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¤ ҹ͡´͡ ҹ
      ѵԡ÷ͧ鹴ԹҢͧ蹹ջѵԡ÷ӷǹҹ ͧ鹴Թá辺 ص͹ѵʵ , һբ ͧ鹴ԹҢͧ蹷Ե㹵͹á繻 Earthen Ware ͧ鹴ԹẺʹԹ ǡѺ÷ͧ鹴Թؤá ͧѡ÷ͧ鹴Թ
      ͡ҡչԷԾ㹡÷ͧ ԷԾŨҡʹҾطҡչѧԴླաê (Tea Ceremony) 㹭ա 誹٧ (Momoyama 1573 1614 AD) ԴüԵͧ·㹾Ըաêҹҧҡ üԵͧ¹֧
      㹪ǧʵȵɷ ͧ»Ź¤ 㹢áѺԷԾ㹡÷ӨҡѺԷԾŨҡ÷ͧ¤Ҫǧԧͧչҵ 㹪ǧüԵͧ¢ͧչشЧѡŧ ѧԵͧ¤ ¹ẺǴç Ǵ ෤Ԥչ Թ͡ѧȵҧ ûա
      ͧ­蹷辺㹡âشҳʶҹ 龺ҹԪ¹§ҹ Ѵ辺 ͧ­蹷辺㹤駹ö¡͡ѧ仹

      . ͧ¡ѵ (Karatsu Ware) (ʵȵɷ ) (طȵɷ - )
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ǹͧ¡ѵ
      ͧ¡ѵ ͧաԴ˹觢ͧ Ե鹨ҡҷѵ ҷ١Ӣªҧ鹪 ͧ¨ҡҷѵ㹵͹鹨֧Ե鹵ٻẺͧ ͧҡӹҭͧҧ㹡üԵͧ鹴ԹҵٻẺͧͧ ¢ͧ Kara ¶֧ Ȩչ ǹ tsu ¶֧ ͹Ӥѹǡ ͧ͢չ 㹪ǧ ͡ѵ 繨شԴҧȭ蹡Ѻ ֧ԷԾŨҡѧdz ȵɷ ͡ѵب֧繷㹡äҢ¢ͧǨչ
      ͧ¡ѵتشáԵ㹵͹ҧͧʵȵ ªҧ鹪 ͧ¡ѵǹҡҪлҺ ˹ ͺҧ ͺͺдҹ շ繾ǡբ չӵŷͧ ֧մ͡ӵ Ǵ·㹡õѡẺҾҧ Ǵ¢ٴմ ͨе觴¡ýѧЫ ѹ ͧ¡ѵض֧㹵͹鹨ѺԷԾŨҡ ѧ֧ѺԷԾš÷ͧ¨ҡչ蹡ѹ ҧá ͧҡͧ¡ѵعվ鹰ҹҨҡ ͧ¡ѵب֧ẺҡẺչ ͧٻçФ֡ ͧ¡ѵؤáѡѹ㹻Ѩغѹͧ¡ѵẺ (Ko Karatsu) Ҫл·ԵѺǧ ͧ¡ѵطӵѧ»¡ѹ
            - Ko Karatsu (.. ) ͧ·¹Ẻͧ
            - Seto Karatsu (.. ) ѺԷԾŷҧҹٻçСõẺչ ¼ҹҧж١Ӣªҧա˹
            - Madara Karatsu (.. ) ѺԷԾŨҡ÷ͧ Kaimeyaki ͧ
           - Chosen Karatsu (.. ) ԵѵشԺҨҡշ駴Թйͺ 繵
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ǹͧ¡ѵ
      㹪ǧ¢ͧʵȵɷ ͧ÷ͧ»ͧ͡;ŹҢͧ еͨҡ繵 ҷѵب֧ѹҼԵҪлͧ͡Ẻչ᷹ 㹺ҧͧ»¤Ե鹷ҡѵعж١ͧ·Өҡչҡҷ繢ͧ
      ͧ¡ѵط辺龺§ҹԪ¹ҹ оҡâش觷 ѡɳТͧͧ¡ѵط辺ͧ¡ѵػǡѹ ʹԹչӵᴧ ҪШҡШͺբ 觡ͺзԴǴ¢ ¡Ѻ١蹫͹ѹ ǧ ͹ѹ зǹҪдҹ㹹 лҡ¡㹡ҧ繨ش 觨շµԴ¡ ͧ¡ѵط辺Ѵͧ¡ѵطػҳʵȵɷ

      . ͧ¡ҡ͹ (Kakiyemon Ware) (ʵȵɷ ) (طȵɷ - )
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ǹͧ¡ҡ͹
      ͧ¡ҡ͹ (Kakiyemon Ware) ͧ·ҧͪǭ ͹ Sakaida Kizayemon Դдɰ㹻 .. ѹ (Nangavara) ࢵͧԵ (Arita) 价ҧȵѹͧͧ͡ҧҫҡ (Nagasaki) Sakaida Kizayemon ¹Ըաûͨҡ͹ͧҷ͹ Takahara Gorosichi 繤á ѧҡҨ֧ҹѺ Higashijima Tokuyemon 繪ҧͷժ§ҧ Higashijima Թҧѧͧҧҫҡ ͧŻͧ¨չءٻẺ㹭繤á ¹ͧٹҧüԵͧ鹴Թҷ˭˹ ͹ Higashijima Թҧѧͧҧҫҡ 龺ѺҧͪǨչ ¹ŻС¹ºͺѺҧǨչ ͨҡҨ֧Թҧҷͧ (Imari) Ѻ Kizayemon 㹡äԴзͧͺͧ ͧԹͧ Kizayemon ͧ·¹Ẻ Okimono Tokomono ҹͧ繷ҹͧҧҡ ҹ֧ͧ¹͹ Kizayemon Kakiyemon Фҡҡ͹繪ͧͧ͢¹駵ͧ͢¡ҡ͹ͧ
      ͧ¡ҡ͹ͧ·ҧ ͺբǷ¡Ѻ͡ ¡ Nigoshide Ǵ·ҡͧ¡ҡ͹ᵡҧҧѴҡǴؤǡѹ Ǥ ԸաõǴºͧ¡ҡ͹෤Ԥ ͧҡ¹ŧͺ᷹ ¹ͺٻẺ· Ǵ·¹ٻẺ੾зһдɰͧ ա¹ŧҴ ᴧ ͧ չԹ 㹺ҧҨ¹Ǵ´շͧԴش蹢 ǹͺҡҪСѡչӵ͡ᴧ (Beniye) ͡ҡѧչԹͺѹѺŧա ж֧ҡõǴºͧ¢ͧ¡ҡ͹վ鹰ҹҨҡٻẺͧǨչ ¡ҡ͹ԸաõẺչ㹧ҹͧ Ǵ¢ͧ¡ҡ͹ ʹ繤֡ҧԧͧǭ Ҩ¹Ǵµ觺ҪеʹẺչ Ҩʴ繶֧ѡɳТͧǭ蹷ѡ㹤º դӹҭ㹡ҧ ¹Ǵº鹼ҪԹ Ͷ֧˹觢ͧͷ ¹Ǵµ觴âҤԵ· ѹ ¡ҡ͹ͺ¹´͡ ¹͡¼ 觹ҹ Ҩ֧¹ٻؤ ǹҾǷȹ¹ͧ С͹Թҹ ǴẺͧչҹ Lion-Dog Hoo bird ¿ѹҫԡ᫡ Sho Chicken Bai (·ҹͧʹ е) ´͡д͡ອ õǴ¢ͧ öдѴŧҡѺٻçҪẺҧ ҡ ٻçͧͧ¡ҡ͹ǹ˭ͧ·բҴ Шҹ 駨ҹ÷㹺ҹͧǭ蹴 ٻçͧҪШẺẺ˹繾
      㹻 .. ¡ҡ͹ͧºҧǹҷͧҧҫҡ ѺͤҪǨչ ͡仢ѧûա˹ ҡšǴ¢ͧͧ ҡ͹ٻẺ੾Тͧͧ ֧ͧ¡ҡ͹ͧ·ҡ㹪ǧҧ .. ͡仢ѧջû ͧ¡ҡ͹ԷԾŵͧ Deft ͧŹ ͧ Meissan ͧѹ ͧ Worcester ͧѧա

      . ͧ¤ (Blue and White Porcelain) (ʵȵɷ ) (طȵɷ -)
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¤ ҹ
      ͧ¤ͧ蹹Ե㹵͹鹢ͧ ʵȵɷ ͧҡä鹾觴ԹԹ (Kaolin) 繴Թ㹡÷ͧ¤੾Тͧ (Ri Sambi) 㹻 .. 觴ԹԹ Sambi 龺dz Izumiyama Ѻͧ Arita 㹨ѧѴ Hizen ͧ¤ͧ㹵͹á֧ѺԷԾŨҡ Ъҧ鹷Եͧ¤㹵͹á١Ӣª蹡ѹ ѧ֧ѺԷԾŨҡ÷ͧ¤ͧչҪǧԧ ǭ蹨¡ͧ»¤ͧ Sometsuke mono դ Ҫз١ (Dyed ware) ͧ¤ͧ ֧¹Ǵµ觴չԹҡ⤺ǡѹѺչ ¤ͧ蹨չԹੴ¡ѹ չԹ͹ չԹ͡ չԹͧ૿ (Sapphie blue) չԹ ੾չԹ鹨ѡɳФ¡Ѻͧ¤ͧչҪǧԧҡش ҡ÷ͧ¤մ¡ѹ ǭ蹨֧¡ͧ͢¤յҧѹ 繪੾ա Seikwa ֧¡ͧ¤չԹẺ͡չԹ (Blueflower blue) Gosu ֧¡ͧ¤Ҫǧԧͧչ
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ǹͧ¤ Ъǹлء¤
      㹵͹鹢ͧ÷ͧ¤ͧ ҨѺԷԾ ҡա 蹡¹ẺԸ㹡õ觨ҡ õǴ¢ͧ蹨˹ ѡɳнçǴ е ¸ҵҡ ٻç ʴ繶֧͡Ẻҧ ѧѺԷԾŨҡͧ¤չ ͧ¤ͧչЭ蹨ѡɳШդ¤֧ѹҡ ֧й鹡ͧ¤ͧչЭѧբᵡҧѹ ͧ¤ͧչдç ͺº ͺҡٻçͧШҹкҧ ԴѺͧ¢ͧ蹷ѡд˹˹ѡ ͺ͹ͺҧзǹͺ˹С ǹԧҪТͧչѡ·͡Ǵ ѹͧҨҡҧ ѡкҡǹԧҪ ǹҪТͧ蹨ҴҢͧչ ѡеѴٻ ͡ҡѧͧ¢ͧػ㹡Ҫд
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ǹ¤ ´͡е
      ѧҡ Ri Sambi 鹾觴ԹԹ㹭 Ri Sambi ҧͧ· Tengudani ҧͪ繨ӹǹҡԵͧ Karatsu ͹㹺dzѹҼԵͧ¤᷹ صˡüԵͧ¤֧¢͡ҧǴ Шҡ¢ͧüԵͧ¤ͧҧ鹪չͧǡСŢعҧͧ С Nabeshima ӹҨ㹵͹ͤ͡Ǻӹǹͧҧ鹪ըӹǹŴŧ㹻 .. ѧҤǺԨáüԵͧԹ͡ա ¡Թ͡鹨ж١зºѷ East India Company ͧǴѷ (Dutch) ա˹ 㹪ǧ¤ʵȵɷ ͧ¤ͧ١ԵԹ͡ҧҡ ͡ҡ仢ѧŹ ѧ͡仢ѧԹ ѧ лµѹ͡§ա Ѻ
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ǹ¤ ЪǹҪ¤
ǧͧ¤ͧѺҡش㹪ǧ 駹ͧҡüԵͧ¢ͧչҨشЧѡŧѧҪǧԧͧչӹҨŧ ֧͡ʴշͧ¤ͧ蹡ԹҷѺзջû ѧͨչͧҡҪӹѡ Ҫǧ Ҫǧԧ (.. , .. ) 鹻ͧȨչ Ҥѧ (Kangxi .. , .. - ) ѵҪǧԧѹҿ鹿صˡ㹡üԵͧ¢ͧչա˹ ֧ͧ¢ͧ㹷ش

..........................................................

ͧҳ,Żҡ.ͧ. ا෾ : ӹѡѹ ӡѴ, .



Japanese Porcelains in Ayutthaya Period


Japanese Porcelains


A bowl in indigo blue, the outer side contains pattern of flowers, and the inner side contains pattern of a dragon.
The Japanese have long history of making pottery. The first set of pottery discovered originated 3,000 years ago before historical time. The Japanese pottery in the early era was earthen ware or pottery made from ordinary clay, the same as pottery made when man started knowing how to make pottery.
The Chinese not only influenced the Japanese in making porcelains, but the Buddhism from China also influenced the origin of Tea Ceremony in Japan. The ceremony had spreaded to noblemen and high-classed people in Momoyama period (1573-1614), and originated a lot of crockery used in Tea Ceremony. Ceremic products were widespread in this period, too.


In 17th century, the production of crockery in porcelain style made in indigo blue was firstly influenced from Korea and from China in the Ming Dynasty. When the production of crockery in China was paused, The Japanese continued producing the porcelains in indigo blue by imitating Chinese techniques in both shapes and patterns, and exported them to various countries both in Asia and Europe.
The Japanese porcelains were discovered when some ancient places in Ayutthaya were dug for renovation, and they were discovered only at Wichayens house. The procelains were divided in to three kinds as follows:

  • Karatsu ware (16th- 17th Christian Century) and (21th 22th Buddist Century)

Pieces of Karatsu Ware
Karatsu ware was a kind of Japanese crockery produced at the furnace location in Karatsu, where the furnaces were made by Korean modellers. As a result, the crockery from the furnaces in Karatsu was firstly produced in Korean style in agreement with the modellers who were Korean. The word Kara means China, and the word tsu means harbor. When the two words were connected to each other, it means Chinese harbor. Initially, Karatsu Harbor was the center of communication between Japan and other countries. Therefore, Korean influences had spreaded to the area. Later, Karatsu became the Chinese trading harbor.


The first set of Karatsu crockery was produced in the middle of 12th century by Korean modellors. Most of the outer surfaces of Karatsu containers were rough, thick and covered scarcely with a kind of liquid that made the outer surface not shiny. The colors mostly used were grayish white, goldish brown and brownish black, and the patterns decorated were lined, grated patterns or put in the surface with pieces of metal. Although Karatsu ware was firstly influenced by the Korean, later it was influenced by the Chinese crockery as well. However, due to the fact that Karatsu ware was basically influenced by the Korean, it was more in Korean Style rather than Chineses both concerning shapes and feelings. Karatsu ware in the early time is known as the old Karatsu, produced as the containers used for measuring grains of rice. Karatsu wares in later time are as follows:

  • Ko Karatsu (1324 1469) produced and imitated the Korean style.
  • Seto Karatsu (1467 1573) influenced by Chinese shapes and decoration, but made by Korean modellers.
  • Madara Karatsu (1600) influenced by Korean Kaimeyaki.
  • Chosen Karatsu (1573 1644) produced by using materials from Korea in both clay and covering liquid.

Pieces of Karatsu ware


At the end of 16th century, the knowledge in producing crockery in ceramic or porcelain had spreaded to Japanese furnaces. After that the furnaces at Karatsu turned to produce containers in porcelains in Chinese style. Sometimes, the crockery made at Karatsu furnaces was said to be made from China or Korea rather than made in Japan.


Karatsu ware discovered in Ayutthaya was only from Wichayen House, and all was discovered from digging the area for renovation. The Karatsu wares discovered were all in the same kind, made from redish brown clay. The containers were very strong and covered with white liquid. Covering in the style produced patterns on the surface, for example, levels of curved lines in the forms of waves or circles superimposed each other, and the inner side of the containers appeared roykee (marks) happened when the containers were placed in the furnaces, and some sands sticked on the roykee, too. This group of Karatsu wares were produced during 16th 17th century.

  • Kakiyemon ware (17th 18th Christian Century or 22th 23th Buddhist Century)

Pieces of Kakiyemon ware


Kakiyemon ware was invented by a Japanese modeler named Sakaida Kizayemon at Nangavara near Arita in 1591. Arita is 60 miles east of Nagasaki. Mr. Sakaida Kizayemon firstly learned how to make pottery from his fathers friend, Mr. Takahara Gorosichi. Later, he worked with Mr. Higashijima Tokuyemon, a famous pottery modeler. Higashijima used to go to Nagasaki, a city famous for all styles of Chinese crockery. At that time, this city was the center of pottery production. Mr. Higashijima went to Nagasaki, and met a Chinese pottery modeler. He learned the art of drawing patterns on the pottery from that Chinese modeler. After that he went to Imari and collaborated with Kizayemon in creating and trying to cover the porcelains with colors, and at Imari, Mr. Kizayemon made pottery and drawn patterns called Okimono and Tokomono on the pottery surface, and gave it to the governor. The governor was very pleased; he, then, changed Mr. Kizayemons name to Kakiyemon, and Kakiyemon became the name of this kind of pottery, the name made after the modeler.
Kakiyemon ware was the porcelain that was thin, but very strong. It was covered with white color like a boiled egg shell called Nigoshide. The patterns appeared on Kakiyemon porcelain were different from the others in the same period. The patterns on Kakiyemon porcelains used new techniques. They were drawn on the cover in stead of drawing patterns under the cover like other porcelains in the same period. The patterns drawn were in special formats created by Kakiyemon himself. There were many colors used: red, yellow, green, and dark blue. Sometimes, he drew patterns prominently with gold color. The edge of the container was dyed with redish brown called Beniye. Kakiyemon also used blue color covered with many colors under the cover. Although Kakiyemons decoration of patterns on the porcelains was basically from Chinese style, he did not use Chinese ways in decorating his work. Mr. Kakiyemons patterns showed his good tastes and real feelings of Japanese people. He did not draw patterns on all the surface of porcelain like in Chinese style, but he displayed characteristics of Japanese people who love simplicity. He was also skillful in making spaces between the patterns, and never drew patterns on more than one-third or half of the area on the surfaces of the porcelains. In addition, he never drew patterns in geometrical shapes or repeated patterns. Mr. Kakiyemon liked to draw patterns in flowers and butterflies. Once in a long while, he drew pictures of people. For scenery, he only drew a town, trees, and rocks. The Chinese patterns that he used were lion-dog, hoo bird, serration, sho chicken bai (combination of pine trees and bamboo trees), lotuses and benjamas (a kind of flowers). He could draw patterns and adjusted them in agreement with the shapes of the containers. Most of Kakiyemon crockery wares were in small sizes comprising bowls, cups and plates, including plates containing food in Japasnese houses. The shapes of the containers were in variety and not emphasized in any special form.


In 1646, Mr. Kakiyemon brought some of his crockery wares to Nagasaki, and sold them to a Chinese merchant who exported them to Europe. Because of the exotic patterns on the porcelains, Kakiyemons porcelains became popular during 1690 1700. They were exported to all countries in Europe, and Kakiyemon porcelains also influenced Deft, Holland porcelains, Meissan, German porcelains and Worcester, English porcelains.

  • Blue and White Porcelains (17th 18th Christian Century and 22th 23th Buddhist Century)

The blue and white porcelain with the inner side patterned in dragons
Japan started producing the blue and white porcelains in early 17th century. The source of clay called Din Kaolin, the clay used to make blue and white porcelain, was discovered by a Korean man, Mr. Ri Sambi in 1616. The source of Din Kaolin, discovered by Mr. Sambi is in the area called Izumiyama near Arita in Hizen province. The early Japanese blue and white porcelains were influenced by Korea, and the first modelers who produced the porcelains were also Koreans. Later, they were influenced by Chinese porcelains in the Ming Dynasty. Japanese called their blue and white porcelains Sometsuke mono which means dyed ware. Although Japanese porcelains patterns were drawn in blue color from cobolt the same as Chinese porcelains, they used many levels of the color blue: light blue, grayish blue, sapphire blue and dark blue. Most of all, the dark blue porcelains were really like those of the Chinese in the Ming Dynasty. Because of having the blue and white porcelains in many colors, the Japanese called this kind of porcelains Seikwa, those with blue flowers were called Blue-flower blue and they called the blue and white porcelains in the Ming Dynasty from China Gosu.
Pieces of the blue and white containers and small jars


Regarding initial making of Japanese blue and white porcelains, although they got influences from Korea, Japanese modelers did not imitate Korean styles of decoration. The Japanese did not like crowded patterns. Their styles of using the paint brushes were quicker, more enthusiastic and more natural than those of the Koreans, including the independent shapes showing simple designs. Afterwards, the Japanese got influences from the Chinese porcelains. Thus, Japanese and Chinese porcelains were similar, but both of them were still different in many ways. The Chinese blue and white porcelains were strong, smoothly covered and the edges of the porcelains were very thin. On the contrary, those of the Japanese were thick and heavy. The surfaces of the porcelains were thinly covered, but the edges were round and thick. In contrast, the bottoms or the bases of Chinese porcelains would be sticked with sands or pebbles, but those of the Japanese were cleaner; they were usually cut in squares. Most of all, the emblems of people granting patronages were also marked at the bottoms of the Japanese porcelains.


Pieces of the blue and white porcelains in the patterns of flowers and trees
After Mr. Ri Sambis discovery of the clay source at Kaolin, he constructed a furnace for crockery ware at Tengudani. As a result, the Korean modelers who initially made Karatsu crockery in that area turned to produce the blue and white porcelains instead. The industry of producing blue and white porcelains had been expanded very quickly. Due to the expansion of the porcelain production by Korean modelers, some noblemen in Nabeshima Family who were very powerful at that time commanded to reduce the number of Korean modelers in 1637, and the porcelain production business were also controlled in exporting as well. The export of the porcelains had to be done via the East India Company of the Dutch. A lot of Japanese blue and white porcelains were produced for export in 17th Century. They were not only exported to Holland, but also exported to India, Sri Langka, Persia, and some countries in Southeast Asia.

 

Pieces of the blue and white crockery and pieces of blue and white lids


The Japanese blue and white porcelains were very popular at this time due to the pause of production of Chinese poecelain at Jing Teu Jern furnaces after the decline of the Ming Dynasty. As a result, the Japanese porcelains became famous products both in Asia and Europe. After the troublesome events of the Chinese court, and the new Dynasty Shing began (1644 1911 A.D.; 2187 2454 B.E.), King Kangsi (1662 1722 A.D.; 2205 2265 B.E.) succeeded to the throne. The kings in the Shing Dynasty turned to promote crockery ware industry at Jing Teu Jern furnaces, and this made the Japanese crockery declined from popularity.

Reference
The Division of Ancient Histories, the Department of Fine Arts. (1989). Khruang Tuay
(Crockery ware). Bangkok: Samnakpim Somphan Chamkad (Somphan Press
Limited).