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ʧظ˧Ǵ ..2112 Ѻش¹ҹҡͧ
ʧظ˧Ǵ ..2112 Ѻش¹ҹҡͧ
ѰԷ ͧ*

           㹪ǧ鹾طȵɷ 22 ظԴҡʧѺ ˧Ǵҧͧ Ѻ蹴ԹҪ繵 ʧáԴ㹾طѡҪ 2081 ˵ؼǡѺêǧԧ鹷觡ҧҧӹҨ dzͧ§ҹ繴Թᴹͧͭ ¢й鹪ͭӹҨͧ˧Ǵ ռӤ;ҵວǵѵҨҡͧ Ңͤͨҡظ 繪ǹͧѴҧͧҳҨѡ Сʧ 㹷شʧ駹騺ŧªªТͧظ ¤öʹҹҾͧҪ㹢й

           ʧ駵Դ蹴ԹҨѡþô 㹾طѡҪ 2091 ˵ǡѺ¹ŧҧͧҳҨѡظ 鹾ЪŧͧҪоʹ ʹâӹҨͧشҨѹ ١ִӹҨ¾¹Ҫ ʶһҵͧ繾Ҩѡþôҵ ҡظҴѧ ˵ب٧ҵວǵ 繪ͧҧТӹҨ令ͺҳҨѡظ ҵວǵ֧ѴѾ˭ ¡һЪԴйظ ʧ ʧ駹Ѻظ繽º ͧ¨ӹǹѧŷ¡ лСͺѺ÷ҨѡþôӹҨѴúҹͧҹ ֧ѧҴ蹤ҧͧҡ ¤ͧ͢Ҫ ʹյ觪ԧԧ㹡ִӹҨҡشҨѹ ͤ駡͹ ӡѧҡɳšŧ繷Ѿ˹Һ ѺѾ˧ǴաѺ ҳҨѡظҨ֧ʹ鹨ҡʧ駹

           ҡʧͧ駷 ҳҨѡظöѡʶҾҧͧͧͧ ԴѴ駢㹡 ըش㹴ҹӹҨûͧͧǼ СäǺѧŷջԷҾ Ǥ ҡʧ㹤áظöҪ˧Ǵ ФӹҭҧúФ秢ͧѵ Ҫ Ѻʧ駷ͧ ʧ駹ҳҨѡظҨº᷺֡ءҹ ֧Ҵͧ¾· ¤ѹѹҧظҡѺͧ˹ͷº¡ü١ѹҧͭҵ ¡觧ҹҧǧ 繻ªҧӤѭѡѹͧ˹ŧҪзظʧ㹤駹

           Ҽҹ ˧Ǵѧդͧ÷ТӹҨҧͧͺ֧ظ д¢й Ҩѡþôժҧ͡㹤ͺ֧ͧ͡ ҳҨѡ˧Ǵ ¡ùӢͧçͧ ѵͧդöЪԧ㹡ҧἹú Դغ¨Тͪҧ͡繡ҧѹ ¾ҨѡþôҨӢͺç֧ͧ˵㹡÷ʧ

           ҡʺóçͧѾ㹤駡͹ Ѻ֧÷١ͧ˹¹ӷѾҵա˹Һ ʧ㹾طѡҪ 2106 Ҩ֧յѴͧ˹繡ѧ ੾ͧɳš觡ѧҪظ㹤ǡ͹ ˵ءó駹ظҨ֧ʶҹóӺҡ еͧŧ¡ªҧ͡ӹǹ˹ Ѻ˧Ǵ㹷ش

           ظ㹪ǧҹԹѺŧʧ ¤ͧ÷СѺӹҨ Ȩҡö١Ѻͧ˧Ǵ СͺѺ㨷ɳš͡ҧظҡѺ˧Ǵ ԹҪҸҪ㹰ҹСѵͧͧظҨ֧դͧ÷лС ҡʧ駡͹ ӴѺáͧͧ÷ҧѹԵ ͵͵ҹ ͧ觾෾ѵѺҹҧ繡ü١ѹ ҸҪҼͧͧɳš ҺЪԧ˧Ǵ ҡ˵ءóѧǹ֧繡ҧͧѺԹҪҸҪҡ觢 觵Ҵ¡ûСʧҧظҡѺɳš㹷ش

           ÷ظһСվɳšͧ ˧Ǵ繡 ͧҡɳš͹ͧ㹡ôŢͧ˧Ǵ çͧ ֧ͧѧǹ˵㹡¡Ѿ价ʧѺظᵡѡ ʧ¡اѺ˧Ǵҵ

           ;طѡҪ 2111 ˧Ǵ¡ѾһЪԴظ ʧѹ ظй繷 Ҩѧ㹡õ ҡͧ㹾ҪǴظҷҺ ʧ駹˧ǴҨеѡظ зӡ㹷ءٻẺ ͧغµҧҪ ͷҪظŧ 㹤繨ԧ ش¹ͧ˵ءó駹 Դ㹪ǧԹҪҸҪ 仢ͤ͡ѺɰҸҪҹҧ ӡѧŧ繷Ѿ˹ҺյźѾͧ˧Ǵ ˵ءóͧ ҾɰҸҪѺͧǷԴ ӡѧŧҪظ ͧѧǡǧ֧Һçͧ蹡Ѻ ֧ͧѴͧѾҴѡշѾҡҹҧҹͧ ǧͧк ͷѾҹҧҶ֧dzѧ ١Ѿҡ˧Ǵըᵡ˹աѺ ԴԹ-ҪҸҪͧ÷о觷Ѿҡҹҧ繷Ѿ˹Һ ͹ҧش¹ 蹡ѾҡͧɳšͧҸҪŧҪͤʧԴ㹾طѡҪ 2091 ͧŧ §ͤ˹ҡŧҴ蹷ء

           ҡʧ駹ʴ դѹѹաѺͧ§ ֧դӤѭҧǴ ЪʹѺʹعʶҾͧͧٹҧ 㹷ҧѺѹ ҡʧѴѧʹѺʹعҡͧ§ŧ ⴴͧСʧ ֧͡ʷҪ㹡֡駹ҧҡ繹ѡ



The War between Ayutthaya and Hongsawadi (Pegu) with the Turning Point at Ban Marksongtohn
By Natthawit Pimthong

In the early 22th century, Ayutthaya had been in war against Hongsawadi since the reign of King Chairachathirat. The first war was in 1538 due to the scrambling of the inbetween area at Chiangkran which was the Morns (Pegu) because at that time, the Morn did not want to be under the Burmese who were led by King Tabengchaweti from Tong-U. The Morn asked Ayutthaya for help and that led to the conflict of the two kingdoms. Therefore the war began and ended with
Ayutthayas victory because of King Chairachathirats military force and capability.

The latter war happened in the reign of King Maha Chakkrapat in 1548 due to the changes of political affairs in Ayutthaya Kingdom since the death of King Chairachathirat and Phra Yodfa, including the reigning of Thao Srisudachan whose power was seized by Phra Thianracha who succeeded to the throne as King Maha Chakkrapat. The civil commotion in Ayutthaya induced King Tabengchaweti with opportunity to increase power over Ayutthaya Kingdom. King Tabengchaweti embattled with enormous soldiers and moved the troops to block Ayutthaya city. The event led to the outbreak of war, and Ayutthaya faced disadvantages because of having less soldiers and the short time of being on the throne of the king. As a result, the city lacked political stability. On the contrary, with the help of Phra Chairacha, the kings past competitor, who joined him in seizing the power from Thao Srisudachan, he moved his troops from Phitsanulok to press and chase the Burmese troops. Consequently, Ayutthaya was saved from being defeated in the war.

From the two wars mentioned, Ayutthaya Kingdom could keep its political stability although there were conflicts inside the city. That was because of the leaders strength and power, and the efficiency in controlling the troops. That is to say Ayutthaya got victory in the first war with Hongsawadi because of the skills in fighting and the strength of the King, Phra Chai Racha. For the second war, although Ayutthaya Kingdom was disadvantageous in losing Phra Si Suriyothai, with the good relationship between Ayutthaya and the north province under the relative policy in marrying between the royal families, the benefit of the policy led to the help from the north province and Ayutthaya was not defeated.

The time had passed, but Hongsawadi still wanted to increase the power over Ayutthaya. Due to the fact that at that time King Maha Chakkrapat had seven white elephants; Hongsawadi under ther leader, King Burengnong, the new king who was skillful and had tactics in planning for fighting, intrigued by asking for some white elephants for friendly relations. But King Maha Chakkrapat refused. That led to the outbreak of the war.

Due to the fact that Burengnong used to join a troop to attack Krung Si Ayutthaya and knew that the north provinces used to move their troops to press and help Ayutthaya; as a result, for the war in 1563, the Burma attacked the north provinces and used them as their own power; especially, Phitsanulok which used to send their troops to help Ayutthaya. For this reason, Ayutthaya faced a difficult situation, had to surrender and gave some white elephants to Hongsawadi.

Even though Ayutthaya was not destroyed in the war, it wanted to have high power as before without the watching from Hongsawadi, accompanying with the dissatisfaction that Phitsanulok revolted and took side with Hongsawadi, King Mahinthrathirat, the new king of Ayutthaya, wanted to declare independence from being defeated in the former war. Firstly he wanted to make friendly relations in order to oppose against the Burma. That is why he sent Phra Thepkasattri to Lan Chang for friendly relations. On the other hand, Phra Maha Thammaracha, the ruler of Phitsanulok, knew that; abducted her and sent her to Hongsawadi. This event made King Mahinthrathirat very angry. Thus he declared war with Phitsanulok.
Hongsawadi thought that Ayutthayas declaring war with Phitsanulok was not proper because Phitsanulok was under control of Hongsawadi. Burengnong used the event as the reason to move his troops to attack Ayutthaya. That latterly led to the destruction of Krung Si Ayutthaya.

In 1568, Hongsawadi moved their troops to Ayutthaya and the war broke out. Ayutthaya used the city as the stronghold and looked for a chance to counterattack. Details in Ayutthaya annals revealed that Hongsawadi could not break into Ayutthaya although they used every fighting tactics. They had to use a lot of tricks in order to defeat Ayutthaya. Actually, the turning point happened when King Mahinthrathirat sent his royal letter to King Chaichetthathirat of Lan Chang to ask him to send his troops and help Ayutthaya. Although King Chaichetthathirat knew the event and moved his troops to help, King Burengnong also knew this. Therefore, he sent a troop to lie in wait and attacked the troop from Lan Chang at Ban Marksongtohn, a district in Saraburi, and when the troop from Lan chang reached the place, it was attacked by Hongsawadi troop and had to run away. That was the last chance for King Mahin Thrathirats idea of depending on Lan Chang troops for help and it was not like once when Phra Maha Thammaracha from Phitsanulok moved his troops to help in 1548. The king could only wait for the north water to flow down like in every year.

The war mentioned indicated clearly that good relation with nearby provinces was very important and could sustain the center citys stability. On the contrary, if the belligerent had reduced ones power by destroying the provincial support, the other belligerent would have become solitary and would have easily been defeated.