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ظ: ͧǧͧ ͧҢͧµѹ͡§
Ayutthaya: Capital of Siam and Emporium of Southeast Asia
ظ: ͧǧͧ ͧҢͧµѹ͡§

ҭԷ ɵ

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           Ayutthaya (1351-1767) was the capital of Siam from mid fourteenth to the latter part of the eighteenth centuries. After the destruction by war the capital was moved down to Thonburi/Bangkok. During its days Ayutthaya was one of the most prosperous capitals and ports in Southeast Asia. There are two reasons for this.

           ظ ͧǧͧҳҨѡҧ .. 1351-1767 ͨҡҧʵȵɷ 14 ֧ѧͧȵɷ 18 ͹ͧǧж١ʧ ŧҵ اСا෾ (Bangkok) ظҶ繷ͧǧͧ ԭͧҡشͧ˹Ҥ ѡɳӤѭ 2 С

           On the one hand, the capital at Ayutthaya was land-based, i.e. it was rich with rice and all kinds of food (mainly fish). It had abundance of agricultural and forest products. This characteristic of Ayutthaya resembled those of formerly wellknown past kingdoms like Pagan, Angkor, and Central Java.

           㹴ҹ˹ ظͧǧվ鹰ҹѺҤ蹴Թ (land based) դشó¢ èҡѵл мżԵҧɵ ʹԵѳҡ (forest products) ѡɳФ¤֧ѺҳҨѡҳᶺ ͧҡ͹˹ ء ѧ Ъҡҧ繵 (Pagan, Angkor, Central Java)

           On the other hand, Ayutthaya was also sea-based and situated within the Asian trade route of silks, porcelain, and spices. It was one of trade centers, an emporium for exchanges of goods similar to its forerunners and contemporaries like Funan/Angkor Borei-Oc Eo, Srivijaya/Palembang or Melaka/Malacca, Hoi An, Banten-Batavia, Manila)

           աҹ˹ ظҡͧǧ ʶҹ駷հҹҧ (sea based) 鹷ҧäѡͧ (Asian trade route or sea-silk route) ٹҧͧä š¹Թ ѧҳҨѡ÷ҧš͹˹ҹ ˹ҹ Ԫ (Funan/Angkor Borei-Oc Eo, Srivijaya/Palembang) ǡѹ С ѹ ѹ෹-ѵ й (Melaka, Hoi An, Banten-Batavia, Manila)


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Manila-Acapulco Galleon


(2)

           Ayutthaya was established almost at the same time of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) in China. Initially, the Ming paid attention to the Southern Seas as can be seen by the many voyages of Admiral Zheng He. But it turned attention to the northern border once the capital was moved from Nanking to Peking. On top of that official trade was not encouraged by the Chinese Court, resulting in activities of private traders and piracy. In this light trade from Southeast Asian kingdoms became vigorous. Ayutthaya, Melaka, Viet Nam could enjoy such opportunity by exploiting Chinese Tributary System of Relationship of bringing gifts to Imperial China in order to get trade benefit. The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are well known as The Age of Commerce in Asia.

           ظ ʶһҢؤǡѺԴͧҪǧԧ㹻Ȩչ (Ming Dynasty 1368-1644) д¹º¢ͧҪӹѡͧѡþôԧ ʹ㨵ʹԹᴹҧҤ鹴Թҹ˹ͧ͢ ͧǧҡҹԧ任ѡ ӤѭѺҤ鹷СѺкäҧ繷ҧâͧѰ äҢͧ͡Ǩչ᷹ͧ 㹢ǡѹôҳҨѡõҧµѹ͡§ ҷ С ظ ´ öҷӡäҢ ӡԹ͡ (ԧѺкóҡèͧͧչ Tributary System) š¹Թҡѹ㹪ǧդԭͧҧҡ㹤ʵȵɷ 15 16 ҵͨҡ鹴 ѧѡѹ㹹ͧ Age of Commerce

           This period coincided with the Age of Discovery and Exploration of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. This was for European colonialists and traders to reap benefits from Asian trade of spices, silk and ceramics. The Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, English, all set up their sea-borne empires, creating chains of port-cities and emporium for trading from the Arabian Sea, to India, through Southeast Asia, to China, Korea and Japan/Ryukyu. The Spanish established Manila for their Galleon Trade crossing the Pacific to Acapulco/Mexico before reaching Spain via the Atlantic.

           ʶҹóͧäҢ¢ͧͧؤ ѧçѺؤ·ûӹǹҡ ǼŻªҡäͧ м Ѻͧѧšա (spices, silk, and ceramics) ؤͧ The Age of Discovery (15th-16th centuries) ͧõ ໹ ѹ ѧ ҧ觷¡ Seaborne Empires ִͧеʶҹաäҢͧҡԹ ѹѹ µѹ͡§ ִҡС ֧ѵ ֧й ͵Դѧչ ǡ Э 駢طûҫԿԤѧҵԹԡҴ


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(3)

           As for Ayutthaya, by controlling the land of central Siam, it could expand northward into kingdoms of Sukhothai and Lanna/Chiang Mai. It captured Angkor in Cambodia and took over the Khorat Plateau, centered around Phimai. With such land expansion and control, Ayutthaya was able to obtain for export: agricultural and forest products: rice, foodstuff, aromatic and sappen-woods, animal skin like deer, horn and elephant tusks.

           ͧҤ鹴Թͷҧ ظʴʹҾҳࢵִͧͧҳҨѡ⢷·ҧ˹ ءҹҹ ѺѧԪԵҳҨѡþйǧ (Angkor) ͧ٪ҷҧȵѹ͡ 㹺dzҺ٧Ҫ (Khorat Plateau) ա Шҡ÷׹蹴Թҧҧҧ ظöռԵŷҧɵ ͧ Ҥᾧ繷ͧâͧҴ¹͡ ҧ ˹ѧѵ ҧ ѵЧҪҧ

           Therefore, by the sea, Ayutthaya could expand to take control of the sea-coast from Chanthaburi, bordering Cambodia, crossing to the west in the area of Phetburi, Kui (Prachuab) down to Nakhon Si Thammarat (Trambalinga) and Pattani. At certain time, Ayutthaya attempted to control the Andaman sea-coast in the Gulf of Bengal from Tavoy, Mergui, down to Tenasserim, and Kedah trying to subjugate Melaka in the Malay Peninsula.

           ѧ 㹷ҧҤ鹷 ظҡʹҹҾͧ 令Ǻ½觷ŨҡҹԴ٪ ͧѹ ѧҹͧྪú ͧ (ШǺ) ŧѧٹҧӤѭ ոҪ ֧ѵҹ 㹺ҧ¡ѧŽ觵ѹ ҧҹѹѹ ͤǺ Դ й 㹴Թᴹͧͭо оŧա֧ѧѰऴ ʹСա

           In short, Ayutthaya was replacing those of the former times like Funan, Chenla, or even Srivijaya by controlling the sea and maritime trade of East and West, of the Southern China Sea and the Indian Ocean. It could reap benefit from spices (mainly pepper), silk, porcelain, from China, Japan (silver), Ryukyu, plus connecting with the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade mentioned above.

           ظ᷹ҳҨѡ ˹ҹਹ (Funan-Chenla) Ԫ ¡äǺ鹷ҧäҧšҹѹ͡еѹ ҧŨչ͹ѺطԹ öǼŻªҡäͧ (੾ҧ觾ԡ) СäҼѺͧѧšѺչ ǡ ѧԹ ͡äҢͧš١ǡҡѺ觷¡ Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade طừԿԤѧ硫ҵԹԡ (͹Тط͵Źԡѧʻա)

           In conclusion, as capital and port Ayutthaya benefited from its geographical location of the traditional Asian trade route. It became an emporium for export and import of East and West. It exploited the labor and skill of Chinese crews and technical know-how of junks. The trade of Ayutthaya was a royal monopoly. Its port-duty was around 10 per cent. It could be paid in kinds or cash (silver or gold). As for its export (rice, foodstuff, forest products), Ayutthayan kings collected them as tax in kinds from their peasants and vassals. This royal trade monopoly was carried out by elaborated organizations, i.e. the setting up Krom Phra Khlang (Treasury), Krom Tha Sai and Krom Tha Khwas: Port Authorities of the Left (i.e. East or what coming from the South China Sea) and the Right (i.e. West or what coming from the Indian Ocean). The system of royal trade monopoly was sustained well into the Bangkok time till the mid-nineteenth century in the reigns of King Mongkut (1851-1868) and King Chulalongkorn (1868-1910).

           ѧ 㹤ͧҢͧظ 繼žҨҡʶҹ駷ҧʵ 鹷ҧͧäҳͧ¹ͧ öӡä͡й 繨شš¹ (export-import goods) зʹ觡͡١ͨչ ԪҤ෤Ԥͧͨչ (junks) ѡ㹡÷ӡäҷҧ աèѴкͧäٻͧü١ҴͧѰ/ǧ/ѵ (state-royal monopoly of trade) ҡ繼Եѳ ªѡԺ 10 % ͧԹҹ (import) 㹢ͧǹԹҷ͡ (export) 繡ٻͧ ” (tax in kinds) Ҩ繢ǻ ͧ͢ Сաõ駵˹觢ͧ˹§ҹҪ÷ͧͧü١ҴäҷҧŹ Ѵ駡Фѧ (Թ) ա繡ҫ Ң 繵 кäҼ١ҴͧѰ/ǧ/ѵ Թ׺ʹѹҨ¸/ا෾ ͹ա¹ŧ˭Ѫŷ 4 (1851-1868) з 5 (1868-1910)

           ˵: 鹪鹹ʹ͡ö§ººѺͧظҢͧ СѺͧҤШչ 觨Ѵ㹧ҹ ͧ ȭ͹Ȩԡ¹ 2551 Sakai-Asia Cultural Partnership Conference 2008, 2nd Collaborative Research Meeting: Comparison of Port Cities, November 18-19, 2008