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Image           ظ 繪ʹյͧǧͧؤ·¡ ҪҳҨѡظ աԴͻ .. 1350 شͻ ..1767 417 㹻Ѩغѹ ظ §ѧѴ˹觷ҧ˹ҧҡͧǧͧ ا෾ҹ ҧ͡ 70 .



ظ : ͧǧ-ͧҹҹҪҵ
Image           ͧǧظ 駵Դͧҡä· ҡ֡蹴Թ鹢ͧҾ ѡͧ ֧ 143 駹طʵҹûͧ͡äǺͧҧ ͹㹻 ͤǺѧСçҹЪҡҧջԷҾ ѹҧ蹤Ф觤ѺҳҨѡ

           ǡѹ Ҿҡػä͡ԹͷӡäҷҧšѺҧ 駵Ҩչ л ҹ е͡ӻ蹢ͧҵû ؤ¹ Ҵͧͷҧѧҧ÷ء˹ѡ§ 600 1,200 ѹ 硢Ҵ˭÷ءʹѹ㹻Ѩغѹ ѧ͡äҢͧҵԵҧ ¹֧öԹҧҶ֧ظҧдǡ

ظҡѺäҹҹҪҵ

           äҢͧظҡѺҧҵԹ繡äҼ١Ҵ¾ҡѵѰ Ǥ Ѱբ͡˹ͧԹ͡Ѱ١Ҵä ѰҹФѧԹҵʹѺ÷ء Թ令ѧҴҧ

           ҴäҷӤѭͧظҤ չ ѡҹҵԴͷӡäҡѹҵ͹ҧҳҨѡ зӡäҧѹҨǵȵɷ 19 չ繵ҴջҳͧԹ٧ 繵ҴԹҤҴ 駹繡äкóҡ ¶֧кäҷͧ仾Ѻ÷ٵ Ǥ ԹҢͧҵԵҧ 仾ѺзٵþѡþôԨչ Ѻ͹حҵѺԷԾɷ駴ҹҴԴҡ鹡Ѻͧҧ Сç鹨Ѵմҹҧ 觷äкóҡùӡѺȼҴҧҡ йͷҢͧ觤觢ͧҪӹѡͧǧظ

           㹪ǧáͧظ ѡҹ ǡ (͡Թ) 觢йѧҳҨѡ ä㹰ҹоͤҤҧҧչ ظҴ Ǥ ¡ùԹҨҡШչҢѧҴظ ԹҨҡظ令ҷҴչЭ 㹪ǧ 145 ҧ ..1425 1570 ǡҤѧظҶ֧ 58 ҡӹǹҤҤ 150 ѧظ 1 㹷ء 2 դ

           ѧ ظҷ㹰ҹͧǧͧҹҹҪҵԨ֧դԭͧҧҡ ºѺͧǧͧҡäҤµѹ͡§ؤǡѹ

           ҹ鹡繡äµçҡ 㹪ǧ 32 ҧ ..1604 1636 ͭѺ͹حҵҡѰ⪡عҷӡäѧظҶ֧ 56 » 2 äҷͧͧصŧѰŭ蹻СȻԴ ҡҭ蹡ѧԴͧҹҧҫҡ繪ͧҧäСѺèҡ¹͡ ѧ 蹨֧͹حҵ੾оͤҪǴѷЪǨչӡäҵ ˵ع ԹҢͧظТͧ蹨֧ѧ㹵Ҵͧͧ¼ҹͧͤ͢ҷͧҵԹ

           ͡ҡظѧͧҢͧäԹ觼ҹ ԹҨչ Тͧšµѹ͡§ѧҴظҹ Ѻë令ҵѧҴວ ѧաùԹ令ҵѧҴû 㹷ӹͧǡѹ ظҡ繵ҴͧԹҨҡšѹж١令ҵѧҴšѹ͡Ŷ֧չЭ蹴 ѧظҨ֧ͧҢͧͤҷ駨ҡѹ͡еѹҫ͢š¹Թҡѹ

           ੾ҧ Ѻҡȵɷ 16 繵 ͧ͢õöԹҧҶ֧ظµç ֧ͤҪûҡҵԵҧ ѧظҡ §繡äµçҧҴûظ ͤҪûѧҷ˹ҷ繾ͤҤҧͧͧҵҧ Ҥ¹ҡ鹵ӴѺҴ ͤûҵӤѭҡѺظ õ Ź ѷ ѧ

Image

ԹӤѭ㹵Ҵظ

           ԹӤѭͧظ ǹ˭ԹҢͧҷѰҨҡ к ͡÷Ъҡâͧظ觢ͧҡҵ觢ͧԵ Ҩ᷹ö١ࡳçҹѰ ԹӤѭ ҧѺռ ɳ͡蹹 ҹͧ ӵһԴ֡͡Ӥѭ ѧҧúاҧ ҪҧйôҨչ ˹ѧҧԹҷ㹭ѺѴжاͧ͢ѡú ҧ֡ѴҧѺ繾˹Сҹ ͡ѧӤѭ պءеС ǹԹҷӤѭͧҵԵҧ ѧҴظ ҡչЭ ͧѧšͧչ з硨ҡչ ͧᴧҡ ҽ·¹о¨ҡԹ йӡҺҡ Шҡѹ ظ׹ҡû ͧȷ駾ԡСҹ٨ҡҤ ظҡѺҹҪҵ

           ҡ÷ظ繵ҴԹҢͧҹҪҵ ѧ ֧աõ駪ҵԵҧ ظ 㹪ǧȵش¢ͧظҹ ҳظջЪҡ÷й͡ᾧͧ 150,000 ¹ѺǨչ ͭ 繻Ъҡǹ˹觢ͧظǹ繤ҧҵԹ ظҡ˹鹷ҾҴҹͧͧǧ繷駢ͧҹ ҹõ繪Ҵ˭ҹ觵ѹͧӶѴ鹡繪Ъѡѹ (ҡʫ) ժ´繤¹ʶͧٹ ǹҹ觵ѹ͡ҹ 繪բ鹵ȵɷ 16 ֧ǵȵɷ 18 ·äҡѺͧٻҳժǭҹ 1,000 1,500 Ѵ仹ҹѧҹѷŹ

           ÷ظͧЪҹҪҵʹҹ ֧͹͸Ժ¶֧ѡɳФѹѺǵҧҵ 駴ҹɰԨ ä Ѳ ʹ֧ѹҧѹ㹤ҡ·ҧͪҵѷԤʹҧ

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ҡظ踹 ѵԹ

           ҪҳҨѡظᵡŧ繼ŨҡþʧѺҳҨѡ͹ҹͻ ..1767 㹻ǡѹ ¡öѧҧҳҨѡҷժ ا (.. 1767-1782) СاѵԹ (..1782 Ѩغѹ) ͧҳҨѡâͧ¹ѧԹطʵͧظ ͧǧ駺Ҿ лʺ㹡ÿ鹿ٷҧäҡѺҧҵա ੾СѺչš 觤ԭͧѺ׹աԺյ ҧá ҾóҧäẺظҡ¹仵ǵȵɷ 19 ͻȵѹؤ¢ͧ״ȵҧ ҳҹԤ



Ayutthaya: An International Seaport
By Assistant Professor Thamrongsak Phetlertanant

Ayutthaya was a capital of Thailand in the past in the era called “Ratcha-anachak Ayutthaya (The Kingdom of Ayutthaya)”, which was founded in 1350 and ended in 1767. Nowadays, Ayutthaya is only a province situating 70 kilometers in the north of the present capital of Thailand, Krungthep Maha Nakhon or Bangkok.

Ayutthaya: A Capital International Seaport

Ayutthaya capital was not situated near the sea like other commercial seaports, but it was situated in the main land on the Chao Phraya River, the main river of Thailand with 143 kilometers long. It was situated in agreement with the governance strategies in order to control the other provinces within the country, and also to control for effective usage of people’s labour which would have brought sustainability and wealthiness to the kingdom.

At the same time, there were not any obstacles in sailing along the river for international trading for Chinese junks, the Japanese, any other Asian countries and European ships. Due to the fact that the size of ships at the time were built to accept only the load of 600 to 1,200 tons, not very big ships made of steel with the load of 100,000 tons like those of the present time. Therefore, the cargo ships could go directly and comfortably to Ayutthaya.

Ayutthaya and International trading

Ayutthaya trading with other countries was monopoly done by kings or the state which had regulations for kinds of goods for import and export. The state owned the stores and the warehouses together with the junks to load the goods to foreign markets.

The most important market of Ayutthaya was China. Evidence shows that China and Thailand have had long history of trading before Ayutthaya was founded, and they had been trading till the 19th century. Chinese markets required high quantity of goods and also gave high prices because it was the trading in offering system. This means trading going with diplomacy. That is to say cargo junks from various countries which went with groups of royal envoys and paid respect to Chinese emperors would have been allowed with special rights in marketing with various towns and cities in China. They were also refrained from paying taxes. The trading in offering system like this made a lot of profit to many countries who traded with China. This is the reason for the wealthiness of Ayutthaya court and capital.

During the first half of Ayutthaya period, evidence indicated that Ryukyu (The group of Okinawa islands) which was an independent kingdom acted as the middleman for the trading among China Japan Ayutthaya. That is to say they took the goods from Japan and China to sell in Ayutthaya, and took the goods from Ayutthaya to sell in Chinese and Japanese markets 145 years during 1425 1570. There were 58 cargo junks from Ryukyu to trade with Ayutthaya comparing to all 150 cargo junks coming to trade in this region. Averagely, there was a cargo junk coming to Ayutthaya every two and a half years.

Therefore, Ayutthaya was very prosperous both as a capital and as an international seaport comparing to other capitals and seaports in Southeast Asian Region in the same era.

Afterwards, there was 32 years of direct trading from Japan during 1604 1636. Fifty-six Japanese cargo junks were allowed from the shogun government to come for trading in Aytthaya. Averagely, two cargo junks came every year. On the other hand, the prosperous trade stopped when shogun declared closing the country, but Japan opened Nagasaki as the channel for trading and receiving outside information. At the same time, Japan allowed only the Deutch and the Chinese to do the trading. As a result, the goods from Ayutthaya and from Japan were still at the markets of the two countries via the Deuth and the Chinese cargo junks.

Moreover, Ayutthaya was the transit seaport for the goods from China, Japan and Southeast Asian markets. The goods imported to Ayutthaya were bought and sold to the markets in the gulves of Bengal and Persia, and the goods were also sent to European markets. In the same way, Ayutthaya was the market for goods from the western countries which were sent to sell in the east, China and Japan. Moreover, Ayutthaya was a port for the traders from the east and the west, who took their cargo junks to exchange their goods.

Especially, since the 16th century, cargo ships from Portugal could have gone directly to Ayutthaya. As a result, more European traders came to Ayutthaya. It was not only the direct trading between Ayutthaya and European markets, but more European traders also acted as the middlemen in Asian region’s seaports. The important foreign traders trading with Ayutthaya were from Portugal, the Natherlands or the Deutch, England, and France.

Important Products in Ayutthaya Markets

Mostly, important goods of Ayutthaya were wild products that the state received from the tax or tribute system which Ayutthaya population paid in stead of their workforce to the government. The products were sappanwood used to dye fabric, eaglewood used to make perfume, styrax benzoides used to make incense, sticklac used to make sealing wax, swallow nests used to make supplementary food, ivory and rhinoceros horns used in Chinese medicines, dear leather being popular in Japan and used to make warriors’ coats and gloves, and well-trained elephants used as vehicles and labor. Additonally, there were some important minerals: tin and lead. Moreover, there were important goods from many countries coming to Ayutthaya, for example silk, celadon and iron pans from China; silk and copper from Japan; cotton painted and printed in patterns from India; fabric and rose water from Persia, glass from Hollanda, weapons from Europe; and spices comprising pepper and clove from the groups of islands in this region.

Ayutthaya and International Communities

Since Ayutthaya was an international market, there were many foreign communities settling down in it. In the late century of the Ayutthaya period, there were about 150,000 foreign people comprising Chinese, Morn (Peguan), Lao, Khmer, Cham and Burmese. They were a number of populations of Ayutthaya. On the contrary, the foreigners were allowed to settle down along the Chao Phraya River in the south of the capital. The big community was the Portuguese in the west bank of the river. Next to the Portuguese community, there was a Muslim community, the Malayu, the Makkasan community (From Magassar Island) and the Viatnamese community who believed in Christianity with the French church as the center. On the east bank of the river, there was a Japanese settlement which had been there since the late 16th century. In the 18th century, the time that the trading with the Japanese was very prosperous, there were about 1,000 1,500 Japanese people. Just above the Japanese, there were English and Deutch or the Natherland communities.

Due to the fact that Ayutthaya had been a commercial port and international communities, it could give explanations of the relationship of the foreign people on economy, trading and culture and also how they had lived peacefully among their different races and religious beliefs.

From Ayutthaya to Thon Buri and Rattanakosin

Ayutthaya was completely destroyed due to being defeated by the neighborhood country, Burma (Myanmar at present) in1767. But in the same year, the Thai could bring their independence back and built a new capital called “Krung Thon Buri” (1767 1782) and Rattanakosin (Bangkok, 1782 present). The two capitals were pursued Krung Si Ayutthaya strategies that they are situated on the Chao Phraya River. Additionally, they were succeeded in restoring trading with foreign countries, especially, China and Asian countries. The wealthiness and prosperity happened after 10 years had passed. However, trading in Ayutthaya style has been changed since early 19th century when the western countries believed in colonialism and occupied many countries in Asia as their colonies.