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Image           ôҳʶҹ ѹôҧѲͧЪҪ㹴Թᴹͻ áͧѵʵ쨹֧¡اظҪҹչ ҷҾ֡Ǩ ҨѴ繻˭ 3 ҧ § ѧ Ѵ лշѡɳз¤֧ѹзᵡҧѹ 㹴ҹ͹ѹͤ¡ѹ բͺࢵʴҳҺdz §աᾧФٹͺ ѧѴͺͺԴǡѹ 㹴ҹᵡҧѹ Ҵ˹ҷӤѭ §բҴ˭繷¢ͧ¡ªз˹ҷͧͧءҹҡ֡ѵ ࢵ§ѧѴ Ͷͧ´ѡɳçҧ駴ҹҾдҹѧ ѧѴͧСͺǹ˹觢ͧ§ͧ ѧ繢ͺࢵ¢ͧ٧ ҡѵоҪǧ 繷ӡ㹴ҹûͧСúâͧѰա ѧջҷҪѹ繷зѺ зҪúҹͧзСͺҪԸӤѭ ͧҡѵ ǹѴ繢ͺࢵͧҧʹµç 繺dzСͺ¾طʶҹ;ط վʶ ʶٻ ਴ ѧ ѹ繷¢ͧԡʧ
           ¡͹ҧйظҪҹ ´ǡѺѡɳ˹ҷͧ§ѧҷ ҳʶҹͧѡҧʴطդù 蹡ᾧͧҧ´ԹлҷҪѧҧͧ ¡§Ѵҹ ҧ԰ŧлٹ ֧繻Шѡҹ֧ͧʹյ з¡اظҨ֧ ѡɳ˹ҷԧͧ§ ѧ Ѵ ҷҳʶҹҧʴط褧ͧ֡㹻Ѩغѹ Шҡѡҹҧʶһѵ¡ͧ§ ѧ Ѵѧǹ 繶֧¹ŧ㹷ҧѧѲͧاظҵҧ 蹪Ѵ 㹷ҾҨШӡѴͧ§֡ѡɳС¹ŧҧѧѲ¡اظ з͹繨ҡѡɳзҧʶһѵ¡ͧ§ѧӤѭ

§
           ¡اظҪҹ ..1893 繵ҹ ô§͵ͧҧ ҪҳҨѡշ駻ٻҧ (Irregular) ٻٻлٻҧٻ׹ ͧٻҧ͹ǹҡ繢ͧ·Ǵž ͧҹҧ ѧ㹵˹觷վ鹷Ǵ繷شóӡɵ ӤͧԹ ѧ鹷ҧҤ ͧž ͧԹú ͧê 繵 ǹͧٻҧ͹ 繢ͧԴž Ǿطȵɷ 17 - 18 繵 §ҹͺѧҾҨз¡اظҪҹ ͧྪú Ҫ ؾó 繵 ҧá § դٹСᾧԹͺǹҡ ѹСҧᾧͧѵض ԰ŧ 辺§ͧ˹ͧԧǹࢵѧѴҭ ͧ¡ᾧŧʹ dz͹еٷҧ͡ 4 ҹҹ ѡɳСᾧ͹ǴẺǡѹѺᾧø㹻ȡ٪ ǹͧԧࢵѧѴҭ աᾧŧ͢鹺ҹԹͺ ѡɳФ¡Ѻᾧŧͧͧ Ѵᾧŧ͡դѹԹͺաª 7 ѡɳоͧ 㹺ôͧҳ辺㹴Թᴹ
           ô§ʹ԰ͻٹ͡ʹŧ лҡç Դ¡اظҪҹ §繵ҧȢͧѡɳСᾧлҡá ͧᾧྪ ͧդѹѺѡɳТͧᾧҧͧʧ ѧ鹶ҡԨóҤͧͧ辺Ҩ֡ǡҨ ҧµ稾кҪҸҪͧ () ŧ лҡҨ֡ѡ 38
ͧҹʴ㹡ᾧྪúʹ ¾ҪħúԾþ...


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ᾧŧ ɰ ظ ѧѴᾧྪ


           ᾧͧСͺлҡͧᾧྪù繢ͧҧѹͧҡûͧѹ׹˭ظ׹ ǡѹѺҹͧҧѹ ùӻ׹㹡ʧ㹺ҹͧ¹ ѡѵʵҳ·ѡŧ 稾ҸԺշͧ繵 ·õ觷ٵҵԴʹ¤Ѻҡõؤ ͡ҡ鹶ҡԨóѡҹ͡ Ǵáاظ ѧҨ ᾧлͧͧᾧྪ ҨҧѪŢͧ稾ЪҪҸҪŧҡ ҷժõͧ Ъõʡ繷Ѥ ֡Ѵ׹ʹҨйӡҧҡѺ Ҿѧʧͧѧҡùӻ׹ʧ ʹҧᾧͧлҡ͹稾ҸԺշͧ ТҾѡҹաҧ˹ҷͧѪ 觺ôҹѡѵʵ ó·ҹ٨ ͧ§蹹աᾧʹŧԵǹ«͡ѹ觢¢ͧ稾ҸԺշͧ Ҷ֧˵ءóʧҧ¹Ѻظ ¢ͧ稾кšҶ кض֧ظ׹㹡õ зͧ§蹹բͤ
                                           ҧ繢˹            ҧѹ ͹
                                              觡
                                   ͺѹ            ͧ
                                   ٢ͺ鹪            ҡǧ
                                              §š
                                   ŧ ͹            ͵
                                   ͧൡ§           
                                   ѧҷѧ¶ǹ            ”


           ҾǨپ ᾧŧͧͧ§ͧѪ¹Ъͧ׹ ҧѴਹҧҹѹ͡͹ԴѺѴҧ ԧԹѧҹշҧԹҧ᤺ öաѹ͹蹷ҧԹᾧͧᾧྪ ѡɳСҧᾧͧѧǹº ж١Ẻҷ з͹繶֧ӹҭ㹡ҧᾧͧѺҧ׹á ҧᾧͧҹ˹ ͹ԴѺ ѺѴ਴ ѧҡ繤ѹԹФٹ ʴ㹡ûͧѹͧҳաԵǹ

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ᾧͧոҪ 稾й³


           ҷǹ ͪ ѡɳʶһѵ¡ͧ§ ա¹ŧ¡اظҵ͹ ҧµѪ稾кšҶŧҷաõԴ͡Ѻǵѹ ෤ԤԷͧǡѺظ׹㹡÷ʧ ռԴҧᾧͧ԰ŧлѺҧ׹ ѡɳТͧͧѧǹ 繷Ѻѹ ֧ҡҾԵáҼѧҾôӢͧиʴٻͧ§ʹ԰ͻٹ лµ Ҿҡҧᾧ§Ẻͧѹ¡اظҪҹҨ 2 ؤ ؤáѪ稾кšҶŧҨ֧ѪŢͧ稾й³ ؤѺԷԾʶһѵ¡ҡǡõ ô§ҧ աᾧ԰ͻٹлҡ ͧ§觡͡ᾧ԰ѺŧѹᾧԹѪŢͧͧ ͧɳšҧ稾кšҶԵǹ к
ҧšᾧ ɳš Δ


           ͧйظա¹ŧµͧ С͡ᾧͧҡ¢ͧ稾Шѡþô Ѫ稾ҸҪ ҷûͧѹйèҡءҹͧ ҧá֧֡ٻẺçҧҧʶһѵ¡ͧô§ҹ ͺѧռʹ֡ҡѹ ֧ͧҷºôҹѡԪҡ÷ҧѵʵ ʶһѵ¡ҧ
           ؤͧѪ稾й³ŧҨ¡اظ ..2310 ؤ੾Ѫ稾й³ اظաõԴԴѺ չªҧǡʶһԡͧҡ աҧᾧͧҡ ҷҪѧ е֡ѹҡ ôͧաáҧᾧлؤ ͧ ͧոҪ ͧʧ ͧѵҹ ͧ ͧྪúó ͧҹ ͧž 繵 ࢵѧѴᾧྪý觵çѺͧ իҡ˹ ¡ѹ ɰ 礧ҧѪ稾й³ŧ

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ᾧͧ§ ʹ԰ դٹͺ


ѧ
           ѡҹҧҳ㹢йҨҡ͹¡اظҪҹ ҡͧ¢ͧҷҪѧŧ лʸѧ ѧ繢ͧѺʶҺѹҡѵ ѡҹѴҪҹҹ ѡѵʵ ҳ ǹҡŧһҷҪѧѹ繷зѺͧҿ蹴ԹоҪǧ 觷ҧͧ ֧ѡѧ٭ͧ繻ҡǴԹҧáպҧҹ ҷ繾з觢ͧҡѵ駡ا⢷оҹʶһѵ¡ʹ԰˹ dz˹ѴҸҵͧ⢷ Ұҹ鹾ѧʹ Ш֡ͧ͢ع˧ кҷ稾ШǨ֧ç¡ҹʶһѵ¡觹 Թҷ 繷зѺҪâͧҡѵ⢷ Ҿ㨹ѡʶҹ觹 繫ҡҷзѺͧҡѵ кdzͺդٹͺ¡Ѻ繺dzͧʹʶҹҡ ѴٹӴѧǹź͹ѧѧࡵ ҡǨͧҾһѡҺdzзѺͧҡѵ з ͧعҧӤѭ dzѹͧͧ͡ ͶѴdz¡Թҷѧdzҹͧ㹻Ѩغѹ ա˹觤ͺdzͺ ࢵѴоѧͧͧ оͧ¢ͧ͹ӡش԰Ҵ鹼ҹٹҧҳ 1 1.30 Ժ ʴ繺͹ӷػࢵ Ҥúҹ͹ҧͧ
           ҾҤԴѧͧҡѵҹ ¡͹йظҧͧͺͺԴѧ鹡͡繡ᾧ԰ͻٹ ͧ ˵ع֧ͫҡѡҹʴҤ÷зѺͧѵ ҹҳҧͧ ҾѡԹ ʴҾطѵԵ͹оطͧʴôйҧ اžʴ Ҥ÷зѺѡɳҧ͹˹Ҩл¡Ѻ͹ç㹻Ѩغѹ ҧ˹͹зѺٻѡ繡ᾧлеѧͺ ѡɳСᾧҧѵط ǴºǤӵçҹǴǵ͹ ҡ ǹѡɳТͧеͧҧͧʧ ѹᾧлеٷҡҾѡԹ 繨ԧҡоٴҧѴ繡ᾧле٢ͧѧ§ѹ еҾ¹ѧ ŻԹѡ§ǹҡ ж§繷ͧѵЪ٧ ҧáҡҾѡ ҡѡɳСᾧлеѧ§ ẺشԢͧؤ Ҿդ ੾ѡɳСᾧẺǡѹѺᾧͧø㹻ȡ٪ ǹ㹴Թᴹ¹鹤¡ѹѺᾧͧ СᾧҷԹž 蹷ҷͧ лҷԹ 繵
           觷šաҧ˹ͧͧѧ¡͹اظҡ 繡ҡ¡ѧ͡ҡ§ 㹺ҧͧ§բҴ鹼ٹҧ§ 500 - 600 աᾧԹФٹͺ ҡͧ觡ҧ ¡㹺ҧ觡հҹʶٻ§ͧйͧҹ §繪Ѵѧ㹵ͧ 繷ͧͧҹ¼黡ͧм蹷Ǣͧҹ ǹЪҪ仡Ш¡ѹҹͺ § Ѻ鹷ɵá ֡ѵءҹ ЪҪҹ鹨;¾ͺ§ӡúͧѹͧ ѡɳйѧ§˹ҷӤѭ㹡ûͧѹ֡ѵ 觷ʴ繶֧Դѹҧ鹻ͧѺûͧͧѧҳ͹¡اظ ҾҤԴѡɳдͧѧẺ͡Ѻ١ҡ͹ҧҷҪѧҪѺẺҧҨҡѲԹ Ҥ˹ͧ͢ 觤˹ࢵ鹢ͧҳҨѡҹ ͧ¢ͧҳʶҹդٹФѹԹͺѡɳТͧ§ѧ繨ӹǹҡ 躹ԹѺdzҺɵá ҳʶҹѧǹ ҧ觡Դѹͧ§ѧ § ࢵ§ʹ §ࢵѹ ѧѴ§ ʴ繶֧ѧͧؤдѺ黡ͧͧҹ Դʧ§ ѧѧǹ˹ҷ繷ͧѹ¢ͧǺҹͧǡ 觷ͧ˭ § § պdz§ѧẺШ¡ѹ Ѻͧѹ繷зѺͧҡѵ § dz¡ §Թ §ǹ͡ § (ࢵԷ§㹻Ѩغѹ) з§ § § 繵 ǹ§ѧҡ㹵ӹҹǴ ҡѵͧô繷зѺͧҹª鹼˭繭ҵʹԷ ֡ʧ§ѧҹ˹ҷ繻ʹҹͧѹͧǧǡѹ
           ¡اظҪҹ §á ͹ҷҧҹ˹дҹѹ㨡ҧͧdzͺͧ˹ͧʹͺ֧ ͧҧἹѧͧ dz繾Ҫѧ蹴Թ ҪǴкҵࢵѴྪ ҺôһҷҪõʹᾧѧ 繢ͧҧͧ 駶֧Ѫ稾кšҶ ѹҷاظ鼹ǡ⢷ǹ˹觢ͧҳҨѡ աûٻûͧ СúѺҾͧҳࢵҧ˭ çҡúŢҧ蹤 ФʹҡѵоҪǧ Ѻ繡ºẺἹʶҺѹѵͧاظѡɳзѺкҪ դѺ͹ᵡҧ仨ҡʶҺѹѵ¡͹ ԴúѹºͺѧѺѡɳѡë觷ԴûѺاçҧҧѧ ռšзѧçҧҧҾͧҪѧ ÷稾кšҶ çࢵҪѧ͡Ҩᾧͧҹ˹ çӹž繤ͧç»ҷҪѹ繷зѺ ͺdz駾зອѵһҷ (Ҥ;зȹԹ) озྪһҷ ǹdzҪҹç ѴôҧѴྪ鹫Ѵաáҧʶٻ਴ҧԧѧ ѪŢͧ稾ҸԺշͧŧ ѺѪ稾кšҶ繵 繾ѲҡâͧҪѧ ѡɳзçҧ蹪Ѵ աáҧᾧҪѧ԰ͻٹ 觡ᾧҪѧ͡繡ᾧ鹹͡ ᾧ鹷ͧ Ъ鹷 лҷҪѹ繾з觵ҧաáҧ԰ͻٹҴ٧˭ ʹ٧˧ҹ 觤Ѻʹʶٻ਴ 㹾оطʹ ǢͧѺǵҧ ੾û õ ѹ нʹ ռԴҧᾧ Ѻҧ׹ лҪѧ ѴྪѡɳǡѹѺҧᾧͧ §Ҫѧͧاظ ѡɳͧ͹ͧ˭ա˹ þѲҢͧҪѧǧͧاظҴѧǹ ռԴ¹ŧͧԢͧٹҧͧ ա˹ٹҧͧѡ ž¡͹稾кšҶ dzٹҧͧй ͧͧѴ㹷ҧطʹ ѡѴҸҵ ѹ繷дɰҹкҵ蹷ͧ⢷ ͧ§ ͧҪ ͧؾó ͧáҪ ѴҸҵ ੾зاظͧѴҸҵ Ѵ ѴӤѭ վʶٻ਴٧˧ҹѭѡɳ Ѻ稾кšҶŧ ٹҧйШѡŢͧйظ ¹Ҫѧǧ Ѵྪ ѴྪѺôҡҡѵ繾 վ਴ ʶ ˭ աáҧ 繶֧ѹҧʹҡѺʶҺѹѵҧ鹷šš˹ҨҡѴ ʶٻ਴좹Ҵ˭ 3 ͧҧ鹹 ͡ҡкèؾкҵآͧоط ѧҧ繡 ҡѵä ôҾкѰԢԧҡѵоѰԢͧҹ㹾Ҫǧ ҧʶٻèѴ оطٻդդӤѭ ྪ ҧͧ繾лиҹͧѴྪ 㹴ҹԸաûСͺҪԸյҧ 駷ҧʹ зҧʶҺѹҡѵǹӷѴྪǹҡ ѹ¹ŧͧٹҧͧͧ Шѡ繷Ҫѧǧ ջҡ繪Ѵó¡اظҵ͹ ੾ŧջҪк
                                           ظè            պ
                                   ب§           
                                   ظ            š ç
                                   Ѵبä¤            ϔ


           ظèպù ¶֧ Ҫѧǧҧͧʧ ¶֧ᾧͧй ҡͧҾҹ·յպ ͡ҡŧ ѧչȹä 觾ʶ 稾й³ Ƕ֧ͧҷҪѧ㹡اظ
                                           ÷͡            Ƿѹ
                                   ͹ä            觵
                                   ѹ           
                                   ءǪ            §ǧ
                                           ྪҷ ҹ            ˹
                                   ⪵ԾӾ           
                                   خҹ            ෾
                                   çºç            ǹ


           稾кҪԧ˹ҷ Ҫѧʶҹ Ѫŷ 1 ´ç繹شԹ ͧҪӹѡظ çóҤ´㹤§ͧҷҪѧ ͧاظǡѹ (ͧ Żظ¾й³ ͧ ҡ ˹ 45)
           ͡ҡؤ㹡اظҨͧҪѧٹҧ觤ͧͧҹͧ ôҪǵҧȷ㹡اظ Ѫ稾ҷç繵ҡͧ㹷ӹͧǡѹ ͤѹ¾ҷç оһҷͧ ҪѧǧзѺͧҡѵ 躹觹 ͹ͧ ¡աͧ˹ ҷҪô ʹҤõҧ շͧ ҡѵ 繺ؤŷ·شҤѹ͡ ѧվҡѵͧᶺͧš ͧǧ˭ԨԵþʴ óٹآ͹ҡѵҪҳҨѡù
           ͤóҶ֧ Ҫѧǧاظ ǵҧ ´Ҿ 繨ѹ֡ͧҪٵѧ
           Ͷ֧ࢵҪѧ 繻ҷҪ ǹԴͧ...Ҿѡҹ֧ӷٵҹطٵ㹾Ҫѧ ҹе 2 еٻдѺдҴշͧ ǧе٪鹷ͧ ֧з (ྪҷ) ͧҧҹآ稾з ٻҾҧ ٻٻҪ ٻҡ ٻԡ ٻҤ ٻѡ ٻҹǹԴͧҧФ çٻ (آ) Ҫѧ٧ҳ 10 ׺ ͧ٧ͺ (آʴ) Ҫѧ鹼١ҹѡͧҾǧ Ҽѧз觡Դͧ Ҫѧ駺ɺзѺʴ͡ɺ ǡٵҹطٵ Ҫٵ¾Ҫͧóҡ ҡاظ ֧çСسҾҪҹ͹حҵǡٵҹطٵ Ǵʶҹҧ 㹾Ҫѧ仔
           ôҷٵҹطٵóҶ֧çҧ (çʹ) й͡Ҫѧ ¶֧еپҪѧ еپҪѧʹԴͧ дѺ´͡ Ŵ١Ѻ仢ҧ繾зѧ 5 ʹѹԴͧ.....ҪѧѹԨԵ÷ҹ ҧᾧ ....

           ͡ҡҪѧǧ ѧѧա 2 Դ¡اظѧѪ稾кšҶŧ á ѧͧػҪ ҿҷդӤѭͧŧ ¡͹稾кšҶѧҡ Һôҹ·ӤѭͧŧҨҡҡѵ ͧǧ ѡô令ͧͧ١ǧ ҹǧաûٻûͧ Сú 稾кšҶ ôҹµҧ зѺͧǧ çհҹѹѡ е˹觵к㹡ú ѧͧҹ¾ͧáç繾ػҪ ѧѹ稾ҸҪ ôҧ繷зѺͧ稾й Ҫ Ҷ֧¾ྷҪһҡաõ駵˹觡 Ҫѧʶҹ (ѧ˹) СҪѧʶҹآ (ѧѧ) ѹ աá˹ѧѹѧ˹ ҧҪѧѧ鹷dzǹǧ ҧȵѹͧѧǧ Ѩغѹdzѧѧ١ͷ С繷çҹš ˹·þظҧ ǹҪѧѹ Ѫŷ 4 ôҧ繷зѺþҪҹҡҪѧǧا෾
           ǹҪѧա˹ Դ稾й³ ;Ҫѧ³Ҫȹž 繾Ҫѧ԰ͻٹ աᾧҪѧ лҷҪ§Ҫѧǧاظ͹ѹ ˵آͧҧҪѧ³Ҫȹ鹹 稾й³ç ظѺ͵ҧҶ֧дǡ е͹鹢ͧѪŹ ҧѹҫաѧҧͧѾ ءҧ˹ѡ ֧çͧ͡ž ͧͧҡظ 繷зѺ 繷ӡâͧѰѺѹ ҧá ;Ԩóҵ繨ԧ Ҫѧ³Ҫȹ 繾ҪѧоҪҹͧ稾й³ ʴһзѺ᷺ءä Ҫѧ ѧѪ稾й³ Ҫѧ³ ١ʹ С͹äôôҢعҧҪ÷ʹԷǪ ǷçطȶѧѴ֧Ѫŷ 4 çҵԡҪѧ³ҪѺ׹繾Ҫѧա ·çҧѴҷ᷹ ôҧз Ҥ 㹾Ҫѧ³ 繷зѺѺþҪҹա˹

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Walled city and palace in Ayutthaya era
Srisak Wanlipodom

           Among all ancient remains which were cultural heritage of Thailand or Siam since the beginning of Ayutthaya history, as much as I have studied and surveyed, I found that ancient remains were categorized into 3 types which included walled city, the royal palace and temple. Each of them had both similarity and differences. For their similarity, they had the boundary to indicate the area, for example, the walled city was always surrounded by the wall or river, the royal palace and temple also had wall. For the differences, their size and function were different. The area of walled cities was larger and it was a house of many groups of people. Also, it functioned to protect the cities from the enemys invasion. The Royal palace and temples were inside the area of walled city. Alternatively, if its physical and social structure were studied, the Royal palace and temple were the components of the walled city. The Royal palace was a residence of the upper class such as the king or the royal family and it was utilized for country administer and government administration in the past. There was the Royal palace that was the palace of the king and utilized for public administer and important various royal ceremonies. Temple was directly the religious area, consisting of Buddhist place or shrine, stupa, pagoda, temple and monastery where it was the residence of the monk.
           About prior to the Ayutthaya period, we do not have much detail related to characteristic and function of the walled city and the royal palace because those ancient remains were usually constructed of less durable material. For example, the city wall was built by soil and wood and it was brought to build the royal palace. Only temples were constructed by brick or sandstone and lime and it remained for visualizing the prosperity in the past. In the period of Ayutthaya, we started to understand the actual characteristic and function of the walled city, the royal palace and temple because it was the period that these three ancient remains were constructed with durable material. According to the evidences of the walled city, the royal palace and the temple architecture, we can clearly see the change of society and culture of Ayutthaya in different periods. However, I will limit myself to study only the change of society and culture of Ayutthaya kingdom which significantly reflects in characteristic of walled city and the Royal palace architecture.

Walled city

           In the kingdom of Ayutthaya starting from the year 1440 B.C., the walled cities or towns had both its irregular structure such as oval or Round Square and regular structure like rectangle. The irregular cities were mostly influenced by Theravada and Lopburi architecture and those cities still remained for your having seen because they were located in the area which was green space for cultivation and surrounded by the river. Moreover, it can be used for transportation very well such as Lopburi, Intanraburi and Nakornchaisri. The regular cities were established in Kingdom of Lopburi between 17th 18th centuries. Almost of those walled cities still remained such as the kingdom Petchburi, Ratchaburi and Supanbhum. However, those types of walled city were mostly surrounded by the river or the wall. The wall made from durable material such as lime and brick was rarely seen, but we found only Pimai castle stone and Muang Singha which located on Khwae Noi River, Kanchanaburi province. The wall of Pimai Castle stone did not complete the encircles of the castle itself. It had only four doors. The upper door was curved with the lotus like Nakorntoms wall in Cambodia. Another one in Muang Singha, it had the laterite wall constructed on the base similar to the laterite wall of Pimai castle stone. Next to the laterite wall was encircled by seven levels of ridges. This was only one castle that had its outstanding characteristic in all historic sites found in Thailand.
           The walled city which was constructed by brick or lime or laterite had Sema and strong bulwark which appeared in Ayutthaya period. The walled city which was an excellent characteristic example of wall and bulwark was Kumpaengpetch city. The name of city was undoubtedly related to its wall characteristic. Therefore, if considered from antiquity of citys name which found in stone inscription, it can be concluded that it existed from the King Ramathibodi II (Chao Sam Phraya) because it appeared the message in 38th stone inscription that:

His King majesty went to Petchburi Sriwimalas wall by his vassal.

           The wall city consisted of Sema and bulwark, for example, the city of Kumpeangpetch which was built to protect artillery and other weapons. It was like the western city. Bringing the artillery to use in Thailand, historians and archeologists agreed that it was because Portuguese had sent their diplomatic mission to Thailand since the period of King Ramathibodi II and Thai had been absorbed in this era. In addition, if considered from the historic document such as historical record of Krungsri Ayutthaya, we could see that the wall and bulwark of Kumpeangpetch might be built in the reign of King Phrachairachathirat because it was the time that the Portuguese already resided in Thailand and be the voluntary militaries for training the use of artillery. They might have recommended the construction of bulwark to Thai people. I still wonder and believe that bringing the artillery to use in the war in Thailand and the construction of the wall with Sema bulwark started before the period of King Ramathibodi II because I have proved another evidence which was proved by archeologists, historians and literatures in Lilith Yuan Pai stated that the wall constructed by laterite had started in the era of Muang Chiangchuen which it was believed it has been written in the period of King Ramathibodi II. When talked about the war between Yonok people and Thai farmers in the period of King Boromatrilokkanart, it referred to the use of arllitery for fighting and the following statement appeared at Chiengchuen city

Bangmeng is the front crossbeam first crossed
And Mea Yom is obstructed
Like the mountain protects the city
Some hurry to fire
Have the wall for taking refuges
There are many people die in the ground


           I went to survey and found that the wall of Chiengchuen period and also known as Srisatchanalai had Sema and space at the west side next to Wat Dornphranang. Behind the sema had the narrow footpath for military. It was unable to separate from each other as the footpath on the wall of Kumpeangpetch city. The form of the wall construction seemed not to be neat and accurate as it should be. This reflected the unskillfulness of the wall city construction to protect the bullets. The north side was built next to the mountain close to Wat Jedeejettheaw (seven rows of pagoda) with ridge and three levels of ditch, showing the way to protect the city in the ancient age. As mentioned above, we can know that architectural characteristic of the walled city had been changed in the first period of Ayutthaya, during the reign of King Boromatrilokkanart which was the period that Thai contacted with European. Technique of cannon use for making the war which was expanded in Ayutthaya resulted in constructing the wall with brick or laterite and had sema or fortress on the wall. This characteristic of this city became more acceptable and appeared to visualize on mural or the pattern of Lai Kodnam of the Buddha cabinet which showed the image of walled city constructed by brick or lime. Later on, it appeared sema and bulwark. I believed that the city wall was constructed as the pattern of the wall of western city in Ayutthaya which can be divided into two ages. First, from the period of the King Borommatrilokkanart to King Narai was the period that was influenced by Portuguese architecture. Walled cities which had the wall with sema or bulwark, constructed by brick or lime were Muang Chiangmai. The brick wall was mostly constructed on the ridge during the reign of Phra Muangkeaw, The city of Pitsanulok constructed in the reign of the King Borommatrilokkanart. This stated in Lilit Yuan Pai that;

Prangthakon the wall Phitsanulok

           The Kingdom of Ayutthaya had been changed and expanded and it started the fortress building in the period of King Jakkrapat and Phra Mahadhammaracha because it was time to protect the capital city from being attacked by the Burmese. However, it can be said that nobody was interested in studying the architecture and structure analysis of the walled cities. For this reason, it is very challenging for Thai historical academician or Thai architects.
           Both eras from the reign of King Narai to the period of losing Ayutthaya kingdom in 2310 B.C., especially in the period of King Narai, Ayutthaya had closely contacted with French. There were many engineers and architects from France and the wall city, fortress, Grand palace and building were constructed in this period. Cities which had the wall and fortress in this age were Thonburi, Nakornsrithamarat, Songkha, Pattani, Pimai, Petchaboon, Nan, and Lopburi etc. There is one ruin fortress called Pomtungsetthee in Kumpheangpetch province. In contrast, it is believed that the capital city was constructed in the reign of King Narai.

The Royal Palace

           According to archeaolgical evidences, it showed that no trace of the royal palace remained before the period of Ayutthaya Kingdom but it did not mean there was not the royal palace because it was a couple of royal institute. This was already proved for a long time ago. Most historians and archaeologists agreed that the royal palace was the residence of the king or the royal family and it was constructed by wood, so it was destroyed without any remain for visualizing on the ground. However, some of them believed that the palace was the residence for the king since Sukhothai period because the architectural evidences made by brick was found in the front area of Wat Mahathat, Sukhothai province. On the base, it was found the Manangkhasila palace and stone inscription of Porkhunramkumheang. King Rama V called this architectural evidence as Nernprasart, used for the kings administration in Sukhothai period. I am not sure whether this area was the palace which was the house of the king because it has been surrounded by river as if it has been religious place. Nowadays, such ditch already disappeared but can be seen if observed. As having surveyed the area, I believed that the palace of the king and the home of noblemen were located in the east of the city, next to the area called Nernprasart to the former village area, or the area around Wats Tapangthong because of the fact that I found the trace of more than ten pools built by brick which had its diameter size of one meter or one and a half meter, showing that it was the source of water used for consumption in the area of their home constructed by wood.
           I believed that the royal palace had been the residence of the king and royalty since former Ayutthaya period constructed by wood and its wall as well was built by wood, not brick or lime. Consequently, no evidence remained. The evidences showing the royal palace of the king and royalty in the ancient age made by wood, was inscribed image on the stone such as the image showing biography of Lord Buddha when going to show clemency to Nang Pimpa at Kabinlapat city. The palace was built by wood with gable and gable end similar to Thai house style in the present day. The front of house had carved image at all sides of the wall and the door. The wall was constructed with material which was not wood but had lotus inverted on the base and no sema. The door was undoubtedly made by wood. It was very difficult to say that the wall and door appeared on this carved image was the wall and door of walled city because painting in later period was mostly focused on the walled city and the artists knew that the walled city was the palace of the king and royalty. However, we have seen the characteristic of the wall and door of walled city or royal palace in this carved image in terms of the attitude of people in that period. I think that only wall architecture was the same as the wall of Nakornthom of Cambodia and Pimai castle stone in Thailand. In Lopburi period, the wall was built to encircle the castle such as Muangtum and Pimai stone castle.
           Interestingly, it is difficult to separate the royal palace from walled city in Ayutthaya period because some cities or walled cities had its diameter only 500 600 m. surrounded by the soil wall or ditch and no evidence of building inside, except one or the base of two stupa and few pools only. This type of walled city was like the palace itself. It was house of governors and rulers only and the local people built their house in villages around the walled city close to their cultivated area. When the war occurred, those people would move into the walled city and fought to protect themselves. Therefore, the walled city or royal palace played the role to protect its people from the enemy. In addition, it reflected the close relationship between the ruler and his population in ancient society before the period of Ayutthaya. I think this was the original of paternalism which existed before the period of royal palace construction as an example of Devaraja which was accepted from India culture. In the north of Thailand which has been the kingdom of Lanna, we found the historic sites with many ditches and ridge surrounded as though the walled city mostly located on the hill close to the plain area for agriculture. Some of historic sites were located next to each other for two or three walled city or palace such as Manora walled city in Chiangsan district and Waii walled city in Maechan district, Chiangrai province. It was the house of two or three rulers. Moreover, the walled city or palace was the refuge for the villagers who resided in such area. The larger cities such as Chiang Mai, Phrayao and Chiangrai compounded many walled cities which was close to the royal palace of the king such as the area called Vieng Jetsin, Vieng Suandok and Vieng Hor (inside the area of Chiangmai university) in Chainmai and Vieng Keaw, Viengtom and Viengpoolam in Phrayao. Those were the walled cities which appeared in the historic record which said the walled cities were the residence of the king or the ruler. When the war occurred, those walled cities or palace functioned as the bulwark or fortress to protect the capital city.
           In the period of Ayutthaya as the capital city, the walled city was firstly constructed in the north, the south and the center of the kingdom. It was around Nongsano (swamp) or Phraram marsh. For the Royal palace area, the historical record indicated that it situated at Wat Phra Si Sanphet and assumed that the royal palace and its wall were built by wood. Until the reign of Phra Borommatrilokkanart, Sukhothai was absorbed into Ayutthaya kingdom, the administration had been reformed to be in accordant with the kingdom which was larger. The royal family law was enacted to build stability and security to the king and royal family. This was regarded as a law which the ruler of Ayutthaya was similar to Devaraja and much more complicated than the former period. When the royal family laws became official law, it affected to social structure and physical of the royal palace. Since Phra Borommatrilokkanart widened the area of royal palace to the north wall which had Lopburi River as the ditch and his majesty also moved the royal palace to locate on the riverside. This was in the area of Benja Rattanamahaprasart throne-hall (later on was Suriyat Amarin) and Sanphet Mahaprasart throne-hall. The old palace was offered to establish Wat Phra Si Sanphet which stupa and temple were seriously constructed since the King Ramathidobi I. Since the period of Phra Borommatrilokkanart onward, we have seen the development of the royal palace which its structure was more durable and unique. The wall of palace was constructed with lime or brick and divided into three levels which were outer wall, second wall and the third wall. Also, the royal palace became higher equal to the top of Buddha stupa or temple. It was constructed with brick and lime. For the involve with foreigners, especially the European such as the Portuguese, the Hollander, and the French, it affected to the wall building, sema on the wall and fortress around the royal palace. Wat Phra Si Sanphet was similar to the city wall building. The walled cities hid the royal palace of Ayutthaya in the bigger city. The development of the royal palace of Ayutthaya resulted in the change of the idea of city center or the center of universe. In the period of Lopburi and before the reign of Phra Borommatrilokkanart, the center of capital city was the Buddha temples such as Wat Mahathat which was the place to keep the Buddhas relics. There were many of them; for example, Sukhothai, Chalieng, Ratburi, Supanburi and Preak Siracha also had Wat Mahathat. In Ayutthaya kingdom, there were Wat Mahathat and Wat Phraram which was important temples and had high stupa as its unique. From the Period of Phra Borommatrilokkanart onward, the center of city and universe of Ayutthaya had been changed to the royal palace which included Wat Phra Si Sanphet. Wat Phra Si Sanphet had been patronized from the king. Pagoda, stupa and temple were continuously constructed. We can see the strong relationship between the king and the religion from those temples. The large three stupas did not only contain the Buddhas relics, but it was also the place for the king or the ruler. The valuable and important Buddha image was Phra Si Sanphet casted by metal and covered with gold, being the principle Buddha image of Wat Phra Si Sanphet. In terms of religion royal ceremony, it was mostly held in Wat Phra Si Sanphet. The change of the city center and universe was more clearly in literature in the beginning period of Ayutthaya, especially Klong Kumsuan Siprach indicating that

Ayutthaya is very plentiful
It is like the heaven for people who has seen


           The word Ayutthaya Piroj Tai Triboon means undoubtedly the royal palace. It did not mean the wall of the city at all because Triboon did not appear in any cities on the Chao Phraya River except this poetry. In addition, Phra Si Mahosod, poet in King Narai period mentioned about the beauty of the royal palace of Ayutthaya in Nirat Nakornsawan that :-

The palace is very beautiful,
As if it was built on the heaven
The Royal Palace is attractive
For all people have seen
Prasart Si San Phet is gorgeous as well
Mongkut Pimarnmon is also difficult to find other things to compare


           Phra Bonwornrat Chao Sura Singhanart, Bowornsathan Royal Palace in King Rama I who had been taken the position of Sudjinda Humprae in the royal palace, had described the pity of the royal palace of Ayutthaya kingdom as well (See in the art of Ayutthaya in the period of King Narai written by Paknum, Page 45)
           Not only Ayutthayas population saw the Palace as the center of prosperity, but also the foreigner residing in Ayutthaya since the period of Phrachao Songthum. Yousaoten, a merchant from Holland in the period of Phrachao Songthum and Phrachao Prasartthong said that the royal palace of the king was located on the riverside as if it was another small town. The palaces and building had gold color. The king of Siam was one of the richest people in Southeast Asia. There were not any kings in this zone had the huge royal palace and was prosperous as the king in this region.
           The message which clearly described about the royal palace of Ayutthaya by foreigner was in the record of the envoy from Lungkha. It said that;
           When arriving at the royal palace area, all royal palaces were glittering in gold. The officials led the diplomats to the palace by entering two doors levels. The door decorated with gold and other color. When we passed the second door, it had the seat for the king (Sanphet Prasart). Both sides of the seat had the image of the lion Naga and the giant. Each image was decorated by a pair of gold. Above the images, it was the bench with ten palm span of height. The bench was decorated with bamboo blind embroidered with gold. The wall was gold as well. The diplomats already finished having an audience with royalty, offer the message and tributes, the king of Ayutthaya allowed those diplomats to sight other area in the royal palace.
           They also said about the elephant hall which was both inside and outside the palace and described the door of royal palace that The door of the palace was decorated with flowers and vines. When seeing inside, it can be seen the five levels of the roof of seat. The top one was gold. This amazing royal palace mentioned above was constructed at the wall side close to the river.....
           Apart from the royal palace, there were two types of palace appeared in the period of Ayutthaya after the reign of Phra Borommatrilokkanart. First, the palace of Phra Maha Auparat and the local ruler could not be found in the period of Phra Borommatrilokkanart because the ruler who was second to the king did not reside in the capital city but they were sent to govern the other city which was town under it. However, when the government reformation occurred in the period of Phra Borommatrilokkanart, the rulers must live in the capital city and had the rank of nobility and position as specified in the royal family law. The palace of the first ruler whose position was Phra Maha Auparat was Chankasem Palace where Phra Mahadhamraja had constructed for his son, King Naresuan. In the period of Phra Phetraja, there was the department, Boworn Stanmongkol Palace (front palace) and Boworn Stanpimuk (Back palace). Chankasem Palace was the front palace and constructed in the back palace in the area of Suanluang in the present. The back palace was located in the west of the royal palace. Nowadays, the back palace was destroyed and became the alcohol factory and artillery millitary. For Chankasem palace, King Rama V had constructed for the resident when his majesty went from the royal palace in Bangkok.
           Another royal palace was built in the reign of King Narai which was Narai Ratchaniwet royal palace in Lopburi. It was the royal palace constructed with brick or lime with its wall and beautiful Prasart Ratchamontien which was not second of the royal palace at Ayutthaya. Narai Ratchaniwet royal palace was built because King Narai thought that Ayutthaya was near the sea and foreign countries could sail in easily. Also, at beginning of this period, Holland which had the large navy hardly threatened Thailand, so Lopburi or Lavo was the second to be selected for Ayutthaya to use for residing and administering in the critical period. However, Narai Ratchaniwet royal palace seemed to be the royal palace used for residing of King Narai and went there every year until die. After the reign of King Narai, Narai Ratchaniwet royal palace was ignored because this royal palace was offered to be the temple. Later in the reign of King Rama V, His Majesty had reformed Narai Ratchaniwet royal palace to become the royal palace again and constructed Wat Witsararam for replacement and then repaired and built Narai Ratchaniwet royal palace for resident.

Conclusion

           Before reformation in the period of Phra Borommatrilokkanart, there was no the idea about building palaces with durable material such as brick or lime. As the image on the inscription stone and no trace in archeology, it can say that all of the royal palace were constructed by wood. It was very difficult to separate the walled city from palace because of agricultural social, most population resided close to their cultivated area in different villages. People residing in the walled city include royalty and nobleman who governed the city and militaries, were very less. The walled cities seemed larger in normal situation. The symbol of walled city was Buddha places as in Lopburi period. The city of which the population was Buddhist , Wat Mahathat would be the center such as Sukhothai, Ratburi and Lopburi. When the enemy sieged the city, the walled city would be very crowded because it was the refuge place for its population and the strong man would be militaries to fight with enemy. In the period of Ayutthaya as the capital city, since the period of Phraborommatrilokkanart onward, the kingdom was very large and had new administrative system. There was the social class and became trading state. Apart from agriculture, there were foreign trader came to make contact and stayed in Ayutthaya and Ayutthaya was more stable because of trading with foreign countries and had technical and technology progress brought by the western country. The pattern and structure of the city has changed. The city wall was made with brick or laterite. There was Sema and fortress as in Europe. There were merchants inside the city and other occupations which was not agriculture. This made difficulty for the king and royalty to live in the palace made of wood. For security and peace in the kingdom, the royal palaces were constructed with brick or lime and had sema and fortress as the walled city. In addition, the wall was divided into three levels. The palace was constructed with brick and it became higher equal to stupa and temple. Wat Phra Si Sanphet was the amazing building since the ancient age. The royal palace of Ayutthaya changed the center of city from Wat Mahathat to Royal palace instead. The royal palace was like the walled city hidden another walled city in the same town. In the end of Ayutthaya kingdom, there was additionally front and back palace. In peoples eyesight, the royal palace was the symbol of the walled city, so it appeared in the wall painting reflecting the palace of the city. The idea for the royal palace building in Ayutthaya period was inherited to Rattanakosin period.
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Source :
Srisak Wanliphodom. (2520). Walled city and palace in Ayutthaya period. In the ancienct city. P. 67 - 76. Issue 3rd . Bangkok : Krung Siam printing