ѡҧ鹷ҧͧѴẺͧҧҡѺͺ᡹᡹˹6


Ҩ . ҡ7


ἹѧѴšظ
Żҡ , Ҫѧҳ, çӹѡº¡Ѱ, .. 25118









Wat Lokayasutharam
Wat Lokayasutharam, one of the main temples, is situated in the west of the Ancient Palace in the same area as Wat Worachettharam and Wat Rakhang (Wat Worapoh). It was located in the south of Klong Kwang, the canal opposite Wat Worachettharam. Now it is in the area of Pratuchai Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province.

Wat Lokayasutharam was constructed in the Middle Ayutthaya Period. Now it is nearly all in ruins, left only a huge reclining Buddha image. Nowadays, the Buddha image is situated in the open air, turning his face to the north. The image is 42 meters long and 8 meters high. The faceis long with one arm folded straightly supporting the head which is placed on a lotus. That is the art style of constructing Buddha image in Early Ayutthaya Period. His feet were superimposed vertically to his body. At present, the image is decorated. It is believed that it was decorated in the late Ayutthaya Period (2). Originally, the image was situated in a vihara. Later, the vihara tumbled down, left only its clues. The Department of Fine Arts dug up the image in 1944 and renovated it in 1989.

The reclining Buddha (3)

This temple is situated near the Ancient Palace and Wat Phra Sri Sanphet in the west of Klong Thor. Considering from the huge structure, it shows that the temple was one of the important temples in the Late Ayutthaya Period. The religious area is still surrounded by walls. In the front, there was a big vihara of eight-roomed size with the front and the back porticos (20.10X49.50 meters). On the left and the right of the big vihara, there was a smaller viharas with nearly the same size (The right one was 14.10X36.30 meters; and the left one was 13.20X35.40 meters). Nowadays, only the bases of the three viharas were left (4).

The portico at the back of the big vihara connected to verandas with only the bases left with 67.50 meters long on each side. There was a prang (pagoda)with 30 meters high, which was completely renovated as the main prang of the temple. Next to this prang, there is the base of the Ubosot (33X17 meters). Outside the veranda at the back of the temple, there was the reclining Buddha turning his face to the north, and his head to the east. For the vihara, it was completely damaged (5).

The plan of Wat Lokayasutharam, using balance of the spaces between two equal areas around a core (6).

The patterns of Sema (leaf-like boundary stone) by Ajarn Nor Na Baknam(7).

The Plan of Wat Lokayasutharam

By the Department of Fine Arts.(1968). Phraratchawang Boran (The Ancient palace). Bangkok: The Office of the Prime Minister Press (8).

References

1. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P.
World Media.
2. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai
Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Srts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press.
3. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P.
World Media.
4. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and
Humanities Projects, pp. 94-95.
5. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and
Humanities Projects, pp. 94-95.
6. Wichatcharoon, Pattama. (2000). A picture in Kanseuksa Panpang Wat Samai Ayutthaya nai
Khet Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Study of Plans of Temples in
Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Area). N.P., p. 304.
7. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). A picture in Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences
And Humanities Textbook Projects, pp. 94-95.
8. Malakul, Associate Professor Momluang Pratheep. (2005). A picture in Krung Si Ayutthaya Barithas. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, p. 55.

਴·
਴·

 

਴·1


਴· ਴շͧ٧ͧǴҹȵѹͧСاظ Ҿ Ѻ 繨شèͧž ͤͧ͹ѺҾ ǹ觵çͧ਴ͧѴѵҸҪѴ 觵ҧѴظ蹡ѹ

ҪǴá .. 2091 稾Ҩѡþô ҵວǵ¡Ѿҵ駤اظ 稾ҨѡþôԾ稾· Ѥ Ҫ оҪԴ çʴ͡Ǩѧ֡ 稾ҨѡþôѺ÷Тͧ 稾·«觻ͧ繪 çҾҪըѹ ֧çʢҧзҢҧ ١ʧͧǿѹ鹾Ъ躹ͪҧ 稾Ҩѡþôô ӾȾǹǧҪطҹࢵѧѧ ҳࢵԴѺѴʺä dz繷ҧѧ˹ҵ ʧصŧ ֧ô ҧؾҪҹԧȾ㹺dzǹǧô ҧѴ਴㹺dzҧ ¡ “Ѵǹǧ” ѴͧѴǡѹ ¡ “Ѵǹǧʺä”2

ҧá 㹷ҧѵʵաõ駤Ӷ͡óաûͧ繪֡͡ʧ ͧͶͧԧ 㹷ҧʶһѵ¡աõ駢ʧ ѡɳ਴ẺԺͧ鹹Ҩѡɳͧ਴ҧѹҡظҵ͹¾Һ ҡҷؤظҵ͹ҧ¾Ҩѡþô ͡ҡѧաõ駢ѧࡵ ҧ਴иҹͧѴ㹾طʹҹ·ѡҧط֧֡оطӤѭ ͺèѰԢͧؤ ͺèؾкԡҵ ਴èѰԢͧؤ ਴иҹͧѴ3


Ҿ਴·4


ͧ਴·਴Ժͧѡɳз§Ѻ਴ҷͧ 觷ҧѹͺʹȢͧ਴· ਴ͧ硵 ਴кҷ稾Ш Ѫŷ 4 ôͧҧ਴ШҪŢͧͧѴ⾸ (Ѵવؾѧ اྷ) ਴ͧ˹਴ 4 Ѫ áͧѵԹ5

աõ駡šاͻ ..2449 ֧͡ʶҹ㹡ᾧͧҹȵѹҾ ʶҹӡáҧ зͧѧ .. 2451 кҷ稾ШŨʴһСͺԸ ѧʹյҪ йظҴѧ ҳҪҹԹѺҪйظҹҹ֧֡Ҩҡ͡ҳǡѺʶҹ㹾йظ º§ͧǡѺʶҹӤѭ ͧاظҢ鹷 ˹ѧͪ “͸ԺἹйظ” ˹ѧ͸ԺἹйظҢͧҳҪҹԹ쩺Ѻػ ÷ҧ鹵駵çdzǹǧ ѧѧ Ѵʺä ͧ ˵عѧ .. 2455 кҷ稾خ “ʹҷͧվкҷҪԾ...” ֧㨡ѹҧ͹Դõ稾·Ш֡ͤʴشáѹ˭

਴·ʶһѵͺͷ 13 38 ҧ СͺẺظ ҧ繡ᾧǷֺЪͧ 俻дѺء 5 ٧ 1.20 Ǵҹ˹ 140 ҹѧ 80 ջеٷҧ 2 еҹȵѹ§˹ ҡеٷҧҵçͧҧҧǹ١дѺ Ѵ͡价ҧҹշҧԹٴ԰͡§Ẻҧ 2 ҧͧҧԹѴǹç仵ҧԹо਴Ժͧͧ˭駵˧ҹ 觾кҷ稾خ Ѫŷ 6 Ҫҹ਴ͧ “਴·”

㹻 .. 2533 ѰͺŻҡôԹúóЫ਴· Ф鹾ͧè觢ͧդҷҺٹԴdzҹ˹ͺѧ ѵط鹾 оطٻԹͷ਴ͧˡçЦѧԹͷ ਴ͧˡèؼͺͧҹѷˡԹҺطͧ ١Ѵ ѭ 蹷ͧ 繵 ѨغѹѡͧҸҵ㹾ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ

㹻 .. 2534 աҧоطٻ “оط· ԡԵ զ” ٧ 163 ૹ 繾оطٻͧͧͧ稾йҧԡԵ кҪԹչҶ ͧáʷçԭЪҤú 60 оطٻè㹫਴·


оط· ԡԵ զ6






Chedi Si Suriyothai (1)
Chedi Si Suriyothai is the only pagoda situating on the Chao Phraya River in the west of Krung Si Ayutthaya Island near Hua Laem, the place where Lop BuriRiveror the upper part of Khu Muang is connected to the Chao Phraya River. Opposite of this chedi is Wat Kasattrathirat Worawihan and Wat Thammaram, the temples constructed since Ayutthaya period as well.

The royal chronicle indicated that in 1548 in the reign of King Maha Chakkrapat, King Tabengchaweti moved his troops and besieged krung Si Ayutthaya. King Maha Chakkrapat together with Queen Suriyothai, their sons and their daughters rode on elephant backs and fought against the enemies. King Maha Chakkrapat was fighting against King Brae at Makhamyong field. Queen Suriyothai disguising as a male warrior saw that the King was in danger; she drove her elephant to obstruct King Brae. She was killed by King Brae’s halberd and died on the elephant’s back. King Maha Chakkrapat commanded taking her body to the royal garden in the back palace connecting to Wat Sobsawan. Later, the area was used to construct the front palace. When the war ended, the King commanded constructing a royal place for the Queen’s funeral in Wat Sobsawan area. He also commanded constructing a temple and a chedi (pagoda) in the funeral area and named it “Wat Suan Luang”. Later the two temples were united into a temple called “Wat Suan Luang Sobsawan” (2).

However, historical arguments happened with questions if the Queen’s disguising as a male warrior and went to war are believable. According to the architecture, an observation was raised that the chedi with twelve indented corners was very popular at the late Ayutthaya period or in the reign of King Boromakote, not in the reign of King Maha Chakkrapat which was in the middle period. Moreover, an observation also indicated that according to Buddhism, the main chedi in a temple was built to make an offering or as a memorial place for the Buddha, not for containing bone ashes of any person, but to contain the Buddha’s relics. The chedi used to contain a person’s bone ashes should not be the main chedi of a temple (3).

Lined Patterns of Chedi Si Suriyothai

Chedi Si Suriyothai was in the form of twelve wooden indented corners, the same form as Chedi Phukhao Thong. The difference was that on the tops of the canopies at Chedi Si Suriyothai, there were small chedi on them. They were the chedi that King Mongkut, the fourth king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period), commanded imitatingit to construct a chedi in auspiciousness of him at Wat Pho (Wat Phra Chetuphon Wimon Mangkhararam in Bangkok). It is one in a group of the
four chedi in auspiciousness of the first four kings of Rattanakosin period (5).

When a regiment of soldiers in Mon-ton Krung Kao (A percint of the old city) was established in 1906, a place inside the city wall in the west on the Chao PhrayaRiver was chosen to construct the Chedi. Later in1908, King Chulalongkorn went to do a ritual and pay sacrifice to former kings in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. Phraya Boran Ratchathanin, who had been the governor of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya for a long time, studied the documents about the historic places in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, and wrote a book about the location of each historic place. He presented a book in the topic “Athibai Paenthee Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (Explanation of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya’s Maps)” to the King. In this book, it concluded that the regiment of soldiers was built on a piece of land that was once a royal garden, the back palace and Wat Sob Sawan. As a result, in 1912 King Vajiravudh “together with his court officials ” constructed a statue in honor of Queen Suriyothai and engraved a passage to praise the Queen’s heroic performance.

Chedi Si Suriyothai and its area with 13 rai 38 square war (One rai = 400 square war = 1600 square meters) comprised the fence in indented corners and was contructed in thick walls with apertures decorating with a lantern in every five meters. The fence was 1.20 meters high. The outer fence was 140 meters long, and the inner fence was 80 meters long. There were two gates in the northwest. From the two gates, there were paths decorated with small gardens of flowers. Next to the left side, it was a path covered with blocked bricks placed in the form of fish bones. On both sides of the paths, there were small gardens of flowers leading to the main Chedi in the form of twelve wooden indented corners. King Vajiravudh named the chedi “Phra Chedi Si Suriyothai”.

In 1990, the government appointed the Department of Fine Arts to renovate Chedi Si Suriyothai. A white-washed hole containing valuable properties was discovered at an area over the bell-shaped part. They were Buddha images made of quartz, a model of a hexagonal bell-shaped chedi inquartz, a model of hexagonal chedi containing a hexagonal casket of high cone made of baked clay and covered with gold, beads, precious stones, sheets of gold, and etc. Nowadays, all the valuable things are kept in Mahathat room at Chao Sam Phraya NationalMuseum.

In 1991, a Buddha image called “Phra Buddha Suriyothai Sirikit Theekhayu Mongkhol” was made with 163 centimeters high. He is the Buddha image in auspiciousness for Queen Sirikit, the present queen, to celebrate her birth anniversary when she was 60 years old. The Buddha image is placed at an arbor at Chedi Si Suriyothai.
Phra Buddha Suriyothai Sirikit Theekhayu Mongkhol (6)

References

1.Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). A picture in Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences
And Humanities Textbook Projects, pp. 91-93.
2. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon SiAyutthaya (A Manual for Thai Srts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 131.
3. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences
And Humanities Textbook Projects, pp. 91-93.
4. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradokloke
(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of
Thailand, p. 125.
5. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences
And Humanities Textbook Projects, pp. 91-93.
6. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). A picture in Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences And Humanities Textbook Projects, pp. 91-93.

਴Ѵ
਴Ѵ

 

਴Ѵ ҧǧ¹ҧͧҹȵѹ͡ ͹оҹմ-çоҹ ӻѡͧйظ Ѩغѹ਴Ѵ§ͧ਴Ӿѧ ǹͧѴ١ ਴Ѵ਴çỴ Żظҵ͹ Żҡúó਴ͧҾóФѡɳӤѭ1


਴Ѵ






Chedi Wat Sam Pleum
Chedi Wat Sam Pleum is situated in the middle of the roundabout of the road leading to the city island in the east before coming to Preedee-Thamrong and King Naresuan bridges which cross the Pa Sak River to the island of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. Nowadays, Wat Sam Pleum leaves only its chedi and the other parts of the temple were completely destroyed. Chedi Wat Sam Pleum is octagonal in the artistic style of the early Ayutthaya period. The Department of fine Arts already renovated the chedi in its good condition (1).

Chedi Wat sam Pleum

Reference

1.Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). Khumeu Chom Silapa lae Sathapattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 128.

Ѵͧ
Ѵͧ

 

Ѵͧ Ҵҳ 2-3 繴ԹԴ鹡žӻѡҧ蹴Թ˭Ѵͧ պҹ͹ 12 ѧ͹ Ѵ 1 Ѵ Ѵҧ վоطٻǧ͢Ѵͧ ҧǷҶ֧Ѵͧͷҧ շҧԹͶ ǺҹСͺҪվҢ 觢ͧҧ еͧ¤ҷѺʹ ÷ͧͺͧظҵͧҹѴͧ


Ҿ·ҧҡʴ˹觢ͧѴͧ ҹҧ (شտ)1


ѴͧѴҧ çҧҤ ͡ҡԴ§ѧ վоطٻҧԪ Ҵҧ ѹ 5 ͧ Ѵ§ǡѹ§ ҷѨغѹӡúóТªǺҹ躹㹻 .. 2530 ǹͧѡɳдҳ ӡõ ªǺҹ蹡ѹ ͧش;оطٻǧ͢ ѴҾʹҺҧ⾸좹Ҵ˭ dzԴ觢Ҵ վоطٻҧҸԵ§ͧ ѴͧѴҧǺҹѧҺѡСѹ繻Ш ա÷ӺحШӻѹʧҹ


  

оطٻҧԪ 5 ͧ


ѵԤҢͧѴѧѴਹ Ǻҹ躹Ѵҵظ


оطٻҧҸ


ҾʹҺ






Koh Wat Chonglom (The Isle of Wat Chonglom)
Koh Wat Chonglom is a small island about 2-3 rai (1 rai = 1,600 sqare meters). It is a piece of land between Pa Sak and Lop Buri Rivers, and situated between Koh loy and the main land at Wat Trong Pu. There are twelve houses and one deserted temple on it. At the temple, there is a Buddha image called Luang Poh Khao Wat Chonglom. Only one way to go to the isle is by boat. There is no path or road on the isle. The people living there earn their livelihood by delivering goods by boat, and have to pay some renenues for the land to the Department of Religious Affairs. One who used to take a boat trip around Ayutthaya City Island had to pass Koh Wat Chonglom.

The aerial photograph showing the location of Koh Wat Chonglom, the small island on the upper right hand (the blue-squared spot) 1

Wat Chonglom has been deserted without the structure of any building left. There is only an uncovered rest-house with five Buddha images in the attitude of subduing the mara situated beautifully in line inside the house. The rest-house seen nowadays was renovated by the people living on the isle in 1987. The Buddha images themselves are in ancient style, but they have also been renovated by the people on the isle from time to time. The innerest Buddha image is Luang Poh Khao. Next to the rest-house is the spirit house near a big bodh-tree of Chaopoh Dabchai (A holy spirit called Dabchai). On the bank of the river, there is another small uncovered rest-house with only one Buddha image in the attitude of subduing the mara inside. Although Wat Chonglom is a deserted temple, the people on the isle always go to pay homage to the Buddha images, and making merit is annually done on Songkran Days.

The five Buddha images in the attitude of subduing the mara

The history of this temple is not clear, but the people on the isle believe that it was constructed in Ayutthaya period.

The Buddha image in the attitude of subduing the mara in the rest-house near the river

The spirit house of Chaopoh Dabchai

References

A picture in “Wat Mondop-Kohloy-Ahuyutthaya-Wat Lek tae Prawatsart Yai (Wat Mondop-Kohloy-Ayutthaya-Small Temples, But Big history)”. Retrived June 3, 2011 onshutterphoto.com.

Ѵ¸
Ѵ¸

 

Ѵ¸ҵdz͹˹ͧ͢ࢵ͹ѡͧ¸ 㹷ͧӺѹ ;йظ ѧѴйظ ¡աҧ Ѵ¸ Ѵ ӹҹ㹾Ǵ˹ dzͧѴ繾Ҫѧ¸ ͡ѵ黡ͧͧ¾鹷ѧҧѴ ֧ Ѵ ѹٹҧͧͧ¸ӻѡ ͹ͧʶһҡاظ ˹ͧʹ

ӹҹѴѴ¸ҹ繵ӹҹẺǡѹѺӹҹҧѴط 觵ҧѹçҵӹҹѴ¸ٹҧͧͧ͹ҧظҹѹͧ͡СاظҴҹӻѡ ǹӹҹѴطҾҴҹͧСا1

稾й³Ҫ 稾оطҨʻͧѴ 稾оطҨٻ繼 “ҷҴ” (ҴѺ͹蹴Թ) 稾й³Ҫ ҡվغѴաٻ˹2

͡ҡ ¾Һ վԡٻ˹觪 “͹” ŧ¹㹡اظҨ­͹ “оҡ” ˹觾ҪҤнԻʹҸ Ѵ 稾Һȷçʶһ繾ѧҪͧҧ Ѵнҧ (ѧѴصôԵ㹻Ѩغѹ) ¡اظҤ駷 2 .. 2310 ͧ駻ǧվҪҸԺջͧҡѹ駵Ǣ¡ ѧҪͧ繼ͧͶԪҤǪҭ Ѵͧᴧ᷹ʶһҵ “Ҿнҧ” 繡ҾнҧվʧѾع֡ ѧ稾ҵҡԹاշç¡Ѿ任Һ .. 2313 ͧҳࢵͧҾнҧ ǹҾнҧ˹٭3

кҷ稾ШŨ Ѫŷ 5 觡اѵԹ ͤʴ稻о㹻Ѫ .. 2451 çк ѴѴҳ ¸ Ѵշҧй¸ ѧ 鹷㹺dz֧͡ѹͧ¸ҵ繵 ѧеҨ֧ա¡Ѵ¸ ʹͧѺ͹4

ѴͧѴخմ 觻ѨغѹͶҹ˹Ѵ µҡͧèѺͧѹҷҧ͹˹ 觡ҧࢵطʷѧһеٷҧҴҹ˹ҷȵѹ͡ Ժͧ ٧ҳ 2.50 Ѵ਴ 2 ͧ ҧѪŷ 5 ͺèѰԢͧ͸ԡѴЭҵ ҡ繾ʶҧ躹ҹ繾ʶظ5


਴Ѵ¸6


Ѵ¸Ѵ ҡѡҹ㹾ǴظҶ֧úóѧóС ҤѴǧʷӤѭպҷҧʹظѴ˹ ¾й³Ѵ稾оطҨϼᵡҹ㹤ûԮ ͧͼ “ҷҴ” 繪ҴӤѭͧҪӹѡظ7

. ҡ ¹Ҷ֧Ѵ (Ѵ¸) ˹ѧ͹ҧҡ԰ظ “਴çѧỴ躹ҹ٧ ਴ʹѡŧѧҹѡԳ٧ҡ š 繷˹ҡ͹ ͧЦѧ鹻ٹ繡պǫ͹͹ պѹ䴢ͧ਴ҹ˹дҹѧ ѴӴԹ¢¤⾸좹Ҵ˭Դçҧ ѴẺª Ҩ繢ͧ ҧѴҧʶ ẺҵԴ˹ʶѹ˹觫е١ᾧͪҧ¾й³蹾й³ԧѹ˹ ֧Ҩһѧó˭¾й³ ਴ҹԺͧ١ͷǡʶ᷹ Իͺ Ѵ繷 Ѵͧ躹͹ ѧͧҢͧç˹ šçҹ਴觡٧ҡ ҧҨ繰ҹ਴Ǩ֧ѧó ҧ਴Ỵѧ

Ҿ·

1. еҺdzط ҹȵѹ͡еѹմҹ 1 е ѧѴਹ§ҹǤͷȵѹ͡ еٹիһеٷͧҧ͹Ǩآ͹ 2 պǤк˧ һеԺͧ ٧ҳ 2.50

2. ਴ һеٷҧȵѹ͡਴ҧТ 2 ͧ ਴ç ҹѡɳԧ ͺҡͶ 繢ͧҧѪŷ 5 觡اѵԹ ͺèѰԢͧ͸ԡ ¹աͧ˹觺èѰԢͧѧ - ҧ (ͧ͸ԡ )

3. ʶ ҧҡҹ բҴҧҳ 9 ǻҳ 15 վлиҹҧԪ ٹ 繾оطٻѺúóТӺ͡ лиҹͧкҷ稾ШŨʴһԴͧ Ҿлиҹͧ§ҡ ʶѧ Ѵҧ令˹ Ҵ֧شش ¸ҵмѧªҡͧ лиҹͧѨغѹдɰҹҹء٧ 1.44 ˹ҵѡҧ 3.50 ٧ҳ 4.90 ʶѧآѹçҧҹ˹ м͡ѧآͧҹժŴ 㹪ѧҧʶҡҹ ҧآѹͧҧ͹ͧ ѨغѹʶҧѴ鵡觷

4. лҧ ѧʶ ҹԺͧѡԳ٧ 3.66 պǤӺ˧ͧ ҧǤ˧ª鹷ͧժͧٻҡҷҹ 7 ͧ Ѩغѹѧ٧ҡҹѡԳ任ҳ 3.00 ʹлҧѡŧ ѧҡ繡պع Ҩ繽ͪҧѧ 稾һҷͧ

5. ਴иҹ ѡɳаҹҧ٧ 1 պǤӺ˧ ҧ 1.90 ѡԳ٧ҳ 7 պǤӺ˧ ҹ਴ç 8 պǤӺ˧ ѹ鹴ҹѹ͡ 1 ѹ Цѧçͺապǫ͹ 2 ¡պѡɳ͹ ѧ 8 ҹкǶǹҳ٧ 30 ਴ͧѡɳФ Ѻ਴ѴҸҵ ä ѧѴ¹ҷ ѡԳ٧ 㹨ѧѴйظ 龺਴ẺǡѹѴҧ ਴ͧѡɳз繾ɡ਴蹵çͧЦѧ繡պ˧¢Ҵ˭ дѺͺͧЦѧ Ѩغѹ§ҧǹҹ

6. Ѩغѹ§ԹԹ٧ҳ 1 ѹɰҹҤҧǡѺʶѧ ʶѧ Һһٴ¡ͧԹ 8 ҧ 40ૹ ˹ 5.3 ૹ ͻپͧաͧԹ 4 áçҧ

͡ҡҧҹͧͧ਴١Ѵࢵѧ վʧӾ աû١ҧد ҡ­ 繷¢ͧ繷СͺԸշҧʹҢͧǺҹdz ѨغѹҧѴ鵺ࢵط¹ҷʶ ооطٻҾͧҳʶҹҳѵ¹ ͧ繤¹͡ҡ਴иҹ

Ѵ¸ (Ѵ) ѺûСȢ鹷¹ҳʶҹ觪ҵ .. 2486 »СҪԨҹມ 60 ͹ 39 ѹ 20 áҤ 2486


ʶ 㹻дɰҹлٹ鹻Դͧ ҧԪ ˹ʶվоطٻҧҸԻдɰҹ8






Wat Ayothaya
Wat Ayothaya is located in the conserved area called “Muang Kao Ayothaya (the old city of Ayothaya)” at Hantra Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. It is also called “Wat Si Ayothaya” or “Wat Derm (The original temple)”. According to the north historical annals, it was believed that the area of this temple was once the royal palace in Ayothaya period. Later the king governing the city donated the area to build the temple. As a result, the temple is called “Wat Derm (the original temple)”. It was the center of Ayothaya City on the bank of Pa Sak River. This happened before King U-Thong founded Krung Si Ayutthaya as the capital at the area called “Nong Sanoh (a swamp of a kind of water plants called Sanoh).

The legend of Wat Derm or Wat Ayothaya is the same as that of Wat Phutthai Sawan. It is only different with the belief in the legend of Wat Ayothaya that the center of the old city before the foundation of Krung Si Ayutthaya was in the east of the city Island on the Pa Sak River, but the legend of Wat Phutthai Sawan indicated that it was on the bank of the Chao Phraya River in the south of the city island (1).

In the reign King Narai the Great, Phra Buddha Khosajarn was the abbot of the temple. The abbot was the one who wrote “Rachowat Chadok” (A book telling about the existence of the Buddha and used to teach kings), and presented it to the King. Later Phra Ubalee became the other abbot of this temple (2).

Later, in the reign of King Boromakot, a monk named “Ruan” went to study in Krung Si Ayutthaya. He got “Prian (graduate of theology)” and was promoted to “Phra Phakul Thera” which was a clerical title of the monks who practiced transcendental meditation at this temple. After that King Boromakot promoted him to the rank of the abbot of Muang Sawangkhaburi at Wat Phra Fang (a temple in Uttaradit now). When Krung Si Ayutthaya was lastly destroyed in 1767, there were no heads to govern the chief cities. Many warriors promoted themselves to govern the chief cities. The abbot was believed by city people that he was proficient in magic spells. Therefore, he was disrobed, put on red clothes, promoted himself as “Chao Phra Fang” and became head of Chao Phra Fang clique by having many monks as army leaders. Finally, King Taksin of Thon Buri moved his troops to suppress him in 1670. The chief cities which belonged to Chao Phra Fang were defeated. Chao Phra Fang ran away and disappeared.

King Chulalongkorn, the fifth king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period), took a trip to Ayutthaya in 1908 and stated that Wat Derm was an ancient temple built since Ayutthaya period. It was khammawasi temple (a temple in a city, town or village) situated in the middle of Ayothaya City. Therefore, the area has been believed being Ayothaya City since then. Later, the temple was newly named “Wat Ayothaya” in agreement with this belief (4).

The temple was situated on the canal near Wat Kudeedao. Nowadays, the canal has become the road in front of the temple which is situated at the mouth of the canal connecting to the other canal called “Hantra” in the north. The remains left in the religious area are the gate-posts of an entrance in the east. The gate-posts were made in twelve indented corners with 2.50 meters high. Next, there are two chedi constructed in the reign of King Chulalongkorn used to contain bone remains of abbots and their relatives. Next to the chedi, there was an ubosot newly constructed on the base of the old one in Ayutthaya period (5).

The old chedi at Wat Ayothaya (6)

Wat Ayothaya or Wat Derm was not mentioned in Ayutthaya annals about the renovation or restoration. On the contrary, it is believed that it might have been a royal temple, the place for the important abbots to stay and took religious roles in Ayutthaya period; for example, in the reign of King Narai, there was Somdej Phra Buddha Khosajarn who had great intellect in the Tripitaka. This abbot was believed to write “Rachowat Chadok”, a very important chadok (A book telling about existence of the Buddha) of Ayutthaya court (7).

Nor Na Parknam wrote and told about Wat Derm (Wat Ayothaya) in his book, Ha Duan klang Sak It tee Ayutthaya (Five Months among the Remains in Ayutthaya), “there is an octagonal chedi in Langka style (spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base) situated on a high base which can be seen from the distance. The top of the chedi tumbled down, but the part on top of the bell-shaped chedi called “Banlang Than Taksin” was built very highly. It is strange and I have never seen the chedi like this before. The body of the chedi in bell shape was molded in the form of lotus petals overlapped each other similar to ones on top of a column. There are two sets of stairs, one in the front and the other one in the back of the chedi. The old Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stones) of Wat Derm were made of white sand stone with the pattern of a big leaf from bodhi tree (the tree that the Buddha got his enlightment) in the middle. They are the old style of Bai Sema and the original ones that are left. The temple was rebuilt with a new ubosot and the bai sema were put in front of it. Another thing is the door façade made by the craftman in King Narai’s reign, and a Bai Sema in King Narai’s reign was put against it. As a result, it is believed that the temple was grandly renovated in King Narai reign. The chedi with the base made in twelve-indented corners was completely damaged and the ubosot was built instead at the area. The area around the temple was originally lowland, but the temple might have been built on a mound. The clue of it is still remained. Remarkably, the base of the chedi was built very highly. It may be the base of the original chedi which was renovated, and afterwards the octagonal chedi was built over it.

The General Remains
1. Two gates leading to the religious area, one in the east and the other one in the west. Visibly, there is only a gate in the east with no façade. A small building with four gable ends of two levels called ruankaew chaturamuk was built on each gate-post. Figures of overturned and faced up lotuses were put under the small buildings. The posts themselves were made in twelve-indented corners about 2.50 meters high.

2. When entering through the east gate, there is a pair of chedi, one on the left and the other on the right. They are square chedi with the form of lion legs under them. After asking a scholar, he said that the chedi were laterly built in the reign of King Chulalongkorn of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period). One was used to contain bone ashes of a head of monks named Tai, the abbot of the temple at that time. The other one was used to contain Mr. Sang’s and Mrs. Kasem’s bone ashes (the abbot’s, Tai, parents).

3. The present ubosot was constructed on the original base with 9 meters wide and 15 meters long. A Buddha image in the attitude of subduing the mara made of molded mortar is situated inside. It was said that the image was recently renovated. Once, King Chulalongkorn went to cover the original main Buddha image with gold leaves. The Buddha image might have been very beautiful, but due to the fact that the old ubosot did not have the roof, being deserted and uninterested, the Buddha image was naturally damaged or was destroyed by people who made profit from the image. The present main Buddha image is situated on the base with 1.44 meters high. The width of his lap is 3.50 meters long and he is 4.90 meters high. The old ubosot had two passages in the north and in the south. It was also said that both sides of the passages were built with levels. Later when the new ubosot was built on the original base, passages were not built on both sides. Nowadays, the ubosot was already decorated and painted.

4. Phra Prang (stupa) was situated behind the ubosot. The base of Phra Prang called Tarn Taksin was made in a square with twelve indented corners and 3.66 meters high. The base was built with two levels in the form of lotuses turning face down and up. On the second level between the lotuses turning face down and up, there were 7 apertures in the form of crosses. Nowadays, Phra Prang leaves only the remains about 3 meters higher than its base. The top of the stupa tumbled down. Only the patterns called “kleeb Khanoon” were seen, and they were said to be the style of craftmen in King Prasat Thong reign.

5. The main chedi has the base with the lower level in square with one meter high and with the models of lotuses turning faces up and down. The higher base is 7 meters high and also with the models of lotuses turning faces up and down. The base under the body of the chedi was octagonal and in the models of lotuses turning faces up and down, too. A set of stairs leads to the east side. The chedi is bell-shaped with two levels of models of lotus petals around it. The end of the lotus petals is graceful. On the top of the bell-shaped chedi, there is an octagonal base with small posts called “sao harn” on it with lotus-shaped models on top. The remains of the chedi are about 30 meters high. The chedi is nearly the same as that of Wat Maha That at Amphoe Sankhaburi in Chai Nat because they both have high bases. There is also the same style of Chedi at Wat Mae Nang Pleum in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. The special style of this kind of chedi is that the bell-shaped body contains very big models of lotus petals turning faces up decorated around it. Nowadays, only some parts of them are left.

6. Wihan (Vihara) is left only its monud about one meter high. According to the assumption, it might have been built the same time as the original ubosot. Inside the ubosot and the vihara were covered with ceramics made from baked clay in octagonal form with 40 centimeters wide and 5.3 centimeters thick. The floors covered with the ceramics mentioned were also put inbetween with square ceramics.

Additionally, the south of the main chedi is the area for monks’ accommodations. There were many monks staying in the area. Monks’ dwellings and a sermon hall were built on it. The people around the temple have used the area for religious rituals and ceremonies. Nowadays, the religious area was newly decorated with paintings inside the ubosot, Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone), and the Buddha images. The decoration made the ancient remains and the antiques changed. Only the main chedi still shows the ancient style.

Wat Ayothaya (Wat Derm) was declared and registered as a national historic site in 1943 with the declaration in the government gazette, volume 60, part 39, on July 20, 1943.

Inside the ubosot, there is a Buddha image molded with mortar and covered with gold leaves in the attitude of subduing the mara. In front of the ubosot, there is also a Buddha image in the attitude of doing meditation (8).

References

1. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 112-113.
2. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province, p. 45.
3. Referred, p. 46.
4. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 113.
5. Referred.
6. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A Picture in Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, p. 47.
7. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 113.
8. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A picture and caption in Khumeu Chom Silapa lae Sathapattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon SiAyutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 138.

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دͧ”

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Wat Thammaram

Wat Thammaram is an ancient temple built since Krung Si Ayutthaya was the capital. It is situated at Ban Pom Subdistrict, moo 6, outside the city island in the east and on the Chao Phraya River, some distance across Chedi Si Suriyothai and Wat Kasattrathirat. Nowadays, if we look across the City Island at Chedi Si Suriyothai, we will see an ancient monk dwelling made of laid bricks and mortar on the river. Originally, its name was Wat Tharama or Wat Thamma. Later, it was named “Wat Thammawat” or “Wat Ratchathammawat Worawihan”. At present, it is called “Wat Thammaram” (1), and assumed being built not less than 415 years ago.

This temple was the place where Phra Ubalee who was a Buddhist prelate stayed. King Boromakot sent Phra Ubalee, Phra Ariya Muni and another twelve monks to Langka Island (Bangladesh) to ordain people and to promote Buddhism on the island in 1753, according to the invitation of the Langka king who wanted to restore Buddhism in Sri Langka (Bangladesh). At that time, Buddhism in Sri Langka was in recession, and Buddhist monks were very rare. As a result, it led to the restoration of Buddhism in Sri Langka. Phra Ubalee ordained about 700 monks and 300 novices. Thus Buddhism there has been called “Ubalee Wong” or “Phra Siam Wong” till today (2).

Wat Thammaram (3)

Wat Thammaram had been used as the Burmese camp every time the Burmese moved their troops to invade Krung Si Ayutthaya, in order to control the water communication due to the fact that north of Wat Thammaram is the place where the Lop Buri River connects to the Chao Phraya River. In Ayutthaya period, it was the Thai important stronghold in moving troops to help protect the city. Behind Wat Thammaram, there was a wide field called “Thung Prached”, the place used for fighting between the Thai and the Burmese troops. Becauuse Wat Thammaram is situated in the west opposite the Royal Palace in Ayutthaya period; the temple was also used as the boat landing in Ayutthaya time.

After Krung Si Ayutthaya was defeated in 1767, Wat Thammaram was completely burnt down by the Burmese. As a result, it was deserted. There is evidence mentioning about Wat Thammaram in a part of lyrical poetry “Nirat Phrabat” written by Sunthorn Phu:

“Temples and temple grounds on the banks
are true according to the writings.
Chedi remains are left everywhere
and sermon halls are in ruins.
Wat Tharama made me in sorrow.
The temple where the Crown Prince,
or prince of the back palace,
had trust to renovate it.
Once it was shiny with beauty, but now deserted.
Being sympathy for Wat Thamma,
newly built in the name of Wat Tharama,
It’s like my suffering in thinking to have jewellery
and a golden crown to put on my body.”

The content in the poem shows that “Phra Wanglang (Prince of the back palace)” newly renovated it. This means Prince Anurakthewed (Thong In) who was born in the year of the tiger, 1746, in the reign of King Boromakot. He might have placed importance on Wat Thammaram and renovated it during 1785 1805 before his death in 1807.

Later, the temple was renovated again in the reign of King Rama I of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period). The king gave the name “Wat Ratchathammawat Worawihan” to the temple. It was a royal temple in Aranyawasi (the forest side). In the reign of King Rama V in 1906, a vihara, a hall for keeping the Buddhist scriptures and a sermon hall were built. After that the temple has been continuously renovated and mended (4).

Inside the temple, there was the main chedi in the round shape situated on a square base. There was also a vihara situated in the east, and the ubosot was situated behind the main chedi in the west. The hall for keeping the scriptures and the bell tower were by the river in the monks’ area in the east.

The monk dwelling on the river has two stireys. Now it is used for keeping the Buddhist scriptures, and is a Thai style house with mural paintings on the four sides of the wall. They tell biography of the Lord Buddha, the meeting of gods, lying down and doing meditation with corpses, and royal pictures of King Rama V.

Inside the religious area, there were the ubosot, the vihara, and the main chedi. The area was very wide and surrounded by walls.

Regarding the vihara, its gables contained molded flowers with models of various animals. The gable ends contained molded apexes (chorfah) and toothlike ridges (Bai Raka) on the sloping edges of the gables. The roof was covered with tiles made of baked clay. There were many Buddha images made of molded lime inside the vihara. A chedi in spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base (Song Langka) was behind the vihara. It was 20 wa (40 meters) high. Its base was doubled levels and decorated with molded lions around it. According to archeologists’ idea, the shape of the chedi was in early “Song Langka (spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base)” and shows that it was an old temple built in Ayutthaya period (5).

Wat Thammaram, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province (6)

References

1. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province, p. 47.
2. Chumpengphan, Pathum. (2001). Athibai Bhumisathan Krung Si Ayutthaya(Explanation of Krung Si Ayutthaya Geographical Sites). Bangkok: Chormo Dek, p. 71.
3. A picture in “Kharawan yuan Krung Si Ayutthaya: Thedsakarn Tiew Thai 5 Phark (A Caravan Visiting Krung Si Ayutthaya: Seasons of Thai Festivals in Five Regions)”. On line in Travel Time at http://www.travelthaimagazine.com/index.php?lay=show&ac=article&ld=538695272&Ntype=52.
4. Ayutthaya Study Institute. (nd.). Ayutthaya: Kwamsamphan tangdan Sassana rawang Prathed Thai kab Prathed Sri Langka (Relationship on Religion between Thailand and Sri Langka). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Rajabhat University.
5. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province, pp. 47 - 48.
6. Bloggang. com. (2008).A picture in “Bai Thamboon Wai Phra Gao Wat @ Ayutthaya Tornrab BeeMai Duaykan Nakha (Going to Do Merit for Nine Temples @ Ayutthaya to Welcome the New Year Together)” Retrieved December 25, 2008 on: http://www.bloggang.com.mainblog.php?id=yui-chan&month=25-12-2008&group=13&gblog=4.

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  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش شкóѴҧ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 218
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش͡Ẻ͡úóѴ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 594
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹ Ѵѡô
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 358
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹ˹ѡ§
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 274
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴҧ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 390
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴҧ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 207
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴ⡯
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 437
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴաش
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 272
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش鹾鹷dzҡҧ (ѧ)
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 239
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ͡Ẻ кóҳʶҹѴ˹Ҿ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 467
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش觺óѧóҳʶҹྐྵ´ͧҧ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 290
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش§ҹ âشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳ ҳʶҹѴЫ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 576
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡Ẻ͡úóѴྪ
  • շ: 2545
  • ӹǹ˹(): 284
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشҳʶҹ dz˹ӹѡҹطҹѵʵйظ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 195
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشҳʶҹѴ⤡
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 369
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشҳʶҹСâشҳѴ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 164
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóѴóҪ
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 327
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóлѺاԷȹѴخմ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 265
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóҳʶҹͧк Ѵʴ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 69
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ûԺѵԧҹشҢͺࢵѧѧ
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 654
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ûѺاԷȹҸóٻҪҹ稾ͧ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 54
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹش鹷ҧҳմҹȵѹ͡§ͧҪѧѹ
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 425
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹз
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 53
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹлҧ ѴҸҵ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 172
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹѴʧ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 191
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹѴ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 81
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ óѴ⤡
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 155
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ СͺúóҳʶҹѴѧ-ѧ
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 278
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ѴоҹҤ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 573
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ Ѵ⾸͡
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 434
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çâش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹͧк ѴЧ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 520
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çâش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 909
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çâش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 1079
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúó Ѵʴ лѺاԷȹҳʶҹdzͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 496
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúó Ѵʴ лѺاԷȹҳʶҹdzͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 574
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúóлѧاҾǴҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 91
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúóлѺاҾǴҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 96
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúóлѺاҾǴҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 96
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâش͡Ẻ͡úóѴ§
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 470
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹͧ çâشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳѴعͧ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 439
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹͧ çâشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳѴҳʹ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 285
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹͧ çâشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳѴѡ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 264
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ػ§ҹ çâش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 140
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç ҹóоʶ()Ѵʮҧ
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 63
 
  • ˹ѧ: çúóҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط էҳ 2550 ҹóѴ˭ (෾Ե)
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 276
   
  • ˹ѧ: çûѺاྪ
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 16
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹ Ѵ⤡
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 96
   
  • ˹ѧ: çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 §ҹúóҳʶҹѴط
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 105
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 §ҹúóҳʶҹѴҸҵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 84
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 71
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 74
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 82
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 71
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ ѴЧ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 64
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 72
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵͧк
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 67
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ҹó ਴иҹ ਴ е Сᾧ ѴЪ
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 332
   
  • ˹ѧ: ҹóѴдç
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 117
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ҹѺاԷȹѴ
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 91
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش ᾧҪѧǧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 587
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S1 W26 P65
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 87
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S3 W27 P19
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 70
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S4 W27 P11
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 76
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S5 W30 P26
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 137
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S6 W27 P1
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 39
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S9 W29 P85
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 89
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡ẺóѴԧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 319
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡Ẻ͡úóѴྪ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 247
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡Ẻ͡úóѴǧաش
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 111
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشѴɰ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 224
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóЫ Ѵǧ
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 181
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóЫҡ­ ѴѵҸҪ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 70
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóʶѴҡͧ (з 2)
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 120
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 Ѵʴ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 100
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹشͧ͡к
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 108
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ШӧǴҹ 1 ҹش͡Ẻ͡úó Ѵҧ Ѵ§ ˹ѡ§ Ѵ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 133
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâش ش ҧҳѴôѵ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 106
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâشҳʶҹҪѧǧ
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 270
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâشҳʶҹѴ⵹
  • շ: 2540
  • ӹǹ˹(): 167
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹôԹҹҧҳ ˹ѡҿҧ
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 90
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹúó Ѵҧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 81
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹúóЫʶþй͹Ѵ
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 102
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹúóлѺاԷȹҳʶҹѴط
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 367
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹúóѴǧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 114
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹûԺѵԧҹ Ǵ 1 çâشлѺاҾǴҳʶҹ ѴЧ Ѵ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 208
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹûԺѵԧҹ Ǵ 3 çâشлѺاҾǴҳʶҹ ѴЧ Ѵ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 115
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ͹ѡоѲҳʶҹѴһٹ (óЫدʧ з 1)
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 76
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹçúóЫʶ(ѧ) Ѵǡ
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 221
 
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