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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
  • շ: շ 1 Ѻ 1 (Ѻġ) Ҥ-ѹҤ 2553
  • ӹǹ˹(): 34
   
  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
  • շ: շ 2 Ѻ 7 ¹-Զع¹ 2555
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  • շ: շ 2 Ѻ 8 áҤ-ѹ¹ 2555
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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
  • շ: շ 3 Ѻ 9 Ҥ-ѹҤ 2555
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  • ӹǹ˹(): 34
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
  • շ: շ 3 Ѻ 11 ¹-Զع¹ 2556
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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
  • շ: շ 3 Ѻ 12 áҤ-ѹ¹ 2556
  • ӹǹ˹(): 34
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
  • շ: շ 4 Ѻ 1 Ҥ-ѹҤ 2556
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  • ˹ѧ: ...ʶҺѹظ֡
  • շ: շ 4 Ѻ 2 Ҥ-չҤ 2557
  • ӹǹ˹(): 40
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  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 146
   
  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 128
 
˹ѧ
 
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  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2553
  • ӹǹ˹(): 79
   
  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2554
  • ӹǹ˹(): 90
 
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  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2555
  • ӹǹ˹(): 84
   
  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2556
  • ӹǹ˹(): 90
 
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  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2557
  • ӹǹ˹(): 110
   
  • ˹ѧ: Ԫҡ ظ֡
  • շ: 2558
  • ӹǹ˹(): -
 
Ѻҹ
 
Ҫѯا
˹ѧ
 
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  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ط
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 132
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ɰԨ§
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 126
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا
  • շ: 2549
  • ӹǹ˹(): 166
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا šջѭ طʹդӵͺ
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 130
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ԷҪѯ...Է㹽ѹ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 144
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا Ҫѯا
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 202
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ٻ¹
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 162
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا Ҫѯйظ ԴеҹҪҵ
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 250
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ԷҪѯ "Է ͤ"
  • շ: 2545
  • ӹǹ˹(): 182
   
  • ˹ѧ: Ҫѯا ԶժԵԻѭ
  • շ: 2545
  • ӹǹ˹(): 146
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ҡʶҺѹҪѯ...ԷҪѯ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 170 (2 )
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا /ȵõ šؤͷ
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 150 (2 )
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ٻش֡ؤšѵ
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 170
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ...֡觪ҵ 2542... ٻ֡ؤšѵ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 170
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ԡĵɰԨ !
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 130
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا Ѻ...ظ
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 146 (2 )
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ٻ֡
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 142
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا (ҪѵŢҪ)
  • շ: 2540
  • ӹǹ˹(): 108
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ѺǴ
  • շ: 2539
  • ӹǹ˹(): 126
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا Ѻôš
  • շ: 2539
  • ӹǹ˹(): 120
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا Ѻ...Ѳ鹺ҹ
  • շ: 2539
  • ӹǹ˹(): 130
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا ҡԷ¤ ʶҺѹҪѯ
  • շ: 2538
  • ӹǹ˹(): 126
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا е˹ѡ ͧйظ
  • շ: 2537
  • ӹǹ˹(): 168
   
  • ˹ѧ: ÷ҧԪҡ Ҫѯا šջѭ طʹդӵͺ
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 130
Ѻҹ
 
آ
˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
´
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 11 Ѻ 11
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 156
   
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 10 Ѻ 10
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 118
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 9 Ѻ 9
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 140
   
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 8 Ѻ 8
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 148
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 7 Ѻ 7
  • շ: 2540
  • ӹǹ˹(): 116
   
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 4 Ѻ 5
  • շ: 2537
  • ӹǹ˹(): 148
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 3 Ѻ 4
  • շ: 2536
  • ӹǹ˹(): 192
   
  • ˹ѧ: آ շ 2 Ѻ 2
  • շ: 2535
  • ӹǹ˹(): 140
Ѻҹ
 

˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
´
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ȵɨҡç¹֡Ѵͧ ԷҪѮйظ
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 186
   
  • ˹ѧ: 96 ʶҺѹҪѯйظ
  • շ: 2545
  • ӹǹ˹(): 234
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: 100 ҵѰ
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 190
   
Ѻҹ
 
§ҹ
˹ѧ
 
´
 
˹ѧ
 
´
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش ͡Ẻ͡úóѴ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 614
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش ͡Ẻ͡úóѴʴ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 418
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش شкóѴҧ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 218
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش͡Ẻ͡úóѴ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 594
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹ Ѵѡô
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 358
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹ˹ѡ§
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 274
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴҧ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 390
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴҧ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 207
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴ⡯
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 437
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش-ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹѴաش
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 272
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش鹾鹷dzҡҧ (ѧ)
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 239
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ͡Ẻ кóҳʶҹѴ˹Ҿ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 467
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش觺óѧóҳʶҹྐྵ´ͧҧ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 290
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش§ҹ âشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳ ҳʶҹѴЫ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 576
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡Ẻ͡úóѴྪ
  • շ: 2545
  • ӹǹ˹(): 284
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشҳʶҹ dz˹ӹѡҹطҹѵʵйظ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 195
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشҳʶҹѴ⤡
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 369
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشҳʶҹСâشҳѴ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 164
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóѴóҪ
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 327
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóлѺاԷȹѴخմ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 265
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóҳʶҹͧк Ѵʴ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 69
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ûԺѵԧҹشҢͺࢵѧѧ
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 654
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ûѺاԷȹҸóٻҪҹ稾ͧ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 54
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹش鹷ҧҳմҹȵѹ͡§ͧҪѧѹ
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 425
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹз
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 53
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹлҧ ѴҸҵ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 172
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹѴʧ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 191
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹѴ
  • շ: 2547
  • ӹǹ˹(): 81
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ óѴ⤡
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 155
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ СͺúóҳʶҹѴѧ-ѧ
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 278
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ѴоҹҤ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 573
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ Ѵ⾸͡
  • շ: 2546
  • ӹǹ˹(): 434
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çâش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹͧк ѴЧ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 520
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çâش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 909
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çâش ش͡Ẻ͡úóҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 1079
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúó Ѵʴ лѺاԷȹҳʶҹdzͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 496
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúó Ѵʴ лѺاԷȹҳʶҹdzͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 574
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúóлѧاҾǴҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 91
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúóлѺاҾǴҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 96
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çúóлѺاҾǴҳʶҹͧк Ѵ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 96
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâش͡Ẻ͡úóѴ§
  • շ: 2542
  • ӹǹ˹(): 470
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹͧ çâشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳѴعͧ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 439
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹͧ çâشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳѴҳʹ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 285
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹͧ çâشҳʶҹТش鹷ҧҳѴѡ
  • շ: 2544
  • ӹǹ˹(): 264
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ػ§ҹ çâش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 140
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç ҹóоʶ()Ѵʮҧ
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 63
 
  • ˹ѧ: çúóҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط էҳ 2550 ҹóѴ˭ (෾Ե)
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 276
   
  • ˹ѧ: çûѺاྪ
  • շ: 2543
  • ӹǹ˹(): 16
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 ҹ͹ѡҳʶҹ Ѵ⤡
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 96
   
  • ˹ѧ: çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 §ҹúóҳʶҹѴط
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 105
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 §ҹúóҳʶҹѴҸҵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 84
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 71
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 74
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 82
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 71
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ ѴЧ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 64
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵ
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 72
   
  • ˹ѧ: ç͹ѡҳʶҹͧҡط ҹ͹ѡҳ Ѵͧк
  • շ: 2551
  • ӹǹ˹(): 67
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ҹó ਴иҹ ਴ е Сᾧ ѴЪ
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 332
   
  • ˹ѧ: ҹóѴдç
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 117
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: ҹѺاԷȹѴ
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 91
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش ش ᾧҪѧǧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 587
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S1 W26 P65
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 87
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S3 W27 P19
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 70
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S4 W27 P11
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 76
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S5 W30 P26
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 137
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S6 W27 P1
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 39
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش֡ҪҳظҺdzѧѧ ش S9 W29 P85
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 89
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡ẺóѴԧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 319
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡Ẻ͡úóѴྪ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 247
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âش͡Ẻ͡úóѴǧաش
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 111
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ âشѴɰ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 224
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóЫ Ѵǧ
  • շ: 2550
  • ӹǹ˹(): 181
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóЫҡ­ ѴѵҸҪ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 70
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ úóʶѴҡͧ (з 2)
  • շ: 2548
  • ӹǹ˹(): 120
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ çÿ鹿ҳʶҹѹͧҨҡط ..2549 Ѵʴ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 100
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ҹشͧ͡к
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 108
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹ ШӧǴҹ 1 ҹش͡Ẻ͡úó Ѵҧ Ѵ§ ˹ѡ§ Ѵ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 133
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâش ش ҧҳѴôѵ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 106
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâشҳʶҹҪѧǧ
  • շ: 2541
  • ӹǹ˹(): 270
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹâشҳʶҹѴ⵹
  • շ: 2540
  • ӹǹ˹(): 167
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹôԹҹҧҳ ˹ѡҿҧ
  • շ: 2552
  • ӹǹ˹(): 90
 
 
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹúó Ѵҧ
  • շ: к
  • ӹǹ˹(): 81
   
  • ˹ѧ: §ҹúóЫʶþй͹Ѵ
  • շ: 2552
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Ѻҹ
֡Ҵ٧ҹٹѡҵ
֡Ҵ٧ҹٹѡҵ

      ѹظ áҤҹ ʶҺѹظ֡ҹ .ҹѹ പ .ѹѵ ŷ ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ Ѵçͺҧ׺ҹǾҪɰԨ§ ӹѡ֡ҷʹç֡Ҵ٧ҹ ٹѡҵ .ù¡ ͧǤԴзɮ 㹾кҷ稾Ǵҹҧ Ҩ繷ɮǡѺԹ Ф öӤҡçһءѺͧ ¡֡Ҵ٧ҹ㹤駹ѺõԨҡ .ͧ 觡ҧ դԷҡèѴԹҧ㹤駹
ҹ...
ûЪ͹ء͹ѡǴҵŻͧ
ûЪ͹ء͹ѡǴҵŻͧ

      ѹ áҤ ҹ ˹͹ѡǴҵŻͧ ѧѴйظ 觴ԹҹʶҺѹظ֡ ѴЪ͹ء͹ѡǴ ШӨѧѴйظҢ ͧЪ Ҥ ҡҧѧѴйظ ·ҹԷ Ǽͧ ҪèѧѴйظ繻иҹûЪ Ф͹ءûСͺ ˹ǹҪ÷Ǣͧ ѡ Թ ¸ ѲѧѴзѾҡøҵǴѧѴйظ ʹС˹͹ѡ ͧԷҪѯйظ 觼ʵҨѹԾ ˹˹͹ѡ 軯ԺѵԧҹŢ繼§ҹšôԹҹͧ˹͹ѡϷӤѭСûЪ ѧ
ҹ...
ԨͺСѺþѲҤسҾԵ
ԨͺСѺþѲҤسҾԵ

      ѹظ áҤ ҹ ʶҺѹظ֡ѴԨͺСѺþѲҤسҾԵ Ǣ͔鹷ҧǧǔ ѡ֡Ҫ鹻շ ʵѧʵ Էʵ෤ ӹǹ èѴԨ駹ѺõԨҡҪԨԵûҳ (ҤسԾԸ) Ѵطȹ෾ Էҡú .ѹԾ ӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ Ҩ§ 䵪ع ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ .ҹѹ പ ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ .෾ Ἱ Ҩ줳Фʵ Ѻѧú 㹤駹 ¹ѡ֡ҵҧʹѺҡͺ㹤ҧҡ
ҹ...
ЪСûШʶҺѹظ֡ 駷 /
ЪСûШʶҺѹظ֡ 駷 /

      ѹѧ÷ áҤ ҹ ʶҺѹظ֡ ѴЪСûШ ʶҺѹظ֡ ͧЪШʶҺѹظ ѺõԨҡ .þҷ ó ͸ԡú 繻иҹûЪ ¼ЪСͺ Դ ح ҡѴѭԧ سʹѡ ѹԭá Ţҹءù¡ͧúǹѧѴйظ ͧ͸ԡúսԨкԡԪҡ .ҧ .ظ ҵԧ .Թ ¼ͧ .Դ ʹ§ ʶҺѹظ֡ҷءҹ ФҨçسز
ҹ...
Ԩ¹ Шӻ
Ԩ¹ Шӻ

      ѹʺշ áҤ .. ʶҺѹظ֡ ¼ʵҨѹԾ ӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ Ҩ§ 䵪ع .ҹѹ പ Ҩѹѵ ŷ ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ ºؤҡ йѡ֡ ӹǹ ѹӺح¹ ͧѹҾ Ѵѭԧ ѧѴйظ 繡׺ҹ͹ѡѲ ླշҧоطʹҷէ餧׺
ҹ...
ԡǹš¹¹ҧ͢·ҧѲԻѭҷͧ
ԡǹš¹¹ҧ͢·ҧѲԻѭҷͧ

      ѹѧ÷ áҤ ʶҺѹظ֡ҹ .ѹԾ ӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ Ҩ§ 䵪ع д.ҹѹ പ ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ Ѵçš¹¹ҧ͢·ҧѲ Իѭҷͧ ç¹ҧԹ (Ҫҹ) ͺҧԹ ѧѴйظ ¨ѴԨͺǹš¹¹ҹŻѲ Իѭҷͧ ѺԻѭҷͧ ç¹ Ҩ йѡ¹ ӹǹ 觨ҡèѴçä駹Ѻسҵҧ ѧ
           . ֡¹ Իѭҷͧ ҡҪǺҹͺҧԹ
           . ԨѺ Դ˹ѡ ҹ͹ѡ ׺ҹҹŻѲ Իѭҷͧ
           . ҧ͢·ҧѲѺԻѭҷͧ ç¹ Ҩ ؤŵҧ 㹪 ͡ûҹ㹡÷ӹغاŻѲ
ҹ...
ҹѹѡҹá
ҹѹѡҹá : çҪվŻѲ Իѭҷͧ ͺҹá ѧѴйظ

      ҡ÷ҧʶҺѹظ֡ ͡Ѻ˹§ҹҧ ҤѰ ͡ ҪǺҹ Իѭҷͧ ͺҹá ѧѴйظ ԹèѴЪѹҧͧ ͡ҪվоѲҷͧͺҹá觷ͧǷ׹׺
      ѧ ʶҺѹظ֡ ԷҪѯйظ ֧Ѻ ç¹ҹáѲ Ѳͺҹá ˹§ҹ ͧǹͧ Ѵҹѹѡҹá : çҪվŻѲ Իѭҷͧ ͺҹá ѧѴйظ ѹظ Զع¹ ç¹ҹáЪä ͺҹá ѧѴйظ
ҹ...
ûЪŹԸԾѲҧҹŻѲ
ûЪŹԸԾѲҧҹŻѲ

      ѹ Զع¹ ҹʶҺѹظ֡ ѴЪŹԸԾѲҧҹŻѲ ԷҪѯйظҢ ͪᨧѺͧŻШӻ §ҹšôԹҹ餳СŹԸԷҺ 㹷ЪաþԨóһѺ¹ªͤСõº ͧҡСêشŧѹ ѹ¹ 㹷Ъ֧ͺʶҺѹظ֡ зҺСêش;Ԩó觵͡ʵ ¤СêشҺèѴçҹͧŹԸϵѹ ѹ¹ 繵
ҹ...
ҹ شʹŻѵ 駷
ҹ شʹŻѵ 駷

      ѹء ѹ¹ ҹ ʶҺѹظ֡ .ҹѹ പ ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ йҧǻҾ Ѱ ˹ҷʶҺѹظ֡ ӹԵѡ֡ ӹǹ ҹ شʹŻѵ 駷 Ѵ ٹŻҪվҧ (ͧҪ) ҧѹ - ѹ¹ ٹŻҪվҧ ͺҧ ѧѴйظ ѺõԨҡ Ͼ ¸ҹԹ ͧ 繻иҹ㹾ԸԴҹ йԷ Ǽͧ ҪèѧѴйظ õ㹾Ը 㹧ҹԭ٪ҧЪҧ͡ ҹҡǻ շѡ ͡ѡɳԻѭ дѺʹҹŻѵͧ ѺѺͧ͵ҵðҹ ... ҨѴԷȡçҹѵŧҹ ͡ҹ˹Թ Сö·ʹ ʺó ѺʹٻẺý֡ԪҪվҹѵ ҷ ŧѡԴͧ õ͡д 繵
ҹ...
ç¹ͧ˹ (ǹԵ) ʶҺѹظ֡
ç¹ͧ˹ (ǹԵ) ʶҺѹظ֡

      ѹء ѹ¹ ҹ ʶҺѹظ֡ ¤˹ҷõ͹ѺкѺФ-ѡ¹ ҡç¹ͧ˹ (ǹԵ) ͤͧǧ ѧѴҹ ç֡¹͡ʶҹͧѡ¹ 鹻ж֡һշ ӹǹ ¡¹ԶժԵԻѭҷͧ㹤駹 зѡ¹ѺԶդͻªҧ֡й任ء㹪ԵШѹͧѡ¹ҡ觢
ҹ...
ԷҪѯҪʶҺѹظ֡
ԷҪѯҪʶҺѹظ֡

      ѹ ԧҤ ҹ .ҹѹ പ ͧӹ¡ʶҺѹظ֡ ͹ѺҨ йѡ֡Ԫѧ֡ ҡԷҪѯҪ ӹǹ õ֡Ҵ٧ҹҹŻѲͧʶҺѹظ֡ ¹ǡѺѵʵ ԶժԵͧ ԷҡӪԷȡú͹ оԾԸѳ鹺ҹظ ѡ֡Ѻʺóçա¹ҡö任Сͺ¹Ңѧʵ
ҹ...
ûЪС˹͹ѡ ѧѴйظ
ûЪС˹͹ѡ ѧѴйظ ԷҪѯйظ

      ѹ ԧҤ ҹ ˹͹ѡǴҵŻͧ ѧѴйظ ԷҪѯйظ 觴ԹҹʶҺѹظ֡ ѴЪС˹͹ѡ ѧѴйظ 駷 / ͧЪ͹ ʶҺѹظ֡ ԷҪѯйظ ѺõԨҡ .þҷ ó ͸ԡúԷҪѯйظ 繻иҹûЪ ФСûСͺ Ҩѭ ྪ , ʵҨظ ҵԧ , Ҩط ԭ , ѡԪҡèҡӹѡҹѾҡøҵǴѧѴйظ , ѡԪҡѲ طҹѵʵظ , س ԭ ʹС˹͹ѡ ͧԷҪѯйظ Ҩ§ 䵪عҨѹѵ ŷ ѺԴͺҹ˹͹ѡ 繼§ҹšôԹҹ ͧ˹͹ѡ ӤѭСûЪ ѧ
ҹ...
Դ
ҹ...
ûСѹسҾ֡
ҹ...
ྐྵ´ͧҧ
ྐྵ´ͧҧ

 

ྐྵ´ͧҧ1


ྐྵ´ͧҧͧ͡价ҧѹ͡§˹ dz觷˭ ҹ´ Ӻǹԡ ͧ ѧѴйظ ѹɰҹҧµ鹡اظ

“͹繹 稾ҡا
ʴ价ʹ๵êҧ͹ྐྵ´...
ͫ ͧʵѧ (Ť͹)
͡Ҷ֧ͧͨ
ҪҳҨѡժҧѺý֡
ͧǶ֧ 2 ͡”

                                        ҷǧ ǫ/ .. 22202

“ྐྵ´” ¶֧ çͤ͡ѺѡѺѵ ྐྵ´Ѻ 繡ç ѵ˭੾Ъҧ ͧӤ͡«ا駵 ҵ͡ѧŧ㹴Թ ٧ҵǪҧ硹 èѺҧ ¡ѹ ͧ ͡ػóӤѭ㹡äͧѺҧ͹㹤͡3

ྐྵ´ͧҧ ʶҹѺ㹡èѺҧ ͤѴ͡ҧѡɳЧͧҤѡɳ ͹㹧ҹ֡ʧ ͤҪҧ ѹ繡觺حҺ觺þѵҸҪ

ྐྵ´ͧҧҧѺѺҧҹ ʹյ ҧ繾˹Ӥѭش ҹ֡ʧ ͧҡҧդçҹ աѧҡöԹҧءҽҴͺء ҧ֧繷Ѿҡ÷դҡ ѧԹ͡͹š¹Թա ҧ繢ͧբͧҡѵ ੾Ъҧ͡ҡ ͡ѹҾ蹴ԹպحҸԡҡ֧ҧ͡4

ྐྵ´Ѵͧ ҹ˹ͧ͢Ҫѧѹ ֧蹴Թ稾ҸҪ .. 2123 ô¡ᾧҪѧҹȵѹ͡价өй鹨֧çôྐྵ´价Ӻŷ˭ ͵ӺǹԡѨغѹ ྐྵ´㹻Ѩغѹкҷ稾оطʹҨšҪ ôա˹ еҾкҷ稾йǨ֧ôա֧ 2 5

“ྐྵ´ͧҧ” 繤͡Ҵ˭ͧ 鹹͡԰ԧԹ٧ ҧѧվѡ繢ͺ ԧԹ 4 ҹԴѹ 鹻е٢ͧҧҹȵѹ͡зȵѹ ԧԹҹȵѹҹҧҴҹ ǹҹ˹зպѹԧԹҹ 2 ѹ 㹽ѧ§ٻ׹ժͧҧԹҹе 226 çҧྐྵ´ͻдɰҹоԦ ෾觪ҧ ҹ͡һѡ§ѹ¨лѡͺҡҧش᤺شçҧྐྵ´¡ “ա” dz繷ѡҧ ͹е͹ྐྵ´

е٪ͧش 繪ͧзԧԹѺҧԹʹԧԹྐྵ´ ջе٪ͧشҧҹ˹зҹ 2 ͧ Ѱūྐྵ´ѧ .. 2500 شͧش 2 ͧ ҹ˹ Ѩغѹ֧ѧʹҹ§ 2 ͧ6


е᤺ ¡ “ͧ” Ѻ͹ҧྐྵ´ 1 7


äͧҧҤʵ Сз¾кҪͧâͧҡѵҹ աоIJԺ繼ʹͧкҪͧ ҡõ͹ŧҧҾѡա ѹҨ֧͹ྐྵ´ 40-50 ͡ ͤѴ͡ҧͧѡɳ ǹ͡лһ

˹ҷͧҧ “ͪҧ” 觺ѧҧ֡Ҵ¡ “ҧͧ” Ͷѹǻҳ 5 ç “ǧ” ҴҧҪҧ硹 ͧ价ѧͧҧҷͧ 觡äͧҧͧҸ ʺóоСѧ ͧҡҧҨе㨵Դͺྐྵ´ʹ ͨҡ鹡͡Сӫ觷Өҡ˹ѧ¤ͧͪҧҵǹ ͹й͡份֡繧ҹ

¾кҷ稾ШŨ Ѫŷ 5 Ѫش·ҪҸԺ觻ôաèѺҧ ҡѴԸաäͧҧ 觹ҫʷ 2 㹢йخҪ÷ʹ๵ ա˹Ѻù꡺ҴԵ ·ʹ๵ ѹ 15 Ҥ .. 25058 кҷ稾ѪŻѨغѹ ѴԸաäͧҧҶҪҸԺഹ е .. 2540 繵 աͿ鹾Ըդͧҧǧ繡ҸԵ ྐྵ´йظ觹 ЪҪ


Ҿʴäͧҧྐྵ´ͧҧ .йظ9


Ѻҵآ ѺҡѵзѺʹ๵áäͧҧ10






The Elephat Kraal
The elephant kraal is situated outside the city island in the northeast in the area called Thalay ya (Grass land) at Ban Phaniad village, Suan Prik Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. It is assumed to be built since early Ayutthaya period:

“This evening, the King of Siam
Went to watch wild elephants in the kraal
Meusier Grandstance (Falcon)
Told me about an incredible story that
There were 20,000 trained elephants
In the Kindom of Siam”.
A Christian Priest, De Soisiy/1659

“Phaniad (Kraal)” means a cage or an enclosure used to catch animals. If it is a kraal to catch birds, a cage made of small pieces of thornless bamboo is used. In contrast, if it is for big animals like elephants, a big stable made from logs is employed. The logs are driven down into the ground, left only the height a little higher than an elephant’s body. To catch an elephant, Thai people called it “Khlong (to catch with a loop)” because a loop made from rope is utilised as a tool in catching elephants which were chased into the enclosure or the trap (3).

The elephant kraal was used to catch wild elephants in order to select elephants with good characteristics according to “Tamla Khotchaluck (A royal treatise telling about good characteristics of elephants)”. The selected elephants would be utilized in wars, or to search for auspicious elephants (white elephants) which would show the accumulated merits of the kings.

Additionally, the elephant kraal was used to catch elephants to train for work. In former time, elephants were used as the most important vehicle. They were utilized both in daily life and in war time due to their great strength and energy. They also had great power and could travel through thick forests. As a result, elephants were very valuable, were also exported and exchanged to other goods. Elephants had been compared to the former kings’ merits, especially white elephants which were very rare. It had been believed that the kings who had many white elephants had a lot of accumulated merits (4).

Formerly, the kraal was situated at Wat Song in the north of Chandrakasem Palace. Later, in the reign of King Maha Thammaracha in 1580, he commanded expanding the east city wall to the river bank. Therefore, he commanded moving the kraal to Thalay Ya or Suan Prik Sub-district at the present. The kraal left nowadays was renovated by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, and it was renovated twice in the reign of King Nangklao Chao Yu Hua (5).

“The elephant kraal” was a stable made with two lines of walls. The outer wall, having resting places on the top, was high and made of laid bricks. The wall was divided into 4 separated sides, and each side was connected by a beam. There was an entrance in the east and the other one in the west. On the west side, there was a larger yard. There were two sets of stairs leading to the resting places in the north and the south walls. The inner wall was made of logs driving into the ground in rectangular form allowing one elephant to walk inbetween each pair of logs. There were 226 logs in total. In the middle of the kraal, there was a small tower used to place Ganesha (the god of elephants). Outside the entrance of the kraal, two rows of logs were pieced into the ground and connected to the entrance in the form of a cone turning out widely like “peekka (a crow’s wings)”. It is the area used to rest elephants before chasing them into the kraal.

A narrow door called “song” used to chase one wild elephant to go through it into the kraal (7).

A kind of entrances or an aperture through a wall called “Pratu Chongkud” was made through the outer wall for elephants to go into the kraal. Originally, there were two pratu chongkud in the north and in the south wall. When the government renovated the kraal in 1957, the two ones in the north were blocked. Nowadays, there are only the two ones in the south (6).

To catch an elephant using a loop according to the elephant treatise could be done under the king’s permission by the Department of Elephant Affairs and Brahmin called “Phram Pheutthibat”. First, wild elephants were chased into the wing-shaped area. A day after, 40 50 elephants were chased at a time into the kraal in order to select only elephants with good characteristics, and the left ones were released back to the forest.

The person who caught elephants with a loop is called “Mor Chang”. He sat on a good-trained elephant called “chang khlong”, and carried a rod called “mai khanjam” with 5 meters long. At the end of the rod, there was a loop called “buang bard” with the width nearly the same as an elephant’s foot. The loop was used to catch a wild elephant at a leg. Catching elephants was used with a lot of concentration, experiences and power due to the fact that wild elephants were frightened and ran wildly around the kraal. Later, a lasso called “chuak prakam” made from buffalo skin was used to lasso an elephant at its neck. Finally, the elephant was trained for work.

Wild elephants were lastly caught in the reign of King Chulalongkorn, the fifth king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok period). Catching wild elephants was held at the kraal to show King Zar Nicholas II who was still the crown prince then, and the other time, it was done to show Grand Duke Borisvaladimirovice of Russia. Later on January 15, 1962, King Bhumibol, the present king, arranged a ceremony to show the King of Denmark of how to catch wild elephants. Since 1997, catching wild elephants according to the royal treatise has been rekindled with only demonstration at the kraal in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya to show it to general people.

A picture showing catching wild elephants at the kraal in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya

A pavilion with three porticos called “Plabpla Trimuk” for the king to sit and watch the catching of wild elephants (10).

References

1. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 140.
2. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, p. 323.
3. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A Picture in Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, p. 121.
4. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 138.
5. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province, p. 28.
6. Referred.
7. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 140.
8. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon SiAyutthaya).Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 141.
9. Khaolamai, Itthiphan. (2009). “Prawatsat Kwamplianplang Chang Thai kab Prathed Thai (History of the Changes of Thai Elephants and Thailand)”. Retrived July 17, 2009 on http://www.vchakarn.com/varticle/39016.
10. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam ThaiPhranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 140.


 

ҹ㹻ྪ1


ྪõͧйظ dzҡҾӻѡҺèѹ ԴҹǹҴ˭ ҡԹྪͧ价觵ç ҧҹͤ Ѵѭԧ ҧҹͤ ѴҧШ ¡اظҺdz繷ʹԹҢͧǵҧҵ ֧繵Ҵ˭Ǻҹ¡͹¡ѹ Ҵǹ ˵طdzǹժ ҧШ ֧͵Ҵǹ觹繵ҴǹҧШ仴

اظջᾧͧӹǹҡ ྪ繻ҡ÷Żҡúóǻྪҧ鹵Ẻҧѹ 繻׹˭ٻỴ͡仨ҡǡᾧͧ ʹ԰ŧ ǹʴ繵ѹͪͧ駤ǧ ѨغѹྪѧҾóǹ˭

ҪǴéѺǧ԰ 繩ѺѺѹҹͶҡش ǢͤǢͧѺҧᾧͧл “ѡҪ 911 Сȡ (.. 2092) ...鹹͡ᾧйظ (2515,457) á͡ᾧйظ 駹 çѺ蹴Թ稾Ҩѡþô ´㹾ҪǴéѺҪѵŢ (2516,188) ǹ觡ë觨Сѹй ˹ҷᾧͺйù 觻ྪúšѹ˹ (40 ) ҧ׹˭Ժ (20 ) ׹çšѹ (10 ) ͹觡ᾧйù鹵¡кǹ ѧŧ仵 駤仵繪˹ ׹çѺ¹鹡ҡ ⷹ㹡ҧ͡ (10 ) ͺй ֡ҵй”2


ͧҤǧ3


;ͧʶһҡاظҢ .. 1893 ᾧúҧ ѡɳԹԹ´ѡҧ 稾Ҩѡþôçзѧ׹˭ ͧҡ¹׹˭ظ ֧ô Тǡᾧй͡仵Դ¹ҡ´ͧ繡԰ͻٹ ǹú԰Ѻŧ ҧ׹˭ӹǹҡШзͧҧ 稾Ҩѡþô õ͹ͻ׹˭ķͧ4

ҧҡûͧѹй㹤á ѧըشͧҧ ˵ͧ¾йҢ֡㹻 .. 2112 з蹴Թ稾ҸҪ㹻ѡҪ 942 çȡ (.. 2123) ͡ᾧاй͡仵ԧ ´㹾ҪǴ ѺҪѵŢ (2516,606) Ҵ¡ú ػ 稾й СʴҾͧ·ͧç ֧ʴ稡Ѻʧ ¾Ԩó “駹鹢ҧҤ͡Ԩó¶ǹ駷зҧ Ըյҧ稾ҨѡþôҾй繷 ҡѧͧ˹繷Ѿ˹Һ ¡ѧչ¡Ҥ稾Ҩѡþô Ңҧ˧ǴԸյѴѧҧͧ˹ ֧ŧҾйظ繷 Ҵͧ˹ŧ㹾йظ ͧ˹ҧ¤˹ ҧաҧ˹觫͹ йôҹѹ͡ ҧӹҹ˹ ֡ҵҧ ǹشͧѡ¹Ң˹Тش¢˹͡仨”5

¿ѧ ѧ ủ ǽʫ蹴Թ稾й³ͻ .. 2229 ѹ֡ͧǢͧ㹻ѵʵ觾ҪҳҨѡ һҡ÷Ӷ١ҷشͻҡ÷ҧ鹵ẺŹͧҷǧԹԡѹõͧ˹ ҧѧҧ觫觹Ҩлͧѹͧ鹨ҡè ժͧŧ շҡͻͧѹ6

ᾧйظҷҧ㹤駹鹤դ蹤çҡ з㹾Ǵþҡ “;˧ǴժԧѺ件֧ͧ˧Ǵ ͻᾧͧ˧Ǵ ҧᾧاظ价 蹤çҡ”7

ѧҡاظ .. 2310 ǻྪá١ҧ Ǻ .. 2397 кҷ稾Ш Ѫŷ 4 ʴ稾ҪԹç签ҪŶʹյҪ稾к йظ ʴһзѺѺ㹻ྪù зçдԨҧҪѧŧ㹺dzѧྪ (Ѩغѹç¹ྪ) ѴóѴѺѧ ѧʴ稾ҪԹ价ʹ๵þҪѧѹǡç¹Ҫķ ʶһҾҪѧѹ᷹еѴʹʹѴШӾҪѧ8

¾кҷ稾ШŨ աõǨͺʶҹͧйظ繤á ¾ҳҹѡ (˹㹢й) ͧáʷзçѡҪѧҳ繷ç签С㹾ҪԸѪ 㹤駹鹾ҳ Ǩ١ᾧЫҡҧ 㹢й 16 ѹ֡ѡɳѳҹͧྪ “ྪ 繻˭Ѻͧѹ֡ҷҧӵçйôҹ ͡仨ҡǡᾧ˹ ҧ繾鹴Թҧ պѹ԰ԧԹ㹻 վ鹴Թջе٤ҡٻ µԴҹԴԴ͡ ҡҧ 4 ͡ (2 ) ٧ 5 ͡ (2.50 ) ѧҤժͧǧʹ件֧ԧԹ... բ֡ҵԴй ҡ׹˭㹻 蹻ѡŧ㹪ͧҧ ´Դͧҡѹ˹Һҹе ǹ礧е駻׹˭շҧ”9

ѡҹҧҳբͧᾧͧçdzྪê ᾧͧ԰áդ˹Ҷ֧ 6.50 ¡繼ѧ 2 ҧ դҹ԰ѧͧ ͧ繪ͧ 觶´Թ԰ѡ ǡᾧͧ蹷ͧ 觹ҨШѴҧ¾й³ դ˹Ңͧᾧ§ 1.50 ǹ٧һҳ 6.50 10


ྪ 躹觾й »ͧѹú֡ѵ蹼ҹ件֧Ҫѧ11


ҹ㹻ྪ12






Pom Phet
Inside Pom Phet (1)

Pom Phet is situated on the city island on the river where the Pa Sak and the Chao Phraya rivers connect to each other. As a result, it causes a big area of whirlpool. Standing at the fortress and looking at the opposite side, there is Wat Phananchoeng on the left, and on the right is Wat Mai Bangkacha. In Krung si Ayutthaya period, this area was used to moor foreign traders’ ships and Chinese junks. Therefore, it was a big trading market, and people called it “Talard Namwon (The market of whirlpool)”. Additionally, the area was called “Bangkacha”; as a result, the market of whirlpool was also called “Talard Namwon Bangkacha (Bangkacha market of whirlpool).

Krung Si Ayutthaya was once encircled by a lot of fortresses. Pom Phet was already renovated by the Department of Fine Arts. It was constructed in western style and was a gun turret in octagon form extended from the city wall, and was made of bricks and laterite surrounded by Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone). The western style was showed by the half-circle cavern. Nowadays, this fortress is mostly in complete condition.

The royal chronicle by Luang Prasert which is mostly believed and accepted displayed the details involving the construction of the city wall: “In the era 911, year of the cock (1549) Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya city wall was commanded to construct (1972, p. 457)”. The city wall was firstly constructed in the reign of King Maha Chakkrapat. The details in a royal chronicle written by a king (1973, p. 188) revealed that “Phraya Ram who took charge of protecting the city and was responsible for the wall around the city ordered to build Pom Phet and the other fortresses with 1 sen (40 meters) in between; cannons were placed with 10 wa (20 meters) in between and with a kind of guns called “Jarong Mondok” with 5 wa (10 meters) inbetween. Actually, the former city wall was on the old line, and was not torn down and built on the banks of the rivers. Phraya Ram ordered to build a row the soldiers’ camps along the rivers and place a lot of “Jarong Mondok” guns at each camp. Additionally, he ordered to build “Hor Tone” (single forts) 5 wa (10 meters) away from the rivers’ banks and around the city wall so as to prevent the enemies to bring their boats to attack the city.

The half-circled cavern (3)

When King U-Thong founded Krung Si Ayutthaya in 1350, the city wall, fortresses and watch towers were only the mound pounded into it with camp-posts. Later, King Maha Chakkraphat feared that they could not bear the attack of cannons; due to the fact that people started to use the weapons in war; the king commanded tearing down and extending the line of city wall to the banks close to the rivers, and changing the city wall from the old one made of wood to the new one made of bricks and concrete. In addition, the fortresses and watch towers were changed to be made of bricks and laterite, and a lot of cannons were placed on the fortresses and the places between bai sema (leaf-like boundary stones). Moreover, in this reign, the Portuguese taught Thai to cast cannons made of alloy (4).

The city wall firstly built might have been deficient and reckless. As a result, Krung Si Ayutthaya was defeated by the Burmese in 1569. In the reign of King Maha Thammarachathirat in the era 942, the year of the big snake (1580), the city wall was torn down, extended and built on the banks of the rivers. The details in a royal chronicle written by a king (1973, p. 606) indicated preparing to go to war. In summary, when King Naresuan declared the independence of Thai people at a town called Khlaeng, he went back to Ayutthaya and prepared for a war. He considered that “comparing carefully between advantages and disadvantages, King Maha Chakkrapat’s way of fighting by using the city as the stronghold and employing the power of the north city as the compressed troops were unusable because Krung Si Ayutthaya has less soldiers than those in the reign of King Maha Chakkrapat, and Hongsawadee (Peku) also knew the ways to reduce the power of the north cities. He decided to use Krung Si Ayutthaya as the only stronghold. People were told to move and stay inside the city wall. The provincial cities were deserted. Formerly, the other bad point was the east of the city which was very far away from the river. It was easy for enemies to invade. Therefore, the king commanded digging a canal in-between the river and the city wall, and extending the canal to connect the river” (5).

Mr. Francois Henry Turpin, a French man entering into Krung Si Ayutthaya in the reign of King Narai in 1686, wrote down the details about Siam people in “History of the Kingdom of Siam” that the fortresses which were built correctly were the ones constructed according to the plans of a Dominican Christian priest from Portugal. The government also built many fortresses that could protect the city from invasion if only they had less people, but more soldiers for the protection (6).
The city wall built at that time might have not been only very strong, but the Burmese chronicle also indicated: “When the King of Hongsawadee (Peku) reached his city, he commanded tearing down the city wall and building the new one, and using that of Krung Si Ayutthaya as the model because he saw that it was very strong.” (7)

After Krung Si Ayutthaya was destroyed completely by the Burmese in 1767, Pom Phet was deserted. Until 1854, King Mongkut, the fourth king of Rattanakosin, spent a night at a pavilion at Pom Phet when he went to do the merit for the former great kings and Queens in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. The king wanted to build a palace in Pom Phet area (Now, it is the area of Pom Phet Community School). He required Wat Suwan Dararam to be the palace temple. After that he went to Chandrakasem Palace; he then changed his mind, and turned to develop Chandrakasem Palace instead and raised Wat Sena Sanaram as the temple of the palace. (8)

The physical geography of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya was firstly checked in the reign of King Chulalongkorn by Phraya Boranburarak (The rank at that time) when the King adjusted the Ancient Palace as the place to celebrate the fortieth anniversary of his coronation. Phraya Boranburarak checked the city wall and the fortresses. It revealed that there were 16 fortresses. He also wrote down that “Pom Phet was a big fortress used to guard enemies in the south corner of the city. This fortress was built extendedly with three wa (6 meters) thick from the wall line. The ground floor was in the middle of the fortress; there was a set of stairs inside leading to the top. On each side of the fortress, there was an arch with clues of hinges showing that there were doors used as entrances. The cavern on the fortress was 4 sok (2 meters) wide and 5 sok (2.50 meters) high. The roof of the cavern was opened and led to the top. When enemies invaded, cannons might have been pulled up into the fortress. Posts made of hard wood were pitched into the ground to close the entrances in front of the doors. Cannons might have been put in the space on top of the fortress”. (9)

The foundation of antiquities of the city wall near Pom Phet area indicated that the old city wall firstly built with bricks was 6.50 meters thick. The wall was built with two partitions connected with poles made of bricks. As a result, they provided square rooms covered with soil and broken bricks. On the contrary, the second generation of city wall, which might have been built in the reign of King Narai, was only 1.50 meters thick and the height including the Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone) was 6.50 meters. (10)

Pom Phet is situated on the bank of the city. It was used to prevent enemies’ war ships to attack the royal palace. (11)

Inside Pom Phet (12)

References

1.Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A picture in Ayutthaya, a Historic City, a World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, pp. 98-99.
2. Poompongphaet, Patiphat. (2007). Kaeloy Pongsawadan Ratchathani Krung Si Ayutthaya (Detecting Historical Annals of Krung Si Ayutthaya, a Capital). Bangkok: Thai Quality Books, p. 151.
3. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 137.
4. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 136.
5. Poompongphaet, Patiphat. (2007). Kaeloy Pongsawadan Ratchathani Krung Si Ayutthaya(Detecting Historical Annals of Krung Si Ayutthaya, a Capital). Bangkok: Thai Quality Books, p. 154.
6. Referred.
7. Referred, p. 155.
8. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province.(2003). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province, p. 18.
9. Poompongphaet, Patiphat. (2007). Kaeloy Pongsawadan Ratchathani Krung Si Ayutthaya(Detecting Historical Annals of Krung Si Ayutthaya, a Capital). Bangkok: Thai Quality Books, p. 155.
10. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, p. 321.
11. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk (Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 41.
12. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 137.

Ѵ˭
Ѵ˭

 

Ѵ˭ ͧ͡йظҴҹѹ͡§ҧʶҹö 㹵ӺŤͧǹ ;йظ ѧѴйظ


਴Ѵ˭1


ѹɰҹѴ˭ Ѵҧҵ¾ͧѧҧاظͻ ..1893 ҹѡ ¾ͧشȾͧ·鹾Ъҵä ҢзŧȾʶһҾ਴о Ѵ2

ѴѴͧʧ׺Ҩҡӹѡͧѹѵѧ 鹷ҧԻʹҸж͡úҹӤѭ ͸ԺʧӹѡѺ觵稾ѹѵ 繾ѧҪ¢ (ǹѧҪ«ͽҹѹ 稾оطҨ 鹡֡ҾûԮ)

ѴѡҹǴҨ¡ա˹ “ѴҾ” Ѵ ¤Ѵͧ͸ԺʧѧҪ ҳ¡ʧ “”3

ͧҡѴպdzҧҧ˭ҡ 繾ǧ駡اظ Ǻҹ֧¡Ѵ Ѵ˭ СͺѺҧ਴ͤǷйúоػҪ觾 ظһСȤҳҨѡա駹ѺͧѰóҡâͧͤ¡ا駷 1 .. 2112 ѧ ֧ͧҧ਴ “” ͧ˹觢ҷѴ ЪѴ֧¹ҡѴ “Ѵ˭”

ӹҹ .. 2091 ͡ عǧҸҪԴѺشҨѹҾʹҫҪѵԵͨҡ稾ҪҸҪ оվЪ 13 任êԵ Ѵ⤡ ǷشҨѹҪɡعǧҸҪҪѵ Ҫ÷ѵ蹴Թ蹴Թ繷ؤ蹹 ԴСӨѴعǧҸҪ شҨѹѺص÷Դ¡ѹ ǡԴӨѴعǧҸҪҨ¾ǡ¡ѹ ǡ˹բعù෾;ǧ عԹ෾ Ҫʹ ǧȺҹҹҡ ç 4 Դ֡ҡѹáӨѴعǧҸҪѺشҨѹ ѭԭҪҫ觷çǪ ѴҪдɰҹ 鹤ͧҪѵԵ ҾҪл֡ҵŧѹ ͹ѹ鹢عԹ෾ ʹ ǧ Ҫ ҡѹ§¹͸ɰҹ ʶѴ عǧҸҪҪѵ 42 ѹ ١عù෾ѺǡѺоêԵѺشҨѹкصëԴ¡ѹ ѭԭҪҼǪ鹤ͧҪѵ çй 稾Ҩѡþô4


ʶҪҷӡ§¹͹ӡִӹҨҡعǧҸҪ5


鹶֧蹴Թ稾йҪ .. 2135 ç ˧ǴչѹçҪʼػҪ¡ͧѾ ¨лҺظӹҨ 稾й¡ͧѾ͡仵֧֡骹ҧѺػҪҷӺ˹ͧͧؾó 稾йժªпѹػҪ鹾Ъ캹ͪҧ 駹öеաͧѾ֡ᵡѺԹ ͧҡͧѾҧ ԴѹѾǧҹͧ 稡ʧ 稾йҪçø¡ͧҹ êԵ·Ѿ¡ͧʴѹ 稾ѹѵѴǶ¾оâ;Ҫҹ Ƿйçҧ਴繷֡õȷ骹ҧࢵͧؾó˹ ҧ਴˭ѴҾ 繤Ѻҷͧ觾˧Ǵҧúظҹաͧ˹ ਴ͧ稾й÷çҧ鹹颹ҹ “਴”6

;طѡҪ 2309 ը 蹴ԹзȹԹ ;ҡѧاظ ֧͹ 12 ˹ҹ ֧çСسô ҵҡ (Թ) ͹繾ҡᾧྪ ǵ繹¡ͧѾ ྪú繡ͧ˹ ǧʹ繡ͧ˹ع ¡Ѿ͡ҡй仾ѹ Ѵ µշѾҫ觨Тŧҡѹ ;ҤºҧТ͹ǧѴôѵҶ֧ҧ觵çѴѧ ྪú ͧ˹͡ú աѧҡ֧ͧѾͧ͢ ШѺྪú ҡᾧྪáѺǧʹը֧¡Ѻ仵 Ѵ (Ѩغѹ¡ “Ѵ”) ѴԪ7


ἹѧѴ˭ ʴdzͺѴ
Żҡ , Ҫѧҳ, çӹѡº¡Ѱ, .. 25118


ӤѭѴ

Ѵ˭ ѹ˹价ҧȵѹ͡աᾧͺ (130.80×183.70 ) 㹻ѨغѹҧѴ¾鹷价ҧѹ͡ ѴǹõԾйҪ ҧѴ㹻Ѩغѹ١ѧѺ¶ѴҹҹѧͧѴ ҹʹöҧҹ˹ ѧ鹼ҷӺح͹ѧѴ֧ͧҷҧеٷ˹ ͧԹҹࢵѧͷͧʧ ֧ࢵط

ҹþй͹Ҵ˭ѡѡѧ §ҡᾧ 3 ҹ ҧ稾йҪ վй͹;ʹ԰ͻٹдɰҹ ѹоѡ价ҧȵѹ͡ 价ҧͧ١ѡǧ⪤ش¨ѧ ͧѨغѹͧҧ .. 2508

Ѵ繾ʶ (Ҵ 15.90 ×44 ) ҹ˹Ңͧ਴ ᾧҹҧͧͧʶѧ͹ ͡ѹҹ;ʶҢعҧоҪ (Ҥ;Ҩѡþô) Ҫѹ§¹ ͵ѴԹҨѹӡִӹҨҡͧѵعǧҸҪоشҨѹ

ͧѧʶ繡ᾧǢͧ਴ (Ҵ 60.60×71.60 ) 觴ҹ㹢ͧᾧǹ§ ѧҤͺվоطٻдɰҹͺ蹡ѹ Ѩغѹ§ҡҹ

਴Ѵ˭ѭѡɳⴴͧŷҧҹѹͧ͡اظ з਴ҷͧѭѡɳⴴ蹷ҧҹȵѹ ҹҧͧ਴٧˭ ҹͧҹ਴ȵ 4 ҹ˹Ңͧ਴պѹҧѧͧͧ਴繰ҹỴ ǹ˹͢令ͧЦѧǹʹ ҹ¢Ңͧѹҧ鹹дɰҹоطٻ觢Ҵ˭

ͧͧ਴ ҡâش鹷ҧҹҳվաطèؾкԡҵçҧͧ ѧ鹾鹷˹ͧͧͧ͡਴鹡礧дɰоطٻ蹡ѹ

ҡѡɳʶһѵ¡ͧͧ਴բͶ§ҧԪҡ ਴繡ѹ㹻Ѩغѹ鹹ҨŻ¾й³ŧ Żظҵ͹ҡҷŻظҵ͹ Ǥ ѡҹӹҹоǴèкѴҧ鹵µظ 觡ҧҧ աúóѧó¹ŧ㹷ءؤء ФҺóѧóͧ¹Ҩ¶֧ҧ ¶֧Ҩеͧʧǹѡҵҧͧҹ鹫ǤԴ觻ҡ 100 һշҹҹ


Ҿ鹢ͧ਴Ѵ˭9


ҹѧͧ਴͡Ѻǡᾧ繾âҴ˭ (Ҵ 15.30×39 ) ùҡհҹءдɰҹоطٻ ͺࢵط਴좹Ҵҧ ͺ 24 ͧ ҹ਴ҧèѰ

਴ͧ਴çҴ˭ѡѡ¡ѹ ਴ѧ ͧЦѧ躹ҹѷٻỴ ѧẺ ҹ ǹʹ繺Ƕ ͧ䩹л հҹ侷 躹ҹ٧ͧ Ъհҹ§ͧѺҹѷ١͡ 鹺ԧ ˹ҡдҹ١ѡдѺ觤٧ҡҪҧ10

ҹѧѴ͵˹ѡ稾йҪ ҧ .. 2535 ҧ .. 2544 㹻дɰҹкٻ稾йҪ ʹķ dzͺ˹ѡٻ誹 ӹǹ 52 11


Ǿоطٻ鹢 ºдɰҹ§§12






Wat yai Chaimongkhol
Wat yai Chaimongkhol is situated outside the city island in the southeast on the railway station side at Khlong Suan Phlu Subdistrict, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province.
Wat yai Chaimongkhol (1)

It is assumed that Wat Yai Chaimongkhol was built since the reign of King U-Thong after the foundation of Krung Si Ayutthaya in 1350. The king commanded digging out the royal corpses of Chao (Prince) Kaew and Chao Thai who died of cholera to do the cremation and commanded constructing a chedi and a vihara on the cremation area, and named it “Wat Pa Kaew” (2).

Wat Pa Kaew was the temple of the Buddhist monks deriving from Phra Wannarat Maha Thera in Langka (Bangladesh) who emphasized meditation affairs. The abbots of this temple were appointed to the rank of Somdet Phra Wannarat and were placed as the right supreme patriarch (For the left supreme patriarch, he was in the domestic side and was appointed as Somdet Phra Buddha Khosachan and emphasized studying the Tripitaka).

According to annal evidence, Wat Pa Kaew was also called “Wat Chaophraya Thai” or Wat Phraya Thai which means the temple of the abbot or the supreme patriarch, due to the fact that Buddhist monks were also called “Chao Thai” in the ancient time (3).

Since the temple area was very large, and had been a royal temple in Ayutthaya period, people have called it Wat Yai (big temple), together with the constructing of the main chedi after King Naresuan defeated Phra Maha Upraracha (the Corwn Prince) of Burma. Ayutthaya declared itself as an independent city again after being a dependent country of the Burmese when it was firstly defeated in 1569. Therefore, King Naresuan commanded building the grand chedi “Chai Mongkhol” at the temple; additionally, the name of the temple was changed to “Wat Yai Chaimongkhol”.

According to legend, it was said that in 1548, Khun Worawongsathirat and Thao Sri Sudachan executed Phra Yodfah, who would have become king next to King Chai Rachathirat and who was only nine years old, at Wat Khok Phraya. Then Thao Sri Sudachan allowed Khun Worawongsathirat to reign. The officials who were faithful and could not cope with the betraying wanted to eliminate Khun Worawongsathirat, Thao Sri Sudachan and their kids. There were many groups of officials who wanted to get rid of Khun Worawongsathirat. Four of them were Khun Phirenthorathep who was a member of the royal family, Khun Inthorathep, Meun Ratchasaneha and Luang Siyot, Ban Ladtakfah. The four men gathered, discussed and determined to eradicate Khun Worawongsathirat and Thao Sri Sudachan; and respectfully invited Phra Thian Racha who had been ordained at Wat Ratpradidthan to succeed the throne. After they had an audience with Phra Thian Racha and seeked advices from him, they went to the ubosot at Wat Pa Kaew to guesstimate using candles and prayed. Khun Worawongsathirat occupied the throne only 42 days. Then he, Thao Sri Sudachan and their kids were captured and executed. Phra Thian Racha disrobed and succeeded the throne in the name Somdet Phra Maha Chakkrapat (King Maha Chakkrapat) (4).

The ubosot that Phra Thian Racha guesstimated using candles before seizing the power from Khun Worawongsathirat (5)

Later in the reign of Somdet Phra Naresuan Maharat (King Naresuan the Great) in 1592, King Nanthabureng of Hongsawadi (Pegu) sent his son who was the crown prince to move the troops in order to conquer Ayutthaya. King Naresuan moved his troops and fought against Phra Maha Upraracha (The crown prince) on elephant backs at Nong Sarai Subdistrict in Suphan Buri. King Naresuan got victory and killed Phra Maha Upraracha by cutting him at the neck. The prince died on his elephant back. But the king could not completely defeat the enemies because his other troops could not catch up with his troop. When the war finished, King Naresuan was very angry with the army leaders. The king commanded executing them because they could not move the troops to catch up with his. Somdet Phra Wannarat (The abbot) of Wat Pa Kaew blessed him and asked the king not to kill the army leaders. The abbot suggested constructing big chedi to celebrate his victory in the fight on the elephant backs, one in Suphan buri and the other one, the grand chedi at Wat Chaophraya Thai in order to be in the couple with Phukhao Thong, the chedi built by a king of Hongsawadi (Pegu) when he defeated Ayutthaya in a war. The chedi that King Naresuan commanded constructing was called “Phra Chedi Chaimongkhol” (6).

In the reign of King Suriyad Amarin in 1766, year of the dog, the Burmese moved troops and had blockaded Krung Si Ayutthaya until the rainy season. The king promoted Phraya Tak (Sin) to the rank of Phraya Kamphaeng Phet and appointed him to be the navy leader. Phraya Phetchaburi was the leader of the front line. Luang Sornseni was in the reserve unit. They moved the navy troops from the city to Wat Pa Kaew to wait and attack the Burmese troops that were moved to join the blockading troops. When the Burmese troops from Bang Sai and Wat Bodsat at Khanonluang camps reached the field at Wat Sangkhawad, Phraya Phetchaburi in the front line moved his troop to fight. The Burmese troops had more soldiers and blockaded the Ayutthaya navy troop. They captured Phraya Phetchaburi and killed him. Phraya Kamphaeng Phet and Luang Sornseni withdrew their troops and stopped at Wat Kruay (Nowadays, it is called “Wat Kluay) and at Wat Phichai (7).

The plan of Wat Yai Chaimongkhol displaying all the area around the temple

Source: The Department of Fine Arts.(1968). Phraratchawang Boran (The ancient palace). Bangkok: The
Office of the Prime Minister Press (8).

Important places inside the temple

Wat Yai Chaimongkhol, turning to the east, is surrounded by a rectangular wall (130.80 X 183.70 meters). Nowadays, its area has been enlarged to the east. A garden to glorify King Naresuan was arranged. Its entrance connects to a road behind the temple with a carpark in the north. Therefore, people coming to do merit have to enter through the north gate, which they have to pass the monk residences or monk dwellings before entering the religious area.

On the left side, there is the vihara for the reclining Buddha image. The vihara is in ruins leaving only three sides of the wall. The vihara was constructed in the reign of King Naresuan the Great. A reclining Buddha image made of laid bricks and mortar is situated inside the vihara. The image turns his face to the east and his head to the south. The original image which was completely damaged was dug out. The present image was newly built in 1965.

The ubosot (15.90 X 44 meters) is next to the vihara and in front of the main chedi. Both of the side walls of the ubosot was superimposed, and believed being the place that Phra Thian Racha (Later, he became King Maha Chakkrapat) and some noblemen guesstimated using candles in order to decide to seize the power from Khun Worawongsathirat and his queen, Thao Sri Sudachan.

The wall of the main chedi (60.60 X 71.60 meters) is behind the ubosot. Originally, inside the wall, there was a peristyle passage covered with a roof around the main chedi with a line of Buddha images situated in it. Nowadays the passage is left with only some posts.

The main chedi at Wat Yai Chaimongkhol has a remarkable symbol and can be seen from the distance in the east of Krung Si Ayutthaya. While Chedi Phukhao Thong is the other remarkable symbol and can be seen in the distance in the west. The lower base of the main chedi is square, big and high. There were small pagodas on the four corners of the base. A set of stairs leads to a room inside the chedi which is situated on an octagonal base. Above the base is the bell-shaped part and the pointed top. On the left and the right of the stairs, there was a mondop (a small square hall with a pyramidal roof) used to situate a big seating Buddha image.

According to archaeological exploring inside the room in the main chedi, there was a hinding place containing Buddha’s relics in the middle of the chedi and under the room. Therefore, it is believed that the room above the hinding place was used to situate Buddha images.

There was some argument about the architectonic characteristics of the main chedi that the chedi seen nowadays might have been in the artistic style after the reign of King Narai or the arts of the late Ayutthaya period, not of the early Ayutthaya period. In other words, although the evidence in legend and annals indicated that the temple was constructed in the early Ayutthaya period; many construction materials have been changed and renovated from time to time. Because “renovation” according to the original Thai belief may mean pulling down and wholely rebuilt it, not conserving and keeping it according the original style, which was the modern concept happening about 100 years ago.
A picture of drawn patterns of the main chedi at Wat Yai Chaimongkhol

Behind the main chedi and next to the wall surrounding it, there is a big vihara (15.30 X 39 meters). But the base for the Buddha image was not found inside it. Around the religious area, there were 24 different sizes of pagodas believed being built to contain people’s bone ashes.

The main chedi is big and round; people called this style “Song Langka (Spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base)”. The bell-shaped part is situated on an octagonal Than Pat (Lotus-flower-shape pedeatal base). The base over the bell-shaped part (called banlang) was made of marble (called luuk-kaew-kai) with no pillars (Saohan). The top of the chedi comprises a spreading out overturned-lotus (called Buathala), the ring-shaped parts (Plongchanai) and the pointed cone part (Plee). All of the top parts mentioned were put on a square base situated on the other high two-leveled square one. Each level has a marble base inbetween. The upper part of the chedi was decorated with poles and patterns arranged abreastly and it is higher than the lower part (10).

King Naresuan’s royal residence is situated behind the temple. It was begun constructing in 1992 and finished in 2001. The statue of King Naresuan made of bronze is situated inside it. Fifty-two molded figures of fighting cocks are placed around the residence (11).

The line of Buddha images newly molded and situated on the original place inside the passage along the wall surrounding the main chedi.

References

1. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk (Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 59.
2. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 72-77.
3. Yupho, Somporn. (1968). “Wat Yai Chaimongkhol” Phraratchawang lae Wat Boran nai Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, Promthang Roopthai lae Phanphang (“Wat Yai Chaimongkhol” the Royal palace and Ancient Temples in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, together with Pictures and Layouts). Bangkok: The Department of Fine Arts, p. 55.
4. Referred , p. 56.
5. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). A picture in Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 72-77.
6. Yupho, Somporn. (1968). “Wat Yai Chaimongkhol” Phraratchawang lae Wat Boran nai Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, Promtang Rooptai lae phanphang (“Wat Yai Chaimongkhol” the Royal palace and Ancient Temples in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, together with Pictures and Plans). Bangkok: The Department of Fine Arts, pp. 56-57.
7. Meewongsom, Saroj. (1998). Prawat Wat Samkhan nai Ayutthaya (Important Temples in Ayutthaya). Bangkok: S. T. P. World Media, p. 61.
8. Malakul, Associate Professor Momluang Pratheep. (2005). A picture in Krung Si Ayutthaya Barithas. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, p. 59.
9. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). A picture in Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 72-77.
10. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A Picture in Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, pp. 77-78.
11. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 123.
12. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk (Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 119.

Ѵ˹Ҿ
Ѵ˹Ҿ

 

Ѵ˹Ҿص觢Ңͧžͧк ҹ˹ͧ͢Ҫѧҳ 㹵Ӻŷء ;йظ ѧѴйظ ѡɳо鹷·繷͹ dzࢵѧ繷硹 ͧк ࢵط繷͹֧Ĵٹҡ»Թӷ֧

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ѪŢͧ稾ШôྷҪ ҳҹѡ ҧШŧѡдѺШоطٻѴ˹Ҿ1

ӤѭѴ

ʶ˭Ѵ˹Ҿҧ¡اظҵ͹ բҴǶ֧ 9 ͧ (ҳ 41 ä) 躹ҹ٧Ǿʶ٧˭Сõ ѺúóҨ֧Ѫŷ 3 ˹Һѹͧʶѡ ŧѡ ԴͧдѺШ ٻѡ繾й³çرº躹âͧҹҤ ҧŧ ͺǴһй 26 ͧ çʹʧը֡ҾСҾҹ еҴҹ˹ʶն֧ 3 ҹ ͧҧ觴ҹдѺʹҷբҴ˭Է繻еѺؤӤѭҹ ѺôѴŧ繫˹ҵҧ᷹е2



  

˹Һѹʶ Ѵ˹Ҿ3


ǹỴҴ˭ 8 ʹ͡ǵѺͧѧҢҴ 駵ǤҹТͻдѺдҴ觴 ǡѺྴҹ駴ѧѺ繡ͤ¢ͧǧҡ㹷ͧ

觴ش;оطٻçͧҡѵҸҪ ¡اظҵ͹ Ҵͧ˭شͧ˹ ˹ҵѡҧҳ 4 ä ٧ 16 зѺ觻ҧԪ ѹоѡ价ҧ оѡʧ ʧйç “оطԵԪԵྪšҶ” 繾оطٻçͧšҷ оطٻͧ ҴçҪҹҾ çʪ “оطٻçͧ¡اظ ͹ͧ繾лиҹѴ˹ҾبЧͧ”4

оطٻçͧҨ¶֧ 觨繾оطͧ ʴ͹йѧѹشó͹Ҥ Ѩغѹͧѧ෾صǧä֧çͧǴҷ Ҩ͸Ժͧͧطѵ ͵͹оطҷҹêٺ ¾Ǵ觤Ǻ觡§ оطҨ֧ԵþͧҾ ѧ鹾è֧Ѻоط 繡ûҺٻẺ˹觹ͧ



“оطԵԪԵྪšҶ”5


ѧ (â) ҧѺʶ ¼ҧͧǡѹ ѡɳС԰ͻٹǡѺʶ лиҹ繾оطٻ鹻ҧԪẺطٻ§ʹ شͤ ѧ㹻 .. 2493 ҧ͹ Ѳ ѷһѧó Ѩغѹһдɰҹ㹡د м黯ѧó¹ “ǧʹ” ǹ㹾þФپط (§) ʹյ鹾оطٻҧطһдɰҹ᷹6

ྪ;ù ҹҧʶ ¡ѹ þФѹҰ¹ ҧѪŷ 3 ¾ԪԵ (͡) ;.. 2381Ǵ»ٹ鹻Դͧ 駷е˹ҵҧ¾óġҽ觻չѹѪŷ 3 繵 ੾ҧǴᨡѹ͡٪ẺչҴ

վоطٻẺǴԹǴӢҴ˭ й “ФѹҰ”зѺҧкҷ躹͡Ǻҹ ǡѹ оطٻͧҨҡѴ˹Ҿ ѧѴû ʶҹ辺оطٻǴͧ˭ͧ ١͹ظҶ֧ 2ͧ¡ѹ (աͧ˹㹾ԾԸѳ)



оطٻẺǴ7


ͧоطٻѡɳзѧࡵ»Сä8

  1. ͺ ǩ͡ͺ 繶֧ԷԾŢͧչ
  2. ¨ö١š٧ 繶֧Ъҹث¢ͧоط š仨ҡоطٻ辺㹻 ǡѺӾ㹻ȨչҪǧѧ
  3. ѵ駤ҧҺ躹ҷͧ š仨ҡҧҧ ѡѹ㹻
  4. 繷´ҨԵáҼѧѪŷ 3 觧ش˹㹻 ١ŧ¡ ӽФѴѧͧؤŷǢͧ Ҿ͹ѧѧͧҾͧԹҧ õҹ¢ͧ觴š ѺҾԵáҴҡ



ἹѧѴ˹Ҿ ʴ鹷dzͺ
Żҡ , Ҫѧҳ, çӹѡº¡Ѱ, .. 25119


Ҥá ҹ˹Ҿù ҧù¼ҧǡѹ лиҹ繾оطٻҹҤá ѨغѹоطٻͧŻҡùѡ㹾ԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵ ا෾ҹ10







Wat Na Phra Mane
Wat Na Phra Mane is located on the right bank of Lob Buri River and on a canal called Sa Bua. It is in the north of the Ancient Palace at Wasukree Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. The area was a highland, but the monks’ residences were rather on lowland. The religious area is on the highland; as a result, it is not flooded in the rainy season.

This temple was constructed in the reign of King Ramathibodi II in 1503 with the original name “Wat Phra Merurachikaram”. It was the place where King Maha Chakkraphat signed a contract to cease fighting with King Burengnong of Hongsawadee (Pegu) in Songkhram Changphuak (the war for white elephants) in 1549.

The temple was reconstructed in the reign of King Boromakot. Later, Wat Na Phra Mane was renovated again in the reign of King Nangklao (Rama III) in 1835 and in 1838. The things we see nowadays are the mixture of the new things and the old ones transferred from Ayutthaya period, the third king of Rattanakosin (Bangkok) period, and the presesent reign (King Bhumibol). Remarkably, this temple was not destroyed when Ayutthaya was lastly defeated.

In the reign of King Mongkut, he commanded Phra Petracha and Phraya Boranburanurak to have glaziers covered the Buddha image in front of the temple with lacquer and decorated with pieces of glass (1).

The Important Things inside the Temple

The main ubosot of Wat Na Phra Mane was constructed in early Ayutthaya period with the length of 9 rooms (about 41.50 meters long). It is situated on a high base that makes the ubosot visibly large and high. The ubosot has been renovated until the reign of king Rama III with the gables made of carved wood covered with lacquer, gold leaves and pieces of glass, and with the figures of a god, Vishnu, mounting on a garuda standing on a naga’s head. Under the figures mentioned is Ra-hoo (a mythological monster who is supposed to cause eclipses) surrounded by 26 figures of deities clasping hands in token of worship. At the monks’ seating area, rai suparp (a kind of Thai verse) and garp-yanee (a kind of Thai poetical composition) were engraved. There are three doors in front of the ubosot. The middle one is decorated with casle-like top and it is the biggest according to the belief that it is the door for only very important people. Later, the door was adapted to be a window with façade instead of a door (2).

The Gables of the Ubosot at Wat Na Phra Mane

Inside the ubosot, there are 8 pairs of octagonal columns. The top of the columns were made in the form of closed lotuses to support the large roof. Khan and Kheu (Horizontal pieces of supporting wood of a roof) were decorated with beautiful carved wood, the same as the ceiling that was decorted with carved wood showing the meaning of beautiful stars in the sky.

The most beautiful thing in the ubosot is the biggest crowned Buddha image of the late Ayutthaya period with the lap of 4.50 meters wide and 16 meters high. The Buddha image is in the attitude of subduing the mara and turns his face to the south. The image’s face is graceful, peaceful and respectful, and his name is “Phra Buddha Nimit Wichitman Molee Si Sanphet Boromatrai Lokanat”. The Buddha image is strange because he is crowned. Prince Damrong Rachanuparp said, “The main crowned Buddha image at Wat Na Phra Mane may be more beautiful than the others of the Ayutthaya period” (4).

The crowned Buddha image may mean Phra Si Araya Mettrai who will get enlightenment as the fifth Buddha and will come to preach and lead human society to the adsolute excellence in the future. It is believed that now he is still a god staying in heaven. As a result, he is crowned like the other gods. On the other hand, it can be explained that in the history of the Buddha, once the Buddha wanted to torture the mara (the devil) named Chomphubodee because the mara boasted of his property and beauty. The Buddha formed himself with more beauty than the mara. Therefore, the mara surrendered to the Buddha. It was a way of the Buddha’s subduing the mara.

“Phra Buddha Nimit Wichitman Molee Si Sanphet Boromatrai Lokanat” (5)

The old vihara (the white one) was constructed at the same time as the ubosot and in the same reign. It was built with laid bricks and mortars the same as those of the ubosot. The main Buddha image is seated in the attitude of subduing the mara, but in the style of Chieng Saen era. The image was completely damaged. In 1950, Mrs. Luan Weerawat had royalty to reconstruct him. Nowadays, the image is placed in the abbot’s residence, and the woman named him “LuangPoh Saen”. In the vihara of Phrakhu Buddha Wihansophon (Liang), an old abbot, a Buddha image in the attitude of walking was placed instead. (6)

Another vihara called Phrawihan Sanphet or Wihan Noi is located beside the ubosot. People like to call it Wihan Phra Khanthanrat or Wihan Khian. It was constructed in the reign of King Rama III by Phraya Chaiwichit (Phuak) in 1838. The patterns on the molded mortar were covered with gold leaves. Both the doors and windows had patterns of foreign plants and flowers which were very popular in the reign of King Rama III, especially the patterns of vases, flowers and small Chinese sets of altar tables.

Inside the vihara, there is a large Buddha image in Dvaravati style. His name is “Phra Khanthanrat” seating with his feet putting on a blooming lotus. It is said that this Buddha image was moved from Wat Na Phra Mane in Nakhon Pathom Province, the place where many Buddha images in Dvaravati style were discovered, and two of them were moved to Ayutthaya (The other one is placed at Chao Sam Phraya National Museum).

The Buddha image in Dvaravati style (7)

The characteristics of the Buddha image in this style are remarkable as follows: (8)

1. The radiances around the head comprising flames shows the influence of Chinese style.
2. The end of the Buddha image’s robe shows the Buddha’s left knee which is rather strange from other styles of the Buddha images in Thailand. This is the same as the images of Phra Si Araya Mettrai which were very popular in China in the Tang Dynasty.
3. Both of the image’s hands were placed on both knees which was different from the other styles known in Thailand.
It is a pity that the mural paintings painted in the reign of King Rama III which were the most beautiful in Thailand were damaged according to the time, rain water and uncare of the people involved. The blurred paintings still display people’s travelling, and beautiful and strange shops. All the paintings are very rare nowadays.

Source: The Department Of Fine Arts. (1976). Phraratchawang Boran (The Ancient Palace). Bangkok: The
Office of the Prime Minister Press.

Mondop Nakprok was in front of Wihan Noi. It was constructed the same time as Wihan Noi by the same constructor. The main Buddha image in the canopy (Mondop) was in the attitude of seating and meditating with the protection of nagas spreading their hoods to shade the Buddha (The style is called Nakprok in Thai). Nowadays, the image has been kept at the National Museum in Bangkok by the Department of Fine Arts (10).

References

1. Meewongsom, Saroj. (1998). Prawat Wat Samkhan nai Ayutthaya (History of Important Temples in Ayutthaya). Bangkok: S. T. P. World Media, p. 46.
2. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 98-100.
3. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 129.
4. The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. (1992). Laksana tang Kaiyapab khong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Physical Characteristics of Krung Si Ayutthaya). Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The Conservation of Antiques, Ancient Ruins and Environment Society, Phranakhon Si
Ayutthaya Province, p. 40.
5. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 116.
6. Meewongsom, Saroj. (1998). Prawat Wat Samkhan nai Ayutthaya (History of ImportantTemples in Ayutthaya). Bangkok: S. T. P. World Media, p. 49.
7. Thanomsri, Manop. (2004). A Picture in Ayutthaya: the Historic City, the World Heritage. Bangkok: P. P. World Media, p. 16.
8. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 98-100.
9. Malakul, Associate Professor Momluang Pratheep. (2005). A picture in Krung Si Ayutthaya Barithas. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, p. 73.
10. Meewongsom, Saroj. (1998). Prawat Wat Samkhan nai Ayutthaya (Important Temples in Ayutthaya). Bangkok: S. T. P. World Media, p. 50.

ѴóҪ
ѴóҪ

 

ʶѴó1


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觷ʹѴ

㹻Ѩغѹ ҤӤѭͧѴ;ʶо ѹ ҹѧ਴иҹçЦѧҴ˭

ʶҤá԰ͻٹ ѡɳТͧʶһѵ¡Ẻظҵ͹ հҹ͹駤 ˹ҵҧеŧѡԴͧ Ѩغѹͧ˹ҵҧ͡Ǥе ˹Һѹѡ ٻ³çر ͺ ʶҤ ʶվлиҹҧԪ ྴҹдѺ ѧҾԵáҾ෾˭ ǡѺ輹ѧз觾طä輹ѧǹ ҧҹҧ¹ͧȪҵԪҴóҴͺѧ Ҿ͹ҧó


“ʧطѵ” 㹾Ҫѵ稾йҪ ԵáҼѧͧ7


ǹͧ÷ҧѪŷ 4 ҹѡɳ鹵ç ҹ͹Ẻʶ ըԵáҼѧ¹¾͹ʹԵá (ѹ Եá) Ѫ¾кҷ稾л Ѫŷ 7 ҾҪѵԢͧй ҾҹѺù͹˹觻ѵʵͧá͡ҪͧاظҨҡ ҾйͧСѹͧ˧Ǵ蹪Ѻѧ´ Ҿûչ¾ ҾطѵաѺػҪ Ҿ÷ӾԸջǡ ѵ٪ 觤Ҵ͹ҡ稨ԧҧѵʵ 繵 (ŷҧѵʵҡ ;йõͧǡ ǡ͡ѵʴ˹ͧ ١зӻ͵Ѵ Եҧкҷй)

ԵáҼѧѴó ʴ繶֧ùٻẺŻѹҼҹŻѲͧ ѧ繡¹ŧͧͧҷ ᵡҧҡʹյ·价

طʶҹҧ ѡͧǷҧطʹ ͧǡѺҪѵоҪó¡ԨӤѭͧáյ¤;йҪ᷹8

਴иҹ਴çЦѧ 躹ҹзѡԳͺ਴Ẻ 10 ͧ


਴лиҹ9


ѴѧЦѧҹ˹ʶҧȵѹ͡§ ʶһѵ¡Ẻѹ çͧ ԰ͻٹ ҧЪͧеٻպ ѹɰҹҧѪŷ 4 蹾⾸ 蹻ٹ鹵觴¡ͧԹ͹çỴҹǤк˧ 繷дɰҹ⾸ҨҡԹ Ѫŷ 4 çһ١dzҹ˹Ңͧʶ10


Цѧ11






Wat Suwandararam
Wat Suwandararam is located on the city island in the southeast near Pom Phet fortress at Horatanachai Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. It was registered as an ancient place on March 8, 1935 (2). Nowadays, it is a royal temple in the first class ended with “Ratchaworawihan”, and was formerly called “Wat Thong”.

Regarding its area, the north connects to Wat Krabeu. The east connects to U-thong road and the Pa Sak River. The south connects to U-thong road and the connection of two rivers, Pa Sak and Chao Phraya, and the south connects to the irrigation ditches of Wat Kamphaeng and Wat Thapho.

History
Wat Suwandararam was founded in the late Ayutthaya period by the father of King Buddha Yodfa, whose former name was “Thongdee”. In the reign of King Thai Sa (3), the location of Wat Suwandararam was said to be in a thriving community of Chinese traders. Other Chinese trader communities were opposite the temple at the mouth of khaosan canal, Suanphu canal and Wat Phananchoeng. Many ports for trader ships and Chinese junks lined along the curvature of the Pa Sak River.

In 1767, Krung Si Ayutthaya was defeated by the Burmese; a lot of temples and buildings inside the city wall were burnt down. Wat Suwandararam was also burnt and left only the ruins. Later, the Chakkri Dynasty was established in Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok). Wat Suwandararam was renovated and has been raised as an important temple of the Chakkri Dynasty till the present.

In 1785, King Rama I and Somdet Phra Bowornratchao Surasinghanat (Prince of the front palace) wholely renovated the temple by gathering skillful workmen from the old capital city to renovate it, and offered the name “Wat Suwandararam” to the temple in memory to his father.

Inside the Ubosot at Wat Suwandararam

Later in the reign of King Buddha Loetla who ascended the throne in 1809, he commanded building a sermon hall made of baked clay and white-washedly laid bricks; but the hall was not finished in his reign.

In 1850, King Nangklao continued building the sermon hall until it was finished and he also completely restored the damaged mural paintings inside the ubosot.

In the year 1863, King Mongkut constructed the main chedi and a vihara. He also ordered a craftsman to make a copy of the Emerald Buddha image made of stone and placed the image inside the vahara. The walls made of bricks and stucco was commanded to build in proportions around the chedi and the vihara. The outer wall was also built with entrances of 2 doors at the back and one door in the front. There was one door in the south and the other one in the north. The door facades were decorated with patterns and topped with models of the royal crown which was the King’s royal insignia. Additionally, a kitchen building was also built.

The ubosot, the sermon hall, and the monks’ residences were restored in the reign of King Chulalongkorn in 1898. King Vajiravudh commanded changing the roofs of the ubosot and the vihara using coated tiles. The mural paintings inside the ubosot were restored as well. In the reign of King Rama VII, he ordered Phraya Anusart Chittrakorn to paint mural paintings telling about King Naresuan’s royal history on the walls inside the vihara.

In the present reign, the King ordered to renovate the ubosot in 1964, and allowed to raise the chorfah (elaborately carved gable-apexes of a Buddhist temple representing multiple and pointed heads) of the ubosot on June 12, 1968. The King also granted his own property to the temple from time to time (6).

Interesting Places inside the Temple Area

Nowadays the buildings in the temple area are the ubosot and the vihara. They are situated next to each other. Behind the vihara is the main bell-shaped chedi.

The ubosot was made of bricks and stucco in the architectonic style of the early Ayutthaya period; specifically, the base was Chinese-junked shape; and the panels of doors and windows were covered with lacquer and gold leaves. Nowadays, the gold leaves of the windows peeled off; only those on the doors are left. The gabled triangles of the ubosot were carved wood in the models of the god Vishnu riding the garuda. There were pairs of Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone) around the ubosot. A Buddha image in the style of meditating and subduing the Devil is situated inside the ubosot whose ceiling is decorated with artificial stars. There are mural paintings showing the grand meeting of deities on the walls the same as those at Phutthai Sawan Pavillion. The upper parts of the walls were painted telling the former births of Buddha. They are nearly all in complete condition.

“Songkhram Yutthahatthee (Fighting on Elephant Backs)”, a mural painting on a wall inside the wihara showing royal history of King Naresuan the Great.

Regarding the vihara constructed in the reign of King Rama IV, its base is straight, not bent like that of the ubosot. There are mural paintings painted by Phraya Anusart Chittrakorn (Chan Chittrakorn) in the reign of King Pok Klao (Rama VII) inside it. They are paintings telling the life history of King Naresuan. The paintings have been publicized and used as remarkable Ayutthaya history in drawing back independence from the Burmese; for instance, the painting showing King Naresuan when he was the Burmese hostage and was playing cock- fighting with Mang Samkiad, the painting showing King Naresuan climbing up the Burmese camp, the painting showing King Naresuan on elephant back defeating the Burmese Crown Prince (Phra Maha Uparacha), and the painting showing King Naresuan in the execution ritual to Phraya Lawaek, a Cambodian king, which was inexact to historical truth, and etc. (According to history, King Naresuan attacked and defeated Lawaek. Phraya Lawaek or the King of Combodia escaped to Lao. He was not in the execution ritual, was not beheaded, and his blood was not used to wash King Naresuan’s feet as the rumour said).

The mural paintings inside the vihara of Wat Suwandararam show the adoption of western arts to mix with Thai culture. The content of the paintings was also changed and was very different from that of the old styles found in general Buddhist sites, and mainly involving Buddhism details. It turned to be about royal life history and activities of Kings like the life history of

King Naresuan (8).

The Main Chedi (9)

In front of the ubosot in the southeast, there was a bell tower in westernly architectonic style. It was a square double-decked tower constructed in bricks and stucco. The door on the first floor was made in lotus-petaled shape, and was assumed being constructed in the reign of King Rama IV. Additionally, there was the base for “Phra Si Maha Bodh” (a bodh-tree: the tree where Buddha reached enlightenment). The base was made of molded cement in the octagon form of face up and down lotuses decorated with tiles of marble. The base was used to plant a bodh tree given from India. King Rama IV ordered to plant it in the front area of the ubosot (10).

The Bell Tower (11)

References
1. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 136.
2. Phoblab, Wasana. (2003). Karnseuksa Chittrakam Faphanang painai Wat Suwandararam Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Study of Mural paintings inside Wat Suwandararam, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: The department of Fine Arts, The Graduate School, Sillapakorn University, p. 17.
3. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya).Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 112.
4. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Textbook Projects, p. 115.
5. Nakphan, Walaiporn. (2006). A picture in Wat Suwandararam. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, retrieved: June 19, 2011.
6. Phoblab, Wasana. (2003). Karnseuksa Chittrakam Faphanang painai Wat Suwandararam Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Study of Mural paintings inside Wat Suwandararam, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: The department of Fine Arts, The Graduate School, Sillapakorn University, pp. 17-18.
7. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 137.
8. Phoblab, Wasana. (2003). Karnseuksa Chittrakam Faphanang painai Wat SuwandararamChangwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Study of Mural paintings inside Wat Suwandararam, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: The department of Fine Arts, The Graduate School, Sillapakorn University, p. 21.
9. A picture in “Wat Suwandararam”. (Retrieved: June 19, 2011).
10. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 113.
11. A picture in “Wat Suwandararam”. (Retrieved: June 19, 2011).

Ѵ§
Ѵ§

 

Ѵ§ 5 Ӻѹ ;йظ ѧѴйظ ͡СاظҴҹѹ͡çѴخմ 㹺dz͡ѹࢵ¸ҵ͹˹ ѹ¶֧ͧҳ͹աҧاظ 鹷ѡɳ繷͹ ҹȵѹͧ͡Ѵй ѹɰҹԴҡâشԹͺ ¡дѺͧѴ٧ͻͧѹӷͶ֧Ĵٹ դͧ 3 ҹ ͹դͧѹ (ͤͧҹ㹻Ѩغѹ) ͧЦѧ ӻѡ ͺ

dzѴ ҾͧҳʶҹѴ§ Ҿ͹ҧشش Ѫתá

ҳࢵͺҧ˹͵ԴѺ Ѵ͡ǹͧѡͧһԺѵԸӹѡԺѵԸѴ§ ͡ҳʶҹѴաش

ԴѺ Ѵ͡ ͧҳ Ѵ͡ա繵˹ѡѴ§ 繷зѺͧǷ ҧҷӡúóѧóѴ§ .. 2252 㹪ǧظҵ͹

ȵѹ͡ ԴѺӹѡԺѵԸѴ§

ȵѹԴѺ Ѵ繤ͧ

Ѵ§ ѴѺúóѧóѴҴ˭դӤѭҡѴ˹㹪ǧ 60 ա͹¡اظ ѡҹʴ֧ͧ駷ҧɡԨʹҢͧظҵ͹ҧ1

Ѵ§ѺôŢش繤á ͻ .. 2521-2522 ӹѡҹçûѵʵ Żҡ

ѡҹǴк Ѵ§ҧѪ (ͧҪ .. 1967-1991) ѧҧاظǻҳ 80-100 ա 100 աҵ ʧ¡اظҤ駷 1 .. 2112 Һçͧ ѵѴ觹繷駡ͧѾǧѭҡú ͡ѵظ ʧ ԹҸҪѺѭԭ ѵҼ骹 ѺҷѴ


е٫ͧѴ Ẻҧ ͧ¡اظҵ͹
ᾧѴشŧҧǹ਴иҹͧѴ2


Ѵ§Ѻúóѧó˭Ѫ¾ҷ (ͧҪ .. 2252-2275) úó㹻 .. 2252 кóա 3 նѴ 㹻 .. 2256 էҹͧѴʾ 7 ѹ3

ͤ駡اظ Ѵ§繾ǧѭ ѧاظᵡѴҧҹ з .. 2527 վʧҵӹѡԺѵԡҹ㹺dzѴҧ .. 2544 ֧ѴѴ§㹺dzԴѺѴ§4

ҳʶҹѴ

ࢵطǡᾧ׹ (95.20×214 ) իеٷҧҷ 4 ҹ ҡеٴҹ˹ҫҧȵѹ͡թǹҧԹçѧҤӤѭش ʶ ǹ鹷ͧҡ͡ǹѺᾧ駴ҹ˹觡ҧ਴çỴ ʹ਴çЦѧ ࢵʶǡᾧͺ (38×72 ) ᾧ਴ѧҢҴ 4 5 Һdzͧᾧ紷çѳŻظҵ͹ ¾ҷ ô ʶѧŧ §ҹҧͺҹ 駷кк¹ӽ赡ŧ§ ½觷к¹鹴Թ

ʶҴ˭վ鹷袹Ҵ˹觢ͧ鹷ࢵᾧ (18×36.80 ) 觡ҧͧἹѧѴ 觫ҡѧҢͧʶʴ繶֧˭ⵢͧʶѧ Ҥá԰Һٹѹ˹价ҧȵѹ͡ آ駴ҹ˹ѧ ҹ˹ջе 3 ͧ ҹѧջе 2 ͧ ʶհҹءբҴ˭ 2 繷дɰҹоطٻԹ¢Ҵ˭ ѨغѹҾѡŧǹ ҾоطٻʶӢ鹨ҡ᡹ԹǨ֧Һ»ٹŧѡԴͧ աùҾоطٻһдɰҹ

ͺǾʶաᾧͺ 2 ѡɳ繡ᾧ ѡɳТͧҤҤ÷ç׹ Ỵ 2 8 6 觢Ҵͧ͡ դҧ 3 9 ͧ ͧ 3.60 ռѧ 4 ҹ Ἱѧͧʶٻ׹ ࢵᾧǷҧҹȵѹ§ͧʶ 1 ѡɳҷӴԹǹ բҴҧ 1 ٧ 2 ˹ 20 ૹ Ẻǡѹ ʶѴҪ൪ 㹻ѨغѹҤҾѡѡѧ мѧʡѴҹ˹ҷŧ ٹҺѧҤ· ش͡ͺ ԰ҧѴਹ ѡɳ繡á԰ẺѺǡѹҧº ͹ѹ駵Ҥ ѡɳСá԰Ẻӡѹظҵ͹

ҹ 繰ҹԺͧ հҹ§ͧѺԧ аҹԺͧͧѺҹǡ ٧ͺ 1.50 á͹֧ ҡ繨ӹǹ 8 ҹ¡ѹ Ҿѡѡѧŧҡ §ҹҹ˹ҹ鹷Ҿ͹ҧó

ʶ觹 Ѩغѹѧժ·ѷ㹾طʹҹ觷Ҹ ͧҡվʧҨѴҧ “Ѵ§” 鹷ҹѹͧ͡ࢵҳʶҹ Ѵҡʶ਴иҹ ҧȵѹ͡ᾧǢͧʶҹѧѴ ਴çЦѧӵ躹ҹ§ç 3 իͺ ͧ਴ 20 繷дɰҹоطٻԹ 觻Ѩغѹشءͧ հҹѡԳٻѵ ҧǴҹ 32 պѹ䴢鹷 4 (਴ͧѧ¶֧ǹҧͧͧЦѧ 㹻Ѩغѹͺó·ҧѴͧ ѧʹͧ਴ͧѴҧ)


ҹͧ਴иҹٻҧдѺͺ7


ͺҹ਴ժҧٹ׹٧ 1.05 дѺ 80 ͡ ¡਴ҧ 觪ҧ͡ҡѵդѹѺԾطʹ ¾ҷ ͧç繡ѵѺҧҴ 㹺ҧշç͡ӻ蹢Ҵ˭÷ءҧ͡仢ѧԹ º÷ءҧ֧ 30 ͡

Ѵҡҹ਴ҧ ਴çѧ਴ 4 й͡ࢵᾧطʴҹȵѹ਴çѧ 3 ͧ ǹ͡ࢵᾧطʴҹիҡͧҤ 觤ҴҨ繷зѺͧҷʴҷçҹúóѴ ҨҤࢵѧʢͧѴ觹8


਴иҹͧѴ9


ͧҡѴ§㹺dz͡ѹࢵ “¸” ѧ鹨֧ѺþԨóٻẺ਴ҧҨԷԾŷҧʹŻШҡ⢷ 鹷ء͹Դͧظ 1 ȵ ҧáѡҹǴáاظҪҧѴਹ Ѵ§赡ʹҳʶҹҶ֧Ѩغѹ 繼Ҩҡúóѧó˭¾ҷظҵ͹

еٷҧ е٨ѡɳ繫ѹŧ͹Ŵ 2 ԰ŴдѺ 2 ǹ հҹҧдѺǡѹ С繫ŴдѺա 2 дҹͧе հҹҧдѺǡѹ 繰ҹǫ١͡ շ 6 еٴ¡ѹ еٷҧҴҹȵѹ͡ 繷ҧҷͧѺǹҧԹѧʶ ҹҧԹҧ 2.80 ѧҡ٢ҧѧͧеٴҹ дҹҧ Ƿҧͺе ͧҡջٹҺѺ繷ҧ


ἹѧѴ§
Żҡ , Ҫѧҳ, çӹѡº¡Ѱ, .. 251110


еٷҧҴҹȵѹ ҡҧѧ㹪ͧеٵç繷ҧ਴ҧ ѧҡѧҡ԰çҧѴ Ыеٷҧҹ˹зաҹ 2

਴ͧᴧ ҧѪ稾ҷ ҧȵѹ͡§˹ͧ͢ʶ ͡ᾧ ਴çỴհҹѡԳ 2 ǹʹѡ ͧ਴ǧ պѹ䴢਴ҧҹѹ͡ ռѹɰҹз¡ѹ “ͧѧ” ͧ਴ Ǻҹ繷ͧᴧ ֧¡ѹ “਴ͧᴧ”11

ǹ ˹ʶ “ǹ” ҧԹҡҹѧʶ 鹷ҧѺҡѵ ҹ½ ҹ˹ʶդͧ ʴ稾ҪԹҧҶ֧ҹӡʴ稢鹼ҹǹʶ Ѩغѹ˹ʶդͧ й 2 ǹҧԹҧ 2.50 ǻҳ 60 ͧҧ͡ᾧ٧ҳ 1.60 12

й йӼѧ׹ҢҴ 10.5 ×7 ҧͧʶҡ繢ͺкҧǹ ͡ԹԹѪת軡ҧ˹ ʴ繶֧÷ش ͺաᵡ价駴ҹдҹ͡

˹ѡǷ ҧе١ᾧѴҹ 73.50 繵˹ѡʴ任зѺ͹˹觺ҧ ͧ͹ҧ Ҫ÷˹ѡ ˹ѡٻ鹼 ԰ͻٹ 25.50 ҧ 10.40 ʶһѵ¡ظ ѧҹ٧ 4.55 10.85 ˹ 1 ѧҹѹ ٧ 3.85 8 ͧԹҡҺٻ෾ ¡






Wat Mahaeyong
Wat Mahaeyong is situated at Moo 5, Hantra Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. It is outside Krung Si Ayutthaya Island in the east and opposite Wat Kudeedao in the area that is believed being north of Ayothaya City. This means the ancient community before Krung Si Ayutthaya was founded. The area was a highland. The north of the temple connects to a pond which is believed to be dug and the soil was used to make the temple area higher in order to be safe from flood in the rainy season. There were waters on three sides. As a result, the temple was nearly like a triangular isle surrounded by Khlong Hantra (A canal called Hantra or Banma in the present), Khlong Rakhang and Pa Sak River.

When entering the temple, Wat Mahaeyong was seen in ancient ruins, disordered and overgrown with weeds.
The north of the temple connects to a road. Next to it are shelters for people coming to do religious activities, and the farther are the remains of Wat Sika Samud.

The south of the temple connects to another road. Next to it is an ancient canal. The further was a royal residence at Wat Mahaeyong where King Thai Sa stayed during the renovation of this temple in the late Ayutthaya period in 1709.
The east of the temple connects to the building used as the place where people do religious activities.

The west of the temple connects to a road, and next to the road is a canal.

Wat Mahaeyong had been renovated as a big and important temple 60 years before Krung Si Ayutthaya was completely destroyed. The temple shows the clues of Ayutthaya’s glory in both economic affairs and religions in the late Ayutthaya period (1).

The temple of Wat Mahaeyong was firstly dug out in 1978-1979 by the Office of Historical Projects in the Department of Fine Arts.

Evidence in annals stated that Wat Mahaeyong was constructed in the reign of King Sam Phraya (1424-1448) or after Krung Si Ayutthaya was founded about 80 - 100 years. One hundred years after that Krung Si Ayutthaya was firstly defeated in 1569. Burengnong, the Burmese king, used this temple as the base of his troops, and when Ayutthaya was defeated, King Mahinthrathirat was invited to have an audience with the Burmese king at the pavilion at this temple.
The door façade of the temple is in the general style of the late Ayutthaya period.

Some parts of the temple wall are damaged displaying the main chedi inside (2).

Wat Mahaeyong was grandly renovated in the reign of King Thai Sa (1709 1732). It was started to renovate in 1709 and was finished three years later in 1713, and there had been the ceremony for 7 days (3).

In Ayutthaya period, Wat Mahaeyong was in the forest dwellers’ side (Monks who live in the jungle). It had been deserted for a long time after Krung Si Ayutthaya was defeated. Some monks began to use the place for meditation activities in 1984, and in 2001, Wat Mahaeyong was established as a temple in the same area next to the old one (4).

The Ancient Remains in the Temple
A line of rectangular wall surrounded the religious area (95.20 X 214 meters). There is a door facade on the four sides. From the front door façade in the east, there was a covered walk to the most important building, the ubosot; but on both sides of the covered walk in the north and the south, there were octagonal chedi, the vihara and an overturned bell-shaped chedi. The ubosot was surrounded by a wall (38 X 72 meters) with indented corners, and there were small chedi in Langka style (spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base) on the four corners (5). Each wall post on the four corners had an ornamental knob with leveled tops in the art of the late Ayutthaya period. King Thai Sa commanded demolishing the old ubosot, leaving only its base and building the new one on it, together with rain water draining system by burying tubes under the ground.

A big ubosot with the size of half area inside the wall surrounding it (18 X 36.80 meters) is situated in the middle of the temple plan. The ruins of the walls and the posts of the ubosot show its enormous size. It was a building made of laid bricks and mortar and turned to the east. There was a portico in the front and the other one in the back with three doors in the front and two ones in the back. Two big Buddha image bases are inside. They might have been used to situate big Buddha images made of sand stone. Nowadays most of them tumbled down and reveal that the images were made by using the cores made of sand stone; then covered with mortar, lacquer and gold leaves.

There were two lines of walls surrounding the ubosot. The ubosot and the walls were rectangular. Two rows of eight octagonal columns were inside the ubosot (6). The room between each column was 3 meters wide and 3.60 meters long and there were 9 rooms as a whole. There was a wall on the four sides. One Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone) was found in the southwest inside the wall surrounding the ubosot. It was made of green slate with one meter wide, two meters high and 20 centimeters thick. It is in the same style as the one at the ubosot of Wat Ratchatecha. Nowadays the building is in ruins and the front wall tumbled down. The mortar covered the building nearly all slipped off displaying the laid bricks which were made alternating neatly with long and short bricks in the same row for the whole building. This style was very popular in the late Ayutthaya period.

The base of Bai Sema was square with twelve indented corners, and there was a base with legs like ones of a lion under it. A base with twelve-indented corners supports the base in the form of a round lotus. It was 1.50 meters high in total. There are only eight bases left and they are all in ruins. Only the base in the north is nearly in complete condition.

Nowadays, people still come to do medition at the ubosot since a group of monks rebuilt “Wat Mahaeyong” in the east of the ancient remains. Next to the ubosot is the main chedi situated in the west outside the wall of the ubosot in the back of the temple. It is an overturned bell-shaped chedi situated on a round base made in three-leveled form. Twenty facades with Buddha images made of sand stone under them surrounded the chedi, but all the images were damaged. The base of the chedi is square with 32 meters long on each side, and there are four sets of stairs leading to it on the four directions (The original chedi was damaged and leaves only half of the bell-shaped part. The one seen at present was renovated in nearly complete condition by the temple. The top of the original chedi is still placed on the ground there.)
The base of the main chedi was surrounded by models of elephants (7).

The base of the chedi was surrounded by 80 standing elephants made of molded lime with 1.05 meters tall. It has been called “Chedi chang lom (The chedi surrounded by elephants)” because elephants were not only the animals relating to Buddhist moral precepts; but King Thai Sa also like to catch wild elephants, and in some years, he commanded building a big ship (called “kampan”) to transport elephants for export to India.

Next to the base of the chedi surrounded by molded elephants, there were four chedi in spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus bases (called Song Langka) on the four corners, and outside the wall of the religious area in the west, there were also three chedi in the same style. Outside the wall of the religious area in the south, there were ruins of a building. It is believed being the royal residence of King Thai Sa when he came to inspect the renovation of the temple. On the other hand, it might have been a building inside the monks’ residence of this temple (8).

The main chedi of the temple (9)

Due to the fact that Wat Mahaeyong is situated in the area that is believed being the area of “Ayothaya”, so the style of chedi surrounded by molded elephants was determined to be influenced by the arts and religion of Sukhothai which was a capital and founded one century before the foundation of Krung Si Ayutthaya. However, Krung Si Ayutthaya annal evidence indicates clearly that Wat Mahaeyong which has been inherited as a historic site till today was grandly renovated in the reign of King Thai Sa in the late Ayutthaya period.

Regarding the characteristics, the door facades were made in two superimposed levels with two pointed levels of laid bricks on the arches. But the bases were in the same levels made in the form of lotuses with the ridgepoles made of marble, and there were six door facades all together. They were entrances in the east, and in parallel to the covered walk to the ubosot with 2.80 meters wide. There are still holes at the back on the upper and the lower parts of the doors. They are the clues of the door frames showing only long tracks which were not covered with lime.
The layout of Wat Mahaeyong

Source: The Department of Fine Arts. (1968). Phra Ratchawang Boran (The Ancient Palace). Bangkok:

The Office of the Prime Minister Press (10).

The back and upper part of the door façade in the west was made of wood. It led to an ascent of the chedi surrounded by molded elephants. There is still the sharp arched roof made of laid bricks left, and also those of the two door facades on each side in the north and the south.

The copper chedi was built in the reign of King Thai Sa and is situated in the northeast of the ubosot outside the wall. It was an octagonal chedi with two-leveled base. The top of the chedi was disappeared. Inside the chedi, there was a hollow and there were stairs as an ascent to it in the east. It was assumed to have metal sheet called “Thong Jangkho” covered the chedi body, but people thought it was copper and called the chedi “Chedi Thongdaeng (Copper Chedi)” (11).
The covered walk called “chanuan” in front of the ubosot was the pathway from the waterfront rest-house to the ubosot. It was the passage for the king, the queen and court ladies. Originally, there was a canal in front of the ubosot. When the king and followers reached the waterfront rest-house, they would go directly along the covered walk to the ubosot. Nowadays, there were no canal in front of the ubosot, but there are only two ponds. The covered walk is 2.50 meters wide and 60 merters long, and there are two walls with 1.60 meters high on both sides (12).

The ponds are rectangular (10.5 X 7 meters) and situated in the south of the ubosot. Only some parts of their edges are left. Mounds of soil covered with thick weeds are seen and display the collapse of the land. The edges of the ponds are cracked on both inside and outside.

The royal residence of King Thai Sa was situated about 73.50 meters from the temple wall. It was a royal residence that the king stayed once or twice a month. He used to administer civil affairs there. It was rectangular and made of laid bricks and mortar with 25.50 meters long and 10.40 meters wide, and was in architecture of Ayutthaya period. The south wall was 4.55 meters high, 10.85 meters long and 1 meter thick. The west wall was 3.85 meters high and 8 meters long. Only tiles made of baked clay with the patterns of gods in figures of clasping hands in token of worship and Thai designed style are left.

References

1. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 104-107.
2. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture and captions in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk (Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 108.
3. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, p. 107.
4. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 85.
5. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, p. 107.
6. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 87.
7. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 109.
8. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, p. 107.
9. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 109.
10. Malakul, Associate Professor Momluang Pratheep. (2005). A picture in Krung Si Ayutthaya Barithas. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, p. 79.
11. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 89.
12. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 89.

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