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ѴطФͧе٩ù
Ѵط
. ҳʶҹ
Image
оطٻʶѴط
      ѨغѹѴط ࢵӺŻе٪ ;йظ ѧѴйظ() ࢵͧʶҺѹҪѯйظ 鹷觡ҧ͹价ҧͧͧ ྪ (ѰͶҵͧ) ҡѹ͡ е٪«繻е˭躹ǡᾧͧҹ 㹺dzѴ¡اظҹҵͧ 繷駹ʶҹͧ稾ྷҪҡ͹ ͢鹤ͧҪǨ֧ʶһҢ繾 ҧҹȵѹͧ͡ѴԴѺͧù 繤ͧѡӨҡҾҫҧҹ֧ͧͧҧҹ˹ 㹺dzͧդӤѭɰԨä յҴеҴӤѭ Ҵҵͧ ǶФͧѧҨǹἹѧͧѴͧҧǵ˹͖ о鹷᤺öҧǵǷȵѹ͡ѹ

      ػҳࢵԴͧ͢ѴطѺࢵ
           ˹            ԴѺ鹷ҧ Ѵ繷Ҥ¹ͧʶҺѹҪѯйظ
           ȵѹ͡            ԴѺǤͧù Ѵ繷駢ͧѴԧ
                      ԴѺ鹷ҧ Ѵŧ繷駺ҹѡҨͧʶҺѹҪѯйظ
           ȵѹ            ԴѺǶྪ (ѰͶҵͧ)


. ѵФӤѭͧѴط
Image
Ѵط (ҹ˹)
      Ѵط ѴҴհҹ繾ǧ¤դ駡اظ() 繷ʶԵͧҪҤзհҹҹѡ繾Эҳ⾸ 㹾ҪǴáاظк 稾ྷҪô ҧѴ㹺dzҹҵͧѹ繹ʶҹ .. () ô ʶһҡᾧ ʶ ­ ʹʹ خ 蹨ѹҪҧͺͺͧͧاѧҾʶ ­ ҧ ֧ ¹ Ѵط ͧ ѹ ׹ ͸ԡë觹鹵繾ҪҤЪ Эҳ⾸Ԕ çҪٷ繾ѵº٪ ҪŻ¢鹾ѹҡ ҵҡԹǧ Ҥǧ ʹҹ ҧ 繡þ
      ͧҡѴ繾ǧ駡اظ оʶ ­ اѧҴ¡ͧͺšҴѴ ֧¡ѹѭ Ѵͧͺ اѧҴ¡ͧͺͧǹ Ѫ稾й³Ҫô اѧҾз觴Եäѭһҷ 㹾Ҫѧ³Ҫȹ ǧѴѵҸҵ ѧѴž 稾ྷҪҡҧ稾й³ҪҪѧ³Ҫȹ ѧҡͧͺͧ§ ֧اѧҡͧͺѴطҧ
      蹴Թ稾Һ .. ô Ѵ˹ôӺҹеٻдѺءѺʶ ҹеءѨغѹø Ѵѵʴҹ˹ ѴອԵúҹ˹ ռѡѴ价ӵ˹ѧͺҹ˹ 㺹ҿҡйäþԹԵ ç㺹лзҹԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵԾй 稡ҴçҪҹҾç任Сͺ繺ҹеø е١ҧҹѹ Ѵѵʴ ..
      ͻ .. ҧҪӡÿ鹿ٺóШѧѴйظ ŻҡӡâشҳʶҹѴط ͵ǨҡҹdzѴ龺ͧͺͧ ٻر ˹ԧ ٻ෾ ͺͧ ԴдѺ਴е˹Ҿʶ ҳѵػͺͧǹ龺ҳʶҹࢵͧйظкdz§ Ǥ ਴ͺͧǢҴ硷ѴԡҪ ͧͺͧҧʶѴخմ оТعἹͺ繾о оطٻԹͺͧ ҧԪ ի͹ ظ ѹ繾ͧҡ㹾਴ Ѵ˭ ҧѪ稾йҪ 觨ҡѧࡵѡɳФر ˹ԧ ෾ ਴ оͧعἹѧʴǴ繽ͪҧŻظ ѹʴٻẺ෤Ԥ㹷ҧêҧ㹪ǧظҵ͹ҹ觢ͧͧͧͺͧǴ
      㹻ѨغѹѴطѴҧ Ѻâ鹷¹ҳʶҹͧҵ СҪԨҹມ ͹ ѹ ѹ¹ .. ()

. ؤ¢ͧҳʶҹ
      ӴѺ¢ͧ觡ҧҧ Ѵط ö͡ҧ ǧ ¡ѹ · 㹪ǧáͧҧѴ稾ྷҪ ͻ .. · ǧͧûѧóҡѡҹѴਹ ѹɰҹѴطѧҧǹҨѺҹлѧóҨз¡اظ .. ֧ѴҧҨѨغѹ
      · 稾ྷҪ (ظҵ͹)
      㹾ҪǴáاظк 稾ྷҪô ҧѴ㹺dzҹҵͧѹ繹ʶҹ .. () ô ʶһҡᾧ ʶ ­ ʹʹ خ 蹨ѹҪҧͺͺͧͧاѧҾʶ ­ ֧㹾ҪǴèкաҧ਴Ѵ ҡ֡ٻẺʶһѵ¡ Ҿлҧҧҹ˹ҾʶٻẺҧǡѹѺʶһѵ¡áҧ 稾ྷҪ 鹷ͧѴطҡǡᾧ繢ͺࢵͧѴ() §ͧ¢ͧǡᾧǷͺʶҹ ѡҹҧҹʶһѵ¡Ѵ㹻Ѩغѹ

           . ʶ (ҳʶҹŢ ) ѡɳҤ÷آ⶧ҧҹ˹ѧͧѺѧآԺͧ 鹺ҹآ ҤաЪͧ˹ҵҧءͧ ҹҤẺʶһѵ¡ظҵ͹ ʹͧѺѡɳТͧҫѡɳԹ¢Ҵ յ˧ҡ˹çҷѧ繡Һ٧͹ѧ ᶺ鹡ҧҴ˭Ңͺ Ẻظҵ͹á()
           ͺʶǡᾧ ͺҤ ǧͺ蹰ҹ ͡ҡѧաЪͧٻҡҷдѺdzѧᾧ 觾ҡ㹧ҹǧظҵ͹ ѡɳТͧЪͧٻҡҷѧᾧѧѡɳǡѹѺѧ§ҹ਴ (ҳʶҹŢ ) ѹɰҹҨѺҧѧ ѧ鹨֧ҨػѹɰҹǡᾧͺʶҨ繵ẺѺ਴ҧѧ ǡᾧǷͺʶѺҧѧ

Image
ʶ ҹ˹ Ҿѧúó
Image
ʶ ҹȵѹ͡ Ҿѧúó
Image
ʶ ҹ Ҿѧúó


           . ҧ (ҳʶҹŢ ) 繻ҧ좹Ҵ ҧҹ˹Ңͧʶѡҹ§ǹҹʹҧ赡§ѹ ѡɳ਴çҧ좹Ҵ ǹҹСͺ°ҹԧ ҹͧѺش鹤ѴФ ǡѺҧѴҧѪǡѹ Ѫ稾ྷҪ ѧ׺ʹҧѴ⾸зѺҧ ѧѴԨԵ ҧѪ稾()
           * Ѻúóолҧ ¨繡¡ǹʹͧͧҧѡŧ鹴ҹҧҹͧлҧ仵͹ ¡á԰ǹͧ͹ҵطѡѴǹ Ǩ֧¡ǹͧʹҧӡ蹤Ǣ仵Դѧ˹

Image
лҧ ҹ˹ Ҿѧúó
Image
лҧ ҹȵѹ͡ Ҿѧúó


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਴ ҹ˹ Ҿѧúó
           . ਴ (ҳʶҹŢ ) ਴ҹҧҹ˹Ңͧҧ좹Ҵ ҺѡɳТͧ਴Ѵ ͧҡѡҹ§ǹҹ਴ա ѹɰҹҹҨ਴ҧѧ ¹ҨҧѪ稾ͫ繪ǧҧ਴ѹἹѧ ѧ蹷辺 Ѵ Ѵɰ (ͧ) Ѵ⾸зѺҧ ѧѴԨԵ ਴ҧáҧѴ ͧҡٻẺͧͧ਴ѡɳᵡҧѹѺлҧѺʶ ֧ѹɰҹ਴Ҩҧѧ Ѻҧлҧ


           . (ҳʶҹŢ ) ҧҹȵѹͧ਴Ţ ҺѡɳҤ÷Ѵਹ ͧҡҤҾѧҡ ҡ˹觷駢ͧҤ÷ԹҡἹѧҵ ѹɰҹҨѺҧѧѪ稾ྷҪ
Image
ҹȵѹ͡ Ҿѧúó
           ҡâشҳʶҹ͹÷ӡúóо Ҥôѧҧ͹Ѻ躹ҡҹ԰ ѹɰҹҹҨǹ˹觢ͧҤ оѡҹͧ紷çѳǺѹ䴷ҧҹ˹͡觡ҧҤ ҡҹҤ÷ûѨغѹ Ҩѧ¤áҧѴ Ҥ蹫Һª·Ѵਹ ѧͤǺóѧó˭ Ҥѧشҡ֧ҧѧѺŧҡҹͧҤ
           ѧҧҹѡɳҤ÷آ˹ ѧ ǡѺʶ ҡͧ¢ͧҺdzآ ͧҡѧҤѧŧ öҺӹǹе˹觢ͧ˹ҵҧЪͧеѴਹѡ 輹ѧҧҹȵѹ͡ ѹ ͧ¡Ъͧеٷ輹ѧѺѧҹ˹ ֧ѹɰҹѧա÷Ӻѹ䴢 ŧҧҹҧͧҤ ѧâشǨdzҹ˹ͧ͢Ҥ ѧ龺ҹѴ԰Ҵٹͺ ǹҤùҡѡҹ˹觢ͧҹءշдɰҹоطٻиҹ ö˹ȷҧèѴҧҤҧѴਹѹ˹ȷҧ


      · ǧͧûѧóظҵ͹ ѧҧѴ
      ҡâشǨ͹óҳʶҹѴط Ҥ÷ѴਹѺҧѧҧѴá (ҳʶҹŢ ) ҧҹȵѹͧ਴Ţ ѧ㹻Ѩغѹ繡ҧ͹ѺҡҹͧҤաѧ˹ ǹҹóѧóʶһѵ¡ ҡѡҹ繪ѴਹѡҨ繧ҹóЫ蹤§硹ҹ ٻçҧʶһѵ¡¹ŧ

      ػôԹҹóлѺاҾԷȹҳʶҹѴط 繡úóẺǷҧ͹ѡ ѡҾ餧ҡش Ѻ蹤çѺҳʶҹ շ ͧ ʶ (ҳʶҹŢ ) , лҧ (ҳʶҹŢ ) , ਴ (ҳʶҹŢ ) , о (ҳʶҹŢ ) ǡᾧ СᾧѴҧǹ ¨繡á԰ǹش ѡҹҡ 㹤Ǻͧѡҳ (ӹѡŻҡ÷ йظ) ҧ觤Ѵ СôԹҹء鹵͹ѺõǨͺҡǪҭҨ繹ѡҳ ǡ ʶһԡ ʶһԡ ͻͧѹԴҴԴ鹡Ѻҳʶҹѹôͧҵ
      : ҧǹӡѴحط. §ҹúóлѺاԷȹҳʶҹѴط ӺŻе٪ ;йظ ѧѴйظ էҳ 2544. ǺôԹҹ ӹѡҹҳоԾԸѳʶҹ觪ҵԷ 3 йظ (ͧشӹѡŻҡ÷ 3 йظ).


Image
ͧù
ͧе٩ù
      繻еٹ觵çѺҡͧ٨ еٹӹѺͧе෾ () Фͧе٨չҧҹѹ͡ Ѩغѹ١ͧ Ǥͧ㹺dzʶҺѹҪѯйظ е٪ͧشշͨҧҡѴ ( : طҹѵʵ йظ. ᾧͧ е ҳاظ. ,˹ )
      ҡõǨͺѡҹ㹤âعǧѴдçѺἹͧǡêǽ ͧ Ǩ㹻 .. (.. ) Ἱͧ .. (.. ) Ἱйظ ѺҳҪҹԹ .. Ǿ ͧӹԧҷҧѹͧ͡е«繻еٺ §Ἱ詺Ѻ ¡鹩ѺͧҳҪҹԹ ʴǶе·Ҷ֧ᾧͧ
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оҹͧù
      㹨˵آͧоͤҽ Ҥ () Ƕ֧ǹҪʹͧҡاʷԭҪ稾й³Ҫ͹˹ Ҷ֧اظ ׹˭㹾йáԧص ͻ׹㹾йԧ ૹ¡Ѻҧͧѷԧ׹˭ص͹ѹ кǹ֧ͨҤͧ ն˭ҵͧ˹ 繶ҧͧض֧Ҫѧͧҡا
      鹨ҡ Ҫöѹ˹觻Դͧ駤ѹ Ҫöպɺٻ ù ѺдɰҹҪ㹾Ҫѧ
Image
оҹͧù
      ºҷ˭ Ҩ֧鹨ҡ Ҩ֧ԭҪ͡ҡ;з ԭҪһдɰҹŧɺ 觢عҧạ仨֧Ҫö ֧ԭҪ͡ҡɺ鹵駻дɰҹҪö ͺҪöբعҧҪ¶ͩѵª ռ餹ѹҡѺӹǹǹ ҧºѧҪ카¡ѹ鹔
      ҡѹ֡ͧҪٵʴѧ ͧù¤ͧդѹͧѺе ԴѺʹ㹡¡͡ѹ鹴ѧǢҧ ( : طҹѵʵ йظ. ͧзͨҧҳاظ. ,˹ -)

.................................................................

            () êǡا Ҥ ӹҹзºҧ 㹡اظҔ êǡا âعǧѴ оҪǴ Ѻǧ԰ѡùԵ. (й : çͧ, ), ˹ .
            () ͧǡѹ, ˹ .
            () ҪǴáاظ Ѻѹѹ(), ЪǴ , ˹ .
            () Żҡ, ¹ҳʶҹࢵ˹Żҡ÷ . (ا෾ : ҧǹӡѴ . ѹҳԪ, ), ˹ .
            () ҪǴáاظ Ѻѹѹ(), ЪǴ , ˹ .
            () ҡâشǨ¡Żҡ ͻ .. ҷҧҹ˹ҧ͡Ҩҡûҳ ͧ¢ͧ԰ҧǷȵѹ͡ ѹ ѹɰҹҹҨҡҹͧǡᾧѴط.
            () . ҡ, Żк, ˹ .
            () ѹ آ, ਴ çҷʹ ѴҪó ѧѴйظ, ˹ .
            () ˵آͧоͤҽ Ҥ ЪǴ Ҥ Ѻش觪ҵ , ӹѡ˹, , ˹ )
            Ҿ : ¾ѱ ᵧѹ ..Ҿ Ѱ (ʶҺѹظ֡)



Wat Borom Phuttharam and Khlong Pratu Chakainoy
Wat Borom Phuttharam

    • The Location of the Ancient Remains

The Buddha Image inside the Ubosot of Wat Borom Phuttharam

Wat Borom Phuttharam is stuated at Tambon (Sub-district) Pratuchai, Amphoe (District) Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, and Changwat (Province) Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (1) in the area of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Rajabhat University in the rather south of the city island. It is on the east side of Sri Sanphet Road (Maha Ratthaya or Pa Tong Road) and was near Pratu Chai (The victory arch) which was a big gate on the south line of the city wall. The location of this temple in Ayutthaya period was Pa Tong area and was king Pate Racha’s former residence. When he succeeded to the thone, the area was founded as a temple. The east of the temple connected to Khlong Chakainoy, the canal drawing water from the Chao Phraya River in the south of the city island to Beung Phra Ram in the north. The canal was very important to commercial economy because of the floating and land market called Talard Pa Tong (Pa Tong Market). The lines of the road and the canal forced the plan of the temple to lie from north to south because the area was narrow and could be lain from east to west.

In conclusion, the area of Wat Borom Phuttharam connects to the other places as follows:

The north connects to a space next to a building of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Rajabhat University.
The east connects to the line of Khlong Chakainoy (Chakainoy Canal).
The south connects to a space next to the instructors’ houses of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Rajabhat University.
The west connects to the line of Sri Sanphet Road (Thanon Maha Ratthaya or Thanon Pa Tong).

    • History and Background of Wat Borom Phuttharam

Wat Borom Phuttharam (the front)

Wat Borom Phuttharam was a small royal temple in the domestic side from Ayutthaya period (2), and it was the residence for the monk in the clerical title of Phra Yana Sompho. Krung Si Ayutthaya royal annals indicated that King Pate Racha commanded constructing a temple at Pa Tong area which was the king’s old residence in 1689. He commanded building the wall, the ubosot, the vihara, the sermon hall, the monks’ residence, monks’ cells, and ordered Meun Chanthra to make yellow glazed tiles and put them on the roof of the ubosot, the vihara and the sermon hall. The construction had been finished in two years, and the king named the temple “Wat Borom Phuttharam”. There had been a celebration for 3 days and nights. The abbot invited to stay at the temple was appointed to the clerical title of “Phra Yana Sompho”. The king also donated offerings to pay homage to the Buddha, the Buddha’s teachings and monks, and a lot of tributes for the temple, such as royal Kathin ceremony, royal ordination, a pond, elephants, horses and some other special things.

Since it was once a royal temple in Ayutthaya period and the roofs of the ubosot, the vihara and the sermon hall were different from other temples, general people called it “Wat Krabuang Khluab (The temple of the glazed tiles)”. Regarding covering a roof with greenish yellow glazed tiles, King Narai ordered thatching the roofs of Dusit Sawan Thanya Maha Prasat throne-hall at Narai Ratcha Nivet Palace and the royal vihara at Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat in Lop Buri with the kind of tiles. In the reign of King Narai, King Pate Racha did the duty as the director of the Department of Elephants and stayed at Narai Ratcha Nivet Palace, he might have seen that the roof of the palace was beautiful. So he ordered covering the roof like that at Wat Borom Phuttharam.

In the reign of King Boromakot in1754, he commanded renovating this temple and making door panels decorating with pearl for the ubosot. Now, one of the door panels decorated with pearl is at Hor Monthiantham at Wat Phra Si Rattana Satsadaram, and the other one is at Wat Benjama Bophit. One panel was stolen and made into a bookcase. Prince Nakhon Sawan Woraphinit got the bookcase, and donated it to the National Museum in Bangkok. Later, Prince Damrong Rachanupap ordered removing the panel out of the bookcase and making it as a door panel of Monthiatham Hall in 1931. It is the middle door in the west at Wat Phra Si Rattana Satsadaram.

The government restored and renovated the ancient remains in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya in 1996. The Department of fine Arts dag out Wat Borom Phuttharam in order to look for original evidence; a lot of greenish yellow glazed tiles, a figure of garuda, a figure of a lion face, figures of gods and goddesses token to worship were discovered. They might have been once decorated at the chedi near the doors of the ubosot. The antiques in greenish yellow color were also found at many ancient remains in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya City Island and the places near by, for insatant a small chedi with indented corners and covered with greenish yellow color at Wat Thammikarat, the yellow glazed tiles on the side of the ubosot at Wat Kudeedao, and small molded Buddha images called Khun Phan. There is also a Buddha image made of baked clay in the attitude of subduing the mara sitting under a façade and covered with greenish yellow color in Ayutthaya period which was from the hinding place at Phra Chedi Chaimongkhol at Wat Yai Chaimongkhol built in King Naresuan’s reign. Considering the characteristics of the garuda, the lion face, the gods and goddesses token to worship, the small chadi and the small Buddha image called Khun phan, they were made by artists in Ayutthaya period. They displayed the fomats and techniques of artists in the late Ayutthaya period that they like making things and appliances covered with greenish yellow color.

Nowadays, Wat Borom Phuttharam is deserted. It was enrolled as national ancient remains and declared in the government gazette, volumn 60, part 39 on September 20, 1943 (4).

    • Classifying the Age of Ancient Remains

The sequence and age of the construction materials inside Wat Borom Phuttharam can be divided into 2 periods. The first period was when the temple was constructed in the reign of King Pate Racha in 1680, and the second period was when the temple was renovated without time evidence. It was presumed that after the construction of Wat Borom Phuttharam, the temple had been restored from time to time until Krung Si Ayutthaya was destroyed in 1767. After that it has become deserted.

The first period: the reign of King Pate Racha (The late Ayutthaya period)
Krung Si Ayutthaya royal annals indicated that King Pate Racha commanded building the temple in Pa Tong area, his old residence, in 1689. The king commanded building the wall, the ubosot, the vihara, the sermon hall, the monks’ residence, monks’ cells, and ordered Meun Chanthra to make yellow glazed tiles and put them on the roofs of the ubosot, the vihara and the sermon hall. Although the royal annals did not indicate the construction of the main chedi inside the temple, the architectonic characteristics revealed that the prang situating in front of the ubosot was in the same style of the period that King Pate Racha reigned. The line of wall showing the temple area was not found (6); there is only the clue of the wall surrounding the ubosot. Archetectonic evidences left inside the temple are as follows:

1.There is a line of low wall around the ubosot and Bai Sema. The wall was decorated with punched cross marks on it. This style was very popular in the late Ayutthaya period. The characteristics of punching the wall in cross marks mentioned are the same as those on the bases of the chedi with indented corners (The ancient remain number 3) which was assumed being latterly built. Therefore, it can be concluded that the line of wall around the ubosot might have been the model of the chedi with indented corners built in the latter period or the line of wall was additionally and latterly built.

Phra Ubosot, the north side and the condition after the renovation

Phra Ubosot, the east side and the condition after the renovation

Phra Ubosot, inside and the condition after the renovation

2. Prang Rai (The ancient remain number 2) is a rather small prang (pagoda). The one in front of the ubosot left only parts of the base and the top of it tumbled down and lay on the ground. It is in a pagoda format with a small size. The base comprises a base called Tharn Sing supporting the part like a priest’s waistband, the same as that of Wat Phraya Man built in the same period, King Pate Racha’s reign. The model was also imitated at the prang of Wat Pho Prathabchang in Phichit province which was built in the reign of King Sua (8).

*Phra Prang was already renovated. The top left on the ground was raised and originally put on its place. Bricks were additionally laid in place of the lost ones, and the prang looks nearly like its original form.

Phra Prang, the north side and the condition after the renovation

Phra Prang, the east side and the condition after the renovation

The chedi with indented corners, the north side and the condition after the renovation

3. Chedi Yormoom (The ancient remain number 3) is situated in front of the rather small prang. The characteristics of the chedi were not exactly known because the base with indented corners is only left. It is assumed that the chedi was built after the temple. It might have been built in the reign of King Sua; the period that the style of building a pair of chedi with indented corners was very popular like those at Wat Phraya Man, Wat Worachettharam (in the city) and Wat Pho Prathabchang in Phichit. On the other hand, the chedi might have been built the same time as the temple, but the form of the chedi is very different from the style of the prang situating near the ubosot. As a result, the chedi with indented corners like this was assumed being latterly built.

4. The Vihara (The ancient remain number 4) is situated in the west of the chedi (number 2). The characteristics of this vihara are not clearly known because the building is mostly damaged. The location of the building is over the symmetry
layout. Because of this it is assumed being built after the reign of King Pate Racha.

The Vihara, the east side and the condition after the renovation

Due to the digging out of the ancient remains before renovation, it indicated that the building of the vihara was superimposed the old base made of bricks. For this reason, it is assumed being a part of the building because evidence of a post with an ornamental knob with pointed levels of the stairs in the north side and the other one in the middle of the building was found. The base of the building under this vihara might have been the original vihara when the temple was firstly built or it might have been of the other building without our knowing the purpose of its usage. Later, when the temple was mainly renovated, that old building might have seriously damaged, and then a new building was built over it.
The vihara built on top of the old one was a building with the front and the back portico like those of the ubosot, but the lines of posts of the porticos were disappeared. Together with the building walls which tumbled down, so the number and positions of the windows and doors were unknown, only the punching for the doors in the east and the west walls were left near the north wall. As a result, it can be assumed that there were sets of stairs on the sides of the building. After that the digging out in the north of the building revealed that there was a temple yard laid with bricks and lime around the building. Inside the vihara, there was not the clue of the base of the Buddha image. Therefore, the layout of the building could not be clearly specified what direction the vihara turned its face to.

The second period: the renovation in the late Ayutthaya period after the construction of the temple
The digging out before renovating the ancient remains of Wat Borom Phuttharam revealed obviously that the building additionally built after the construction of the temple was the vihara (The ancient remain number 4) which was located in the west of the chedi (The ancient remain number 2). The present building was constructed superimposedly over the base of another building. There was no evidence of the renovation of other architectonic things. There might have been only a little restoring that did not make changes to the old architectonic style.

In summary, the renovation and improvement of the ancient remains of Wat Borom Phuttharam were done in agreement with the regulations of conservation: keeping them into the original condition and enhancing their stability to the ancient remains. They are Phra Ubosot (The ancient remain number 1), Phra Prang (The ancient remain number 2), Chedi Yormoom (The indented corner chedi, the ancient remain number 3), and the Vihara (The ancient remain number 4), including the wall around the ubosot and some parts of the wall around the temple. It was done with laying bricks to the damaged parts according the original conditions under the strict control of archeologists (The Office of Fine Arts 3, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Every step of renovation and improvement were inspected by experts: archeologists, engineers, architects and geographical architects, in order to prevent mistakes that would happen to the national property.

Source: Boonphisut Limited Partnership. The report on renovation and improvement of the ancient remains landscape of
Wat Borom Phuttharam, Tambon Pratuchai, Amphoe Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, and Changwat Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya in the fiscal year 2001. The renovation and improvement were controlled by the Archaeology and National Museum Office 3, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (The library of the Archaeology and National Museum Office 3, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya).

Khlong Chakainoy

Khlong Pratu Chakainoy

It was a water gate on the opposite side of the mouth of Khlong Khujam. This water gate connected to Khlong Pratu Thepmee (Thedmee) and Khlong Pratu Jeen in the east. Nowadays it was covered under the ground without any clue. The canal was in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Rajabhat University. At Pratu Chongkud (topless door of a wall), there was a sampan landing for people to cross to Wat Tharam {Source: Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Historical Park. (2002). Kampaengmuang, Pom, Pratu, Samai Boran Krung Si Ayutthaya (The City Wall, Fortresses and Gates in the Ancient Time of Krung Si Ayutthaya), p. 39}.

Due to the checking of evidence mentioning Khunluang Wat Pradusongtham’s testimony with a map of a French engineer, Fransoi, surveyed in1687 (B.E. 2230), Kaempfer’s map, 1690 1692 (B.E. 2233 2235) and a map of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya by Phraya Boranratchathanin in1926, they indicated that there was really the canal, but it was in the east of Pratu Chai which was a land gate, but in other maps, except the one of Phraya Boranratchathanin, indicated that a line of Pratu Chai Road was seen with its length to the city wall.

The Bridge Crossing Khlong Chakainoy

In a group of French traders’ annals, part 7 (9), mentioned the procession for the King of France’s royal letter in making friendly relations in the reign of King Narai, “When we reached Krung Si Ayutthaya, the cannons fired a salute. When they finished, the ship, Saint Louise and the one of the company fired a salute to answer. The procession of ships turned into a canal which there was a line of road leading to it. It was the road between the lengths of canals leading to the king of Siam’s Royal Palace”.

“When we landed, we saw a royal chariot wholly covered with gold leaves. On the chariot, there was Busabok (Movable pavilion with pointed roof) looked like a royal throne used to place the royal letter and took it to the royal palace”.
The Bridge Crossing Khlong Chakainoy

“When the ships stopped at a landing on a big road, we landed, and transferred the royal letter from the royal boat and placed it on the Busabok. Some Thai noblemen carried the Busabok to the chariot, and then the royal letter was taken from Busabok and placed on the chariot. There were Thai noblemen and officials carrying many Chat (tiered umbrellas with levels on top), and there were countlessly a lot of people. All of them paid respect to the royal letter”.

The group of French royal envoy’s annals makes us know clearly that Khlong Chakainoy had some relation and involved with Pratu Chai. This leads to the confusion in calling their names as mentioned before. {Source: Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Historical Park. (2002). Khlong lae Tharuachang Samai Boran Krung Si Ayutthaya (Ancient Canals and Boat Landings in Krung Si Ayutthaya Period)}, pp. 42 43.


References

1.The testimony of Krung Kao (Ayutthaya) People “Part 2 Legend and Various Residences in Krung Si
Ayutthaya” in the testimony of Krung Kao (Ayutthaya) people, the testimony of Khunluang
Hawat and Luang Prasert Akssoranit’s annals. (1967). Bangkok: Rongpim Rungruangtham, p.
215.
2. The same source, p. 215.
3. Krung Si Ayutthaya Royal Annals, Phan Chanthanumart’s (Jerm) issue, The Collection of Annals,
volumn 39, p. 112.
4. The Department of Fine Arts. (1994). The List of Anccient Remains in The Office of Fine Arts 1.
Bangkok: P. Samphan Phanit Limited Partnership, pp. 97 98.
5. Krung Si Ayutthaya Royal annals, Phan Chanthanumart’s (Jerm) issue, The Collection of Annals, volumn
39, p. 112.
6. The digging out by the Department of Fine Arts in 2001 revealed that about 10 meters in the north of the
vihara, there was evidence of a line of laid bricks lying from the east to the south. It was assumed
being the original base of the wall around Wat Borom Puttharam.
7. Parknam, Nor Na. The Arts on Bai Sema, pp. 48 49, 242.
8. Leksukhum, Santi. Chedi Rai (Chedi used for decoration) with Castle-like Top at Wat Rat Burana in
Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya, pp. 67 68.
9.The French traders’ Annals, part 7. (1965). The Collection of Annals, volumn 48, The National Museu
Issue, volumn 12. Bangkok: Samnakphim Kaona, p. 235.
10.Picture taken by: Mr. Phat Taengphan and Miss Prapaporn Chatprapa (Ayutthaya Study Institute).