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¹ѵʵ ֧˵µͧ٭͡Ҫ
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           稾йҧԡԵ кҪԹչҶ çվҪǹʡԡ÷Ͷ¾о ͧáʤѹҪ ѹ 11 ԧҤ 2551 ѧ͹˹
                     .....´µ͹ҹ¡ ¹ѵʵǹ ѹ е͹ѹ¹Ź Źʹջѵʵ ҡͧ¹ѵʵͧ ͧ¹ ...þʹ蹴Թ ҨҶ֧ ǡ ѹʺ ջȹ ҡѺ¹ѵʵ Ҩҡ˹ 繤ԴšҴԡ ˹ ҡ͹ѵʵҹͧ ˹ ˹ ҡ͹ Һ蹴Թѹʹ訹Ѵ ѧ䧡ѹ ...ѹҵ ǵҧѧ·Һ ѡ¹¹ ա͹ѵʵ... (Թ 12 ԧҤ 2551)
           Թ ѹ ҧӾٴͧ Թʵѹ ҵ㴡 Դӹ֧֧֡ѵʵ ҵԹ͹Ҥ
           ʵҨᾷ Ѳ ¹ӹ¡ͧ˹ѧ ҳҨѡ蹔
                     ѵʵ 麷¹͹ 㨻Ѩغѹբ鹔
           ѵʵ˵ءóͧǷԴʹյ ˵ءóӤѭաúѹ֡ѡɳѡ ѡҹҧѵʵ骹ѧ֡ ˵ءóʹյͧ͹ ˵ءóʹյҧҨ١ѹ֡ Ըըҵ ѹ
           ¹ѵʵ繻ªҧҡ ҷ餹ѡҾѹͧͧ ѡԴ ѡҡ˧ ѡԶժԵ ѡѲ׺ʹ ѹҧ ֧ԭͧ Ф Ӥѭش¹ ˵ءóʹյԴ Դ ѧդӾٴ ͻѵʵ ͔
           ë ͧ˵ءó㹴ҹ 㹴ҹԭ͡ ÷Ы Դë ͧ˵ءó㹴ҹ 㹴ҹȨеͧ͡Ҫ ÷Ы
           ˵ءó㹻ѵʵͶǡ͹ ԴԴҴ֧ѺȪҵԵͧ͡Ҫ ҨԹա鹷ҧҡѧԹ
           ԴҴͧͨС駡Դ Ҥ駪ҵѡػ¹ ԴҴʹյ ʹյ繤Ƕ·ʹ蹵 ١ҹŹŹ... ѡ
           ԴҴµͧ¡ا֧ 2 ·اظҪҹ ·աûͧẺóҭԷҪ ͧ繤ѺԴͺµçͧҡѵ 㹢й
           ǹѺԴͺѧ¹ŧûͧҡкͺóҭԷҪкͺЪҸԻ 繤ѺԴͺͧѰ ѰӹҨѰҨҡҡѵ
           ԴҴѧԴ鹡Ѻͤ㹢лѨغѹ ѧ觼µͧ٭͡ҪҧɰԨ·褹 һѰŷҴö ͧ繻ªͧȪҵлЪҪ Ѻͧª੾еоǡͧ Ѱ֧ó Ҵ·ȹ㹡ͧš û ( ¶֧ ·Ҩҡҧҵ ¶֧ Ҥ ѧѺ·Ҩҡҧҵ) ѰŷҴͧ դͺ Ѻ繼ԴԴҴͧ͡ͻѭҢͧ
           Ѱŷŵҧҵ ֧Դ͡ҧҵִͧɰԨ ҹѺѰŷªǹоǡͧͺὧ¹º·بԵ بԵԧº ֧Դԡĵ价ءҹ ԡĵ˹ѡش ԡĵɰԨ عç֧Ѻ٭͡ҪҧɰԨҧҵ
           ԴҴ觼µͧ٭͡ҪҧɰԨ ԴշҧԹ Դշҧä ٻѰˡԨ ͡ҧҵԶͤͧԹ
           ԴҴǢҧԴҡѰ¹ѵʵ ػ¹ҡѵʵҤµͧ¡ا֧ 2 ˵ ͹˵طµͧ¡اػ¹ ǹ йººҡѺ˵ءóѨغѹ ҷѹѹ¨ҡҧҵԷ ٻẺ ִͧ¡ѧ͡ҳҹԤѧʹյ ͧҡؤ µͧѹٻẺ ¡ѧ١ ִͧҧɰԨ ͧ٭͡ҪҧɰԨعҵ ·褹Ѱ¡ѧ ҤѰ¹ѵʵ֧˵µͧ٭͡ҪҧɰԨ

˵㴷µͧ¡ا
           ¡اá Դ㹻 ..2112 Ѫ¢ͧ稾ԹҸҪ çԴҴ觵Ҩѡ (͡Ҩѡ) ѾӹҨ٧ش㹡ûͧѹѡҾй Ҩѡշӵ֡ ѧ ͺԴеִͧ֡ا ¨֧ͧ繷ʾҹҹ 15 稾йçͺ͡Ҫͧҵ¡Ѻ׹
           Ҩѡ١֡ 繤· ªҵ 蹴Թ
           稾йҪ Ѻè֡Ш ç繾ҡѵҵ 蹴Թ
           ¡ا駷ͧ Դ㹻 ..2310 Ѫ¢ͧ稾͡ ͡ȷç繡ѵ͹ դö ú㹡֡ 㹤駹鹤ᵡѤ 觪ԧӹҨѹͧ բѭСѧ㹡ú Դú֧ͧ 繡¡اظҤ駷ͧ 稾ҵҡԹͺ͡Ҫͧҵ
           ͡ Ѻè֡ 繡ѵµͧ¡ا駷ͧ
           稾ҵҡԹҪ Ѻè֡ 繡ѵçҵ
           ͧاظ è繺¹ѺاѵԹԴա ʹյ繺¹

麷¹㹡¡اá
           麷¹ 㴤㴷褹 ֧֡ͧ ªǹ ӹ֧֧͹ҵ ªҵԢ蹴Թ ·ӵ֡Ѻѵ ͹鹤¡ͧ٭͡Ҫ 騴Ҩѡ繤·ªҵ §ҧ Ф騴 稾йҪ繡ѵҵ ѵѡú ¤§ҧ

麷¹㹡¡ا駷ͧ
           麷¹ 㴷ռӷ͹ դö㹡ûͧú ȵѹ Դú öѡҡا ֧Դ¡ا駷ͧ Ѫ͡͡繡ѵ µͧ¡ا駷ͧ Фռӷ͹ 餹µͧռҧ͡ա Ф騴 稾ҵҡԹҪ繡ѵҵ ѵѡú ¤öẺҧͧѡҵ

¹ѵʵСԴѡҵ
           ¹ѵʵҵ¹ҡ ѵʵҵ¡͡Դҳ 800 ¡ا⢷ Ҫҹ ѵ¾ͧá ͢عԹҷԵ ͧҪͻ ..1762
           ͺ 800 ǹ˭ѵʵ§ ǹ˭֧ѡҵҡ Դѡҵ Ҿ¹ͧ ӹҹ稾йÔ ѡҵ׹þŧҵ ŧԭк
           㹻ѨغѹºҧԹŧҵ ŧԭкա׹çͷӤþ ѺҧҾ ׹Դ ѧպؤš˹觵͵ҹʶҺѹ٧ش֧Ѻʡչŧ ׹ ҪҡÔ ǡդѡҵŧա
           ĵԡ褹ʴҡ÷׹ç ʴҤջѭͧѡҵ ѰŨй觴ٴ еͧ餹·ء ¹ѵʵ Դѡҵ

ѡҵѧ͵ͧʹªҵԹ
           ѡҵҧöͧ͡Ҫͧҵ ºº繴ѧ 㹺ҹҧʹµͧ繴ҹá 㹺ҹ Ǩеͧ٧»չ ͡ҡѧѭҳ͹ǧ˹ ͺ͡ҢͧҢ¡ѧҺҹ Ңͧҹǡ͹¨Һҹ
           ȡ͹ѹ շͻͧѵһ º͹Ǻҹͧѹ㹺ҹʹ֧ѾԹ ѧդӡ 繺ҹ ǔ ҹ 㹺ҹʹ
           ѡҵºѺҹ ǹҵԹºѺǺҹ ҹ㴡Ǻҹç кѡҤʹҧ 㹺ҹʹ¨ҡ 繪ҵԹ֧º͹Ǻҹ

¹ѵʵ֧ͧ֡ª繪ҵԹ
           Ҥ繪ҵԹ¡ѺǺҹͻͧѹҹ 餹㹺ҹҧͺ蹻ʹ 駻ͧѹѾԹ㹺ҹ Ҥǹ˭ѡҵդ֡繪ҵԹº͹㹺ҹҧͺ֡ʹ öҷ¤㹺ҹöҢ·ѾԹ 繪ҵԹºѺԤѹԵ Ѩਡ ͺ ѧ ֧Ȫҵ
           ¹ѵʵ¹ҡ ֡ѡҵԡѡҵҡͧ ѡҵ׹Ӥþŧҵ ŧԭ к 褹դ֡ҵԹ ѰŨеͧ͹餹¹ѵʵҡ ֧֡繪ҵԹ

֡ѡҵЪҵԹЪ»ͧѹѹءٻẺ
           ѵʵؤ¡اظ ֡ѹ¢ͧ¤ ͧѾҷءҹѧִاظͧ اظ ١ҵᵡ֧ͧ ҾҤ·Ҩҡ͹ҹҳࢵԴ͡ѹ
           Ͷ֧ؤѵԹѪŷ 4 з 5 ѵѹҨҡѧн ᶺû Թᴹ鹷ŷú ͻ׹ ·÷ͻ׹ͧ ¨ӵͧԹ´Թᴹҧǹִͧ ͡Ҫ
           ʹյդѡҵҡ ͡Ҫ㹤¡اͧ ¡ö͡ҪѺ׹ 㹤Ƿͧ ¡赡ͧ鹢ͧ ֧ѧѡ͡Ҫ
           㹻Ѩغѹѡҵҧѧ ѵѹ ٻẺ ظ աͧѾҡҧҵ¡ѧ Թ ͷع Թظ õͧ¡ͧ ٻẺԴظҧѭҔ ͹ չ ҵԹ
           Թظͧҧҵԡ ءԴշҧáԨء ҹ ´¡ͧԺѵԵ
           ȷѲԹظ ع˹ִͧ͡ɰԨȷ͹¡Իѭ ȷ͹¡ҡŧһҵͧԭ յҧҵԹԹŧع ش»ȷҧҵŧعҡ 㹪ҵԡѺհҹᵡҧѹҧѴ ˹鹿 ǹ˭ҡ ¤͡ʹѺʹعҧҵŧع ռŻªѺѷҧҵԴ ǹǹ˭ҡ繼 żԵҡع
           ǹ˭ѡҵդ繪ҵԹ ѧ蹺ҧȷѡɳѡҵЪҵԹ ҷ ÷褹 դ繪ҵԹ֧͡ҪҧɰԨ
           Ҥҧѡɳйͤ֡ҵԹԴ鹡ЪлͧѹѹءٻẺ ֧¡ҧҧ շ駤ѡҵЪҵԹ¹
             վ鹷 360,143 ҧ
                     Ъҡ 127,333,002 (..2547)
                     »Ъҡõ;鹷 353 / ҧ
           ǭդѡҵФ繪ҵԹ٧ҡ ǭ蹨ͧԵ㹻Ȣͧ ش˹عҹҢͧ աԴä ʹᾧ Ѱŭ蹨Ǩҡҧ仢觡Ѻ㹻ȷǹҭ繼١ ֧駡ᾧ੾Т٧ҡ ͻͧҪվɵá
           ҹһաҴ˭ҧҵ (Carre four) ͧ ӹǹ 8 Դ㹭 ҢǢҴعͧԡԨ ͧҡǹ˭ش˹ع ФѡҵФ繪ҵԹͧ ѨغѹɰԨѹѺ 2 ͧš
             վ鹷 98,480 ҧ
                          Ъҡ 48,598,175 (..2547)
                          »Ъҡõ;鹷 493 / ҧ
           դѡҵЪҵԹ٧ҡ ըԹҷԵҡҧҵ ռԵͧ ҧ ö¹ 2 ˭ ع վö¹ Եҡա辺 öԵԹصˡѹ㹻Ѩغѹ
           ѨغѹɰԨӴѺ 11 ͧš 繻 վ鹷 Ъҡáҡ ɰԨҡ 蹼Ե աԵ
           ѵʵշ¶١չЭִͧ 餹˵ءó㹻ѵʵ繺¹㹡ҧҵԢ 餹շءѡҵդ֡ҵԹ
             վ鹷 22,145 ҧ
                         Ъҡ 7,100,000 ҹ (..2549)
                         »Ъҡõ;鹷 321 / ҧ
           Ƿ㹻 դѡҵЪҵԹ٧ҡ »ѵʵ繺¹ ͹ʧš駷ͧ ѧջ Ƿѹ١Ե ѹ触ҵ ҳ 6 ҹ ҧѧʧš駷ͧ ԴѡҵФ繪ҵԹ٧ ҡӺ͡ҢͧԹ ѹ 繹ѡáԨҧ任Ŷ֧ 40 Ƿءͧ繷÷駪˭ԧ Ͷ֧ؤúࡳ ¨еͧ繷 3 м˭ԧͧ繷 2 ѡԺ һШӪҵ ҹ˹ѧ ҳ 85% Ժ Ѱա˹ѧ͵ҧԺ 㹴ҹɰԨҹһաҵ索Ҵ ѡҵЪҵԹͧ ֧餹ͺءհҹзҧɰԨ պҹ ö¹ Թ ǹФѺ硫 Թͷ价ͧǵҧ

͢ҴѡҵЪҵԹ

           ਹԹ繵ҧͧâҴѡҵФ繪ҵԹ СͺѺѰŷ褴⡧ ªǹоǡͧ ֧Դ·ҧɰԨ ٭͡ҪҧɰԨҧҵ
           ਹԹ繻ȷվ鹷ҡ Ѿҡáҡ Ъҡչ ਹԹҨջѭͧɰԨ֧Ҵդʹӵ ТҴӺ ҡͧ鹢ͧਹԹ
           ਹԹ  վ鹷 2,791,810 ҧ
                              Ъҡ 38,747,000 (..2548)
                              »Ъҡõ;鹷 14 / ҧ
           ººѺ
             վ鹷 513,120 ҧ
                    Ъҡ 63,389,730 (..2551)
                    »Ъҡõ;鹷 122 / ҧ
           աþٴѹһشóФ㨺حعҹ عѢѧѹʹ Ǥ¨ʹҧ ਹԹҨ֧ʹ ѧ˭ԧ١͹ Թ͹١Թ Թ仢͹Өҡ͹ҹ 仢ͺҹ㴡 ӴҤҾ ӻлҸóС ҡûлҢͧਹԹҢҹҧҵ
           ਹԹҢҴѡҵФ繪ҵԹ ֧١عҵԡ׹ɰԨ .Ե ѵ 仺·Ѵǹ 㹻 ..2545 繻շਹԹһʺԡĵɰԨعçش ͡ԹǹѺиҹҸԺͺءѹ ਹԹҴԹºɰԨԴҴ 觷ҸóٻҸóٻ ҹѺѷҧҵԨ 俿 л Ѿ ç蹹ѹ ¡úԹ ö
           ͡ҡѧԴҹһաҵ ա 300 觷ǻ ҹһաҧҵԹԹ͡͡ȷء ѹ ֧ԴѭɰԨ
           ѹਹԹ 39 ҹ ͧ繾ͧͧ㹻Ȣͧ еҧҵԤͺͧɰԨ騹 ਹԹҤ Ѻ繼㹺ҹ赹ͧҢͧ ӡԹ㹷 ͧͧ ١ҧçҹ ͧѧǵҡ ¨ շԹӡԹਹԹҶ֧ 1 ҹ ͹Ԩ! Ҵٻ ٨Ф ਹԹ价ء

¹麷¹ѵʵ ԴҴͧպ
           ¹ѵʵ繤ԴҴФùӤԴҴ繤 պ䢡 ԴշҧԹ Դշҧä ٻѰˡԨ ͡ҧҵԶͤͧԹ
           ԴշҧԹ ˵طԴԡĵɰԨ 㹻 ..2540 Դ鹨ҡѰŷվ͡ҵԪ سѳ 繹¡Ѱ ԴշҧԹ ѧԹعҡҧ һ 㹻 ..2533 Դԡĵ ӡ駔 㹻 ..2540 ԡĵӡء价š
           ԴҴ㹡ԴշҧԹ ͡ҪҧɰԨѺͧعͿ ѹ 14 ԧҤ 2540 ·ѭҡѺ Ϳ ؤվ͡Ե §ط 繹¡Ѱ ͧعͿ¡ԹǧԹ 1.7 ҹ
           ԴշҧԹ ʵṹ 56 駸ҤԴ˹٭ ṹ 56 觵ͧ١ԴԨ ҤԴ˹٭ ֧ͧعա ֧Դͧ͡عͤ蹤ͧԧҫ鹨ҡش㹸ҤþҳԪͧ ҡѺԧ ִҤâͧ
           ͧع Ϳ ŧ˹ѧʴਵӹ зӵйӷЩѺ ҨѭɰԨԹ Ѱ¨֧͡ 11 Ѻй㹨ӹǹ աԴշҧä ٻѰˡԨ ҧҵԷͺͧԹӡԹ

ԴշҧäҹӾµͧ͡ҪҧɰԨ
           ͹¨ԴԡĵɰԨ 㹻 ..2540 ѰԡҫӹҨ駷ҧзҧɰԨ ੾ӹҨҧ ԡʹҹҾѹ§ ժҵҷҷ ѧҡҾµᵡ͡ 15 㹻 ..2534 ѰԡҨ֧͡ʷФͺɰԨš º¡Դäҧ ѹ ͪԧѹ (Washington Consesus) ظءҹ ͺӻ
           Ѿ ǹó (ʹ ͧ) ͺӶռὧ © ѹͪԧѹ äԴ 繩ѹԢͧ
           Ѿ ǹó ͺӶŧ˹ѧ ԡҔ ѧͤѧ
           ѹͪԧѹ ٹº” ѹ ʹ㹻 ..2532 繡ûСȪªТͧкع յкѧ
           ѹͪԧѹ Сͺ 4 ѡ
                      Liberalization : Դմҹä СԹҧ
                      Stabilization : Դ蹤кɰԨ
                      Privatization : ͹üԵҡҤѰҤ͡
                      Deregulation : ŴäǺСáӡѺкɰԨСԨҧɰԨ
           鹰ҹҹ·ʹ͡繹º ҧ ԴշҧԹ ʹѺʹعŧعҡҧ ŴͺѧѺҧáԨ ѵյ º¡äѧǴ ٻѰˡԨ͡ еҴçҹ״
           ûСùʹͧ͢ ѹ 㹪ǧؤش¢ͧʹյиҹҸԺ ت (ͧ͢ Ѻ ت) ؤ鹢ͧʹյиҹҸԺ Թѹ 繹º·ҷҧعդѹТ¸áԨ ¡ŧع ͡ͺԹǷءš
           ѡͧѹԡاͪԧѹ šдբлЪҸԻչлͧšͷء ҵšͧԴշ Թ ä Թҧ աࡳҺѧѺ ͨӡѴ 駺պաش˹عá᫧䡷ҧɰԨءٻẺ

ѹͪԧѹ觾ѧ
           ਹԹ 鵡ͧ͢ ѹͪԧѹ Фҷѹ ͧӻФǹͧ ӻԴշءҹѧԹŧع ¢ѰˡԨ͡Ըաõҧ ҹѷҧҵ ѰˡԨٻ͢㹵Ҵ Դҹһաҧҵ价ӡäһա ҡҧһա Carrefour () ШǻȨӹǹ 300 ִͧäһաਹԹ ਹԹԴ
           ٻѰˡԨ ؤŷѰмѰˡԨѡªҡٻѧӡǢͧԹ ѹ 仾ٴͧЪز ..2549 Ѻԭ仿ѧСͺ Ҩҡ TDRI ˹ҷдѺ٧ҡзǧäѧ ŪҨժ¤ ռҿѧҳ 200 .. .. ѡҹѰˡԨлЪҪ Թ Ӷͼѧ㹷Ъ º͡ ջšٻѰˡԨ û˹ҷǢͧҧѺŻªѹԪͺҧ ЪҪѺʹ͹͡Ԩ赡͵ҧҵԔ
           ѧҴ١ٻ . Ƿء ֧֡ ҧ͔ ҷѹ
           ¡ԴѺѡ ѹͪԧѹ ͹ѹ ҡԴԹջ ..2533 ؤ͡ҵԪ سѳ 繹¡Ѱ ԴԡĵԹ㹻 ..2540 ؤ͡Ե 繹¡Ѱ Ͷ֧͹Ȩԡ¹ 2540 ͡Ե ͡ҡ¡Ѱ ªǹ ա 繹¡Ѱ ѧҡ͡Եӻ仨ӹͧѺͧع IMF ͹ԧҤ 2540 ªǹ繹¡ѰẺ ء еͧԡĵɰԨ
           㹻 ..2542 Ѱ ǹ ա Ѱաзǧäѧ ¸Թ ҹԹ ͡·¡ ¢ªҵ 11 Ѻ ҹ١ IMF й͡ µͧԴ äՔ ըȵͧ͡ҪҧɰԨҧҵ 繷ѧࡵ ÷ѰѰԡ͡ ѹͪԧѹ ͻ ..2532 ŷҨ֧й ..2552 ѹͪԧѹ 觼ŵͻЪҪͧл ҧúҧ

ҡѹͪԧѹ
           ȷª չ ԧ Թ ҹ ºšäҨҡҧҧҡ ҡä
           ǹȷ¼Żª ਹԹ 硫 Ѱԡ ҡä
           չѺªҧ Фç١֧ԵԹصˡԹɵ仵յҴš յҴԡ ԹҢ ͧԡԨ äշչԹعͧҡشš
           ªҧҡԵԹصˡ͡˹š ö¹ҡ ҤҶ١ҷԵԡ ԡҨ֧ѹҫöҡж١ ѹ¡ ѷö¹㹤 G.M. ʹö¹쵡
           ԧ աͧع觤觪ҵ Ŵ Шͫ ͡ŧعš ͧع 2 ͧ عҫ͡Ԩŧع㹻 ͪԹ жǹ˭踹ҤþҳԪ㹻 㹵ҴѡѾ ԧ֧繻ȷҡ ͷءҧͧ繼š ԧҢ Ѱչº餹ԧٴ 3
           Թ ªͧҡԹǹ˭ٴѧФçҹ١ ѷҧҵԨ֧ѹŧعԵǹԹصˡԹ͡͡ Թ¨֧էҹҡ ѷ˭ Ѱԡ¹ҹԵԹصˡԹ
           ਹԹ »ªҡѹͪԧѹ Դշءҧ ·ҧɰԨ
           Դ зɰԨͪǵҧҵ 硫ҧҹҡ ͧѡͺԡҧҹ ɰԨ硫ͺ
           »ª ҡԴԹ Դԡĵ ӡ駔 еҴ¡äշҹһաҵִͧɰԨ ҳ 60 %
           Դշҧä ҧһա ѡ˭ҵ TESCO Lotus ͧѧ Carre four, Big C ͧ makro ͧŹ 7-ELEVEn ͧѰѺ CP ִͧɰԨ Ѱ¡êҹҢͧ Ѻҧ 繡ä áѹ Ẻ´ա Ǥµͧ͡ҪҧɰԨѹ
           Թ ѹ ȷѰŷѡҵѡЪҪ ѡ÷ҡԹ ͧ㹪ҵ ҨǧԷԡ÷ҡԹͧЪҪ ҹһաҵҹ Ե ҹһաҵԵͧ ͧ͡ ا ҹһաҵԵͧҧҡͧ 30 ǷѰҧ Եպҧ ͻͧ
           ǹҹһաҧҵԶ仵㹭 ͧ ФͧҵԹѡҵդ繪ҵԹ ѹԧ¡ѡҵҴ繪ҵԹ ͹ѵʵ 餹¹ еͧ鹤繪ҵԹ仴 ͻͧѹ͡Ҫͧҵ
           ͤ蹤ҧɰԨ ¹ʹͤӢѭ㹡ôԹԵ ѡҵЪҵԹ "Թͧ    ͧ    ش˹عҹҢͧ    ͧ    ԭ"
           Ѱԡ ͡º ѹͪԧѹ Ѻ繻»ªҧҡ ҧ? ͵ͧ繼ҧԡҷҧäҢͧ
           ѹͪԧѹ㹻 ..2532 ·Ѱԡ кôҹ·ع˭ԷԾ˹ͼӡԴҹ ԡ繨š ӹҨѹѺ 1 駷ҧɰԨ ԡҨѷҵ价ӡèҡҧ 㴨СҢѴҧ ԡҡͧԴ͹ѹ
           20 ҡ ԡ Ѻ繽ºšäҡ չ ԧ ѹ ԹҨҡȴѧҤҶ١ ִҴԡҨԹҷԵԡҢŧ ͧԴԨèз觤ԡѹͧҧҹ繨ӹǹҡ ǹ˹觷ԴɰԨԡԡĵҧ˹ѡ
           ѰԡԴԡĵɰԨ㹻 ..2551 ԡĵ˹ѡش ͧҡѷѡ˭ ԡºѷСͺáԨҴع ͧԴԨ ҹ ҧѷ ŴüԵ ͧŴҹҧǹ ԡѹҹӹǹҡ
           ѷ 繺ѷԹѧѾ Թ١˹֧˹٭ӹǹҡ ѷͺ ѰŵͧҪѴԹ
           Ѱͺ Դշءҹ ԡҹɰԨеͧ ֧ԴԴСմѹҧäҢҺҧ 麷¹úҧҡԴշҧԹ ֧Դԡĵӡ Ũҡԡĵӡ ¨֧١ѧѺͧԴշҧä ҹһա ɰԨͧ͵ҧҵ Ѱѧ÷ôҹ (ҹһա) ͧ⡹§ ӵҺ ըա ͧط Ѱŷҧ ѰŷءѰŷ͡Ҩ䢷ءҡͧЪҪ ЪҪͧҡ͹¤ҧ
           ٻѰˡԨ Ѱŷվäѡºû ٻѰˡԨҵҴѡѾ ͡ѰˡԨ͡ Ҩ繤͵ҧҵ ѰˡԨ١ٻҫ͢㹵ҴѡѾ . úԹ ȷ. ʷ. Թ . ѧ
           ٻ . ӡѺ . ҧҡ ѹԴաèͧ ЪҪӹǹҡͷ踹Ҥ ͨͧ . 5 ˹ҸҤ Ͷ֧Դͧ 1 ҷ 37 Թҷ 鹡§ Ūʹ͢Ǩͧ չʡ˹觷繭ҵԢͧѰ ੾Ǩͧ 7 ҹ ҤҨͧѹ Ҥ 35 ҷ ѨغѹҤҳ 200 ҷҤ 35 ҷ ŶҢµ ٻ . Ҥҹѹ٧еͧӡ٧ͻªͼ ªͧա
           ٻ . 繡âѵԢͧҵ ա繷ѾԹͧЪҪ ǹӷѾԹ仢¶١ 价ӡõ ͻªͧ仴ªͼ鹡ҡ 15 ǧСŷҢͧ . Ѱ㹢й
           ٻ úԹ¶ѡ˹ҵҢͧ ҷѾԹͧЪҪҵҴ͡ҼŻª Ҥ㨢ͧ¡ ӢѭúԹ· ѡسҿҔ ǹ˭֧֡ ѺӢѭѧ
           ٻѰˡԨ ÷з ¾Ԩó ѰˡԨԡҸóա觢ѹ л 俿 ö . ٻ ѰˡԨ˹ҵѡբͧ úԹ Թ ٻ ѰˡԨǺŢö繤蹤 ҢŢظèдФǺҧԴ ¤ ͧ¤è˹§ҹ蹤Ǻ
           ǹѰˡԨѰ ǡѺ蹤 . . ٻ͡

͡ҧҵԶͤͧԹ
           ѰŷѡԳ դԴҧҵԶͤͧԹǵҧҵªҡԹ 㹻 ͡ ɰԨɔ ¤ҧҵҷԹСͺáԨ¤Ѱ ҹҹժѺ˹Ҵٷؾó ͢ҷӹ ١ǹؾóյ͵ҹҧҵҷ ҧҪǹؾóѧҴӹ һҧҵҷӹ Ҥҷ٧ǹ ǹҡҪվӹ
           ͡ҧҵԶͤͧԹ˹Ҥè¡ԡ©Ѻ þɢͧʹ ЪԵѡ蹴Թ١ҹ ǵҧͤºҧҼŻªӹ֧֧þɷͺ׹蹴Թ 蹴Թͧ 觹

¹ѵʵ
           šؤšѵؤŢ šա¹ŧǴҡ ˵ءóԴ鹷 š öѺǶ֧ѹ ҴѺ¹ŧͧš ҵš ˵ءóѹ ͤ ¹ѵʵҧ ͧ¹ѵʵҧҵԴ 餹㹪ҵ繻ªҡѡҵЪҵԹ Ԥѹ㹪ҵ ͻȪҵ ժԵѺšؤѨغѹͤʹʹ¢ͧЪҪлȪҵ ѰŨеͧ餹¹ѵʵ лѵԢͧҧȷѡɳФѡҵФ֡ҵԹ
           Ҥ¹ѵʵлѵʵͧҵԷѡɳЪҵԹ ѡҵ ЪҵԹԴ ͤѡҵЪҵԹԴ ˵µͧ٭͡ҪҧɰԨ ѧ㹻Ѩغѹ

ػ
           µ躹蹴ԹóʹԹᴹͧ ͧ觹ջѵʵ·ǹҹҳ 800 蹴Թͧ觹繴Թᴹشó仴·Ѿҡ÷ҧҵԷ駺 㹹 㹷 Թᴹ觹Դ觷ժԵҡ դ·ѡɳҡ ͪҵ໡ѹ դ·Ѻʹҷҡʹ ط ʵ Թ Ыԡ ·ءʹѹ¤ʧآ ҨйѺʹҷᵡҧѹ Ф·ءþѺ ҡѵͧǡѹ ¨֧ʶҺѹѡ ҵ ʹ оҡѵ
           ʶҺѹѡդѡҵ ʹ оҡѵ ؤ⢷Ҫҹ ͻ ..1762 Ҷ֧Ѩغѹͺ 800
           ѵʵ 800 ͧôçͧҵ 鹷ا⢷ Ҫҹ ¡اظҷا ش·اѵԹ
           ѵʵºѹ֧֡ʧշЪ ѹ֧֡¡ا âҡͺ µͧ¡ا֧ 2 2 Դ¡اظҪҹ ѵٷ¡ا
           ͡ҡ餹¡ѡШͧ ´Թᴹѧ н Ѫŷ 4 з 5 觡اѵԹ µͧ´ԹᴹšѺ͡Ҫ
           ˵ءóʹյ ѵ ִ֡Թᴹ ¡ͧѾҾѺظ úѺ¡ͨ úѺѧнʷظ˹͡ 仡 èҴա¨֧ͧ´Թᴹ֧ 14
           ؤšѵ ѵ٢ͧ·ִԹᴹա ִͧɰԨ ٻẺԴ
ԴշҧԹ Դշҧä ٻѰˡԨ Դ͡ҧҵҷԹӡԹ
           Դ ѷҧҵԷշع˹͡Ҥ աúèѴ÷աҤ Ҫվ ֧ ҤþҳԪͧ繢ͧҧҵ äһաµѺѷһաҵ ֧ҹäһա͵ҧҵ ҳ 60 %
           ҹҷѹµɰԨ ҡش ҹһա ҹҹҤҢ ١仨ҡҹһաͧ ҹһաͧ¢ ͧԴԨŧ 繨ӹǹʹҹ ¨ӹǹҡͧҧҹ ¤Ң ¹Ҫվ任СͺҪվ Ҩ任СͺҪվ
           Թ÷ҹһաҵѺ Թ͡ҡѧҧ Թع¹㹻·¼ҹҹһա˴仨ӹǹҡ ѨغѹҹһաҧҵԤͺͧɰԨ»ҳ 60 % ¤ҶҤԹ 100 ҷ й仫ͧ͢ҹһաҵ 60 ҷ ҹһաͧ 40 ҷ ҹһաҧҵԹ͡ҡѺع¹ա Թ֧˴仨ҡ¨֧ԴѭɰԨ
           ѰŪشԷ ǪҪ 繹¡Ѱ ¡ͺѡ ͧ¡ ɰԨ ¡ ҵԡdzԪ Ѱҡ зǧäѧ ѭɰԨ´¡Ҫ ١ҧ ҹӡ ͹ 15,000 ҷ 餹 2,000 ҷ ǹ仫ͧ͢ ҴԹ͡ǹ˭仫ͧ͢ҹһաҧҵ͹ شԹѧع ع˹ ? Ѱѡҵդ繪ҵԹ èѡԴ Թع价 ҹ Ѩغѹ͡͹Ҥ ?
           Ѱ¹ѵʵ ҡ ֧պ¹ҡѵʵ Ѱó֡һȷѡҵЪҵԹ ѧ 3 ȹ ͧ Թ Թöǵҧҧʺ ѰšԹͧ ѰŭԹͧԹعҡѹѺͧͧšͧҡȨչ
           ͤ¹ѵʵ ֧öػ¹ҡѵʵ֧Ҥǹ˭ѧѡҵ ׹Ӥþ Թŧҵ ŧԭк ø鹾 Ҿ¹ͧ ӹҹ稾йá繡ѡҵ§Ǥ ѡҵ Ͷ١¹͡ҡе ѡҵҧѧѹҡ ѡҵԨ֧Ҵդ繪ҵԹ ¡ʹ Ҥ繪ҵԹԤѹ
           ҹ֡ʹ ͧǺҹ蹤 ç ѹ ¨ѡ ͡Ҫ ͧ¤µͧ¹ѵʵ ԴѡҵЪҵԹ ѹ
           㹷ҧçѹ ͤ¹ѵʵ ֧ԴѡҵЪҵԹ ֧˵٭͡ҪҧɰԨѧ ѹ


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Learning about Thai history is not enough
Anan Rattanapanusorn

          In the era of globalization or the information age, the world is changing very fast. Events that occur anywhere in the world can communicate and get to know each other thoroughly exhausted. People who lack of changing of the world is falling behind world event. It is easy to be victim to someone else. Learning Thai history alone is not enough. They have to learn the history of others as well so that Thai people realize to the advantages of being patriotism and nationalism in order to be immune to the people and the nation. To survive in today's world for the survival of the people and the nation, the government will need to let Thai people study Thai history and history of some countries with a sense of patriotism and nationalism.
          If Thais do not learn Thai history and the history of the nation which is nationalism, that is no patriotism and nationalism. If there is no patriotism and nationalism, it will cause a loss in economic independence as it is now.

Conclusion

          Thailand is located in Suvannaphum or Laemthong (golden land).Laem Thong has a long history for 800 years. Laemthong is a land which is rich in natural resources, both on the land, in water and in the sea. This land gave birth to a variety of living things. There are people that look different. The race is mixed. The Thai people are Buddhist, Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism religions. The Thai people of all religions live in peace. Although it is different religion, The Thai people respect the same monarch. Thailand is the main institutions which are nation, religion and monarchy.
          The three main institutions make Thai people are patriotism, religion and monarchy since the Sukhothai era in 1762 to the present for almost 800 years.
          800-year history of the existence of the Thai nation, it began with the Sukhothai era, followed by Ayutthaya and Thon Buri and Finally, the Rattanakosin period.
          Thai history was recorded both losing and winning war. It was recorded that at what time losing the country. Who was the one liberated Thailand must be held 2 times occurred in the Ayutthaya era. And the enemy was Burma.
          In addition, Thai people tend to remember about Loss of land to Britain and France several times in 4th and 5th reign of Rattanakosin. Thailand had to settle for the territory in exchange for independence.
          In the past, if the enemy or the territory of Thailand with the armed forces were Myanmar, Thailand could overcome. It was enough to defeat it. But the battle against the British and French armed was willing to negotiate, it must be better than Thai territory to 14 times.
          In the era of globalization, there are not enemies that will come into the land of Thailand again. But they will seize Thai economy by liberalization such as the liberalization of financial liberalization, the liberalization of trade, privatization and giving a chance for foreigners to hire land.
          The liberalization causes foreign companies which have more capital than Thai companies and better management fight Thai. Thai people can not fight them. Thai commercial banks have become foreigners already.

Retail sales in Thailand fell to multi-national retail companies. Now the retailer is in foreign hands, about 60%.           Stores which are a danger to the Thai economy are retail stores because they take customers away from retail outlets in Thailand. Thailand's over 100 thousands retail stores have to be closed. Many Thai people become unemployed. They do not know what is going to work.
          Profits that retailers receive will be sent from Thailand to other countries. The money that used to be circulated in Thailand. At the present, multinational retail stores seize Thai economy about 60%. It means that if the Thai people have 100 baht, they will buy goods in the multination retail 60 baht and buy retail stores in Thailand 40 baht. Foreign retailers have taken profits out of the country, not circulate in Thailand so it casues problems in the economy.
          This government which Mr.Abhisit Vejjajiva is the prime minister, Mr. Korbsak Sapavasu is the vice President of Economic and Mr. Korn Jatikawanich is the Ministry of Finance solves the economic problems with giving money to the Government, workers who earn less than 15,000 baht per month to 2,000 each. They pay by check, then go shopping.

          It is expected that the money paid out mostly in retail stores. If the government is a patriot and a nationalist, they should realize that where money was. Today can tell the future, doesnt it?
          Thai people and Government of Thailand learn Thai history very little. so no lessons from history. Thailand and the Thai government do not use the case study countries that patriotism and nationalism such as Japan, Korea and Israel. People of all three countries are well-being, can save that money to go to other countries easily. The government is also wealthy. The Japanese government has a reserve fund is ranked second in the world after China.
           The Thais do not learn history so they can not summarize lessons which learned from history. Although most Thai people still love to stand up to respect when they hear the national anthem and fell angry at Burma when they see the film Legend of King Naresuan it was a patriot for a while- not permanent. The patriots as the following are also very dangerous. Increasing the size of patriot until they become nationalism causes Thai people is safe. Because it is immune to Thais.
          Homes that people live with feeling safe has to have a solid fence so the Thai people to maintain independence, the Thai people need to learn Thai history likewise, it is patriotism and nationalism.
          On the other hand, the Thais do not learn Thai history. It is not the patriotism and nationalism causing the loss of economic independence.
Washington consensus caused large power.
          Argentina was the victim of "Washington consensus" without knowing it. The leader of the country committed liberalization in all aspects because of being selfish of him. He changed state enterprises into private enterprises. State enterprises were privatized in the stock exchange. He allowed foreign retailers came into retail trade freely. It appears that 300 Carrefour are in the country. It seized retailers in Argentina. Argentine collapsed because of liberalization.
           For privatization, People who are in governments and executives of government enterprises are benefiting from the privatization. Mr. Amarin Corman has said about this issue in the meeting of the Senate in 2549.There were over 200 people who were invited to listen to him, including the teacher from TDRI, senior officials from the Ministry of Finance, journalists, many famous teachers, representatives, senators, state employees and the public. Mr. Amarin has asked the audience at the conference. "Can you tell me that are there any countries which are privatization, then government officials and some people do not get huge benefit. People do not have suffered and the company do not fall into foreign hands. "
          When you look back to see the privatization of PTT, everyone will understand what happened.

          Thailand was also trapped in "Washington consensus". It was launched in an era of financial liberalization in 2533 in Gen. Chatichai Choonhavan as prime minister. The financial crisis happened in 2540 in the General Chavalit as prime minister. In November 2540, the General Chavalit resigned, then Mr. Chuan Leekpai became prime minister. After the General Chavalit has led Thailand to the IMF since August 2540, Prime Minister Chuan was a prime minister that gained through suffering because he must solve the economic crisis.
          In 2542, the government of Mr. Chuan Leekpai and the Minister for Finance was Mr. Tarin Nimmanhaemin had 11 treason laws. These laws were suggested by IMF. Thailand must be free trade". It was too free trade until Thailand lose economic independence to foreigners. It is noted that that the U.S. government issued. "Washington consensus" in 2532 affects the people of each country.

          Who get and lose the benefits from Washington consensus?
          Countries which get benefits are Japan, China, Korea, Singapore and India. These countries gain huge foreign trade because of free trade.
          The countries which lose benefits are Argentina, Mexico, Thailand and the United States.
          China has benefited enormously. They can manufacture and produce agricultural products to hit the market around the world because of low wages. They hit the market in America until products of America cannot be sold. The Free trade causes the Chinese have capital with massive dollar reserves in the world.
          Japan and Korea also has benefited enormously. They can produced a very useful industrial products sold in worldwide. Cars from Japan and Korea are cheaper than those produced in America. Americans have turned to buying a car from Japan and Korea because it was cheaper and use less oil. Sales of GM's automotive companies, Ford and Chrysler fall.
          Singapore has a fund of National- Temasek Holdings and the GIC. They investment in worldwide. 2 Division of Finance has been acquired in Thailand such as the purchase of Shin Corp shares, owned commercial banks. and shares on the Stock Exchange. Singapore is a very rich country. They buy everything that are profits. Singaporean have skill of selling because of the Singapore government's policy to speak 3 languages.
          India has the advantage because most Indians speak English and the wages are cheap. The foreign company turned to invest in manufacturing goods in India for export. Indian have more income. Big companies in the United States changed its manufacturing base to India.
           Argentina loses benefits from the Washington consensus because of the liberalization of everything until the national economic collapse.
           Mexico liberalizes until the economy fall into foreign hands. Many Mexican people are unemployed. They have to sneak into America to find work. Mexico economy almost collapses.
          Thailand also loses benefits because of financial liberalization. It causes a crisis, "Tom Yum Goong". Retail trade of the multinational occupation seizes Thai economy by approximately 60%.

          The liberalization of trade affects the retailer of multinational occupation like TESCO Lotus in England, Carre four and Big C of France, Makro of the Netherlands and 7-ELEVEN of the U.S. occupation with CP seize the Thai economy. The Thai government is not doing anything to help the shop of Thai people. The government just claimed that it is free trade. If Thailand lose economic independence because of free trade, do not free it.
          Mr. Amarin Corman said that the country which the government's patriotic and love people would keep right for the people like Israel and Norway. There are not any multinational retail stores in their countries. In Italy, multinational retail stores retailers must be located far the city. For example in Rome, multinational retail stores must be located 30 kilometres from the city. Then why the Thai government does not do as Israel, Norway or Italy in order to protect the Thai people.
           If the foreign retailers are in Japan or Korea, it must have ruined because the two nations are a patriot and a nationalist. In fact, the Thai people's patriotism, but a lack of patriotism. Teaching history for Thai people must focus on nationalism to protect the independence of Thailand.
          For stability of the economy, the author would like to serve as a compass in the lifestyle of the Thai people to patriotism and nationalism as " Eat Thai food, Use Thai products, subsidies Thais retail stores, travel in Thailand, For Grow up of Thailand. "
          United States which issued the policy. Washington consensus" loses benefits from this consensus. How is it possible if they are the country creating their own trade rules?
          The Washington consensus began in 2532 by leaders in the United States and the big capitalists who have influence over the leaders thought that America is the most powerful country in military and economy. Which country would dare to interfere? However they do not realize that America also needs to be liberalization.
           Within 20 years, it appears that the USA is the vast amount of unfavorable balance of trade to China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.The products from these countries are cheaper. They seize America market until products sold in the United States less. They are out of business until the American people are unemployment. And it is a part that caused the U.S. economic crisis seriously.
          U.S. economic face with crisis in 2551 and the most crises and the big companies in the U.S. business has losses. Some companies are reducing the production. All unemployed people have to remove some workers. Many Americans lost their jobs.
           Lehman Brothers is the company that lends real estate. They could not take money back from debtors so they have much debt. The company almost went bankrupt. The government had to rescue by giving money to them.
          Obama knew that the liberalization causes the U.S. economy to collapse so he wants to discourage liberalization any more. The Thai's have some lessons from financial liberalization. Whats about Thailand? Thailand was forced to liberalize trade. It affects retailers fall. The economy is in the hands of foreigners. The government has also refused to do even the grocery store.(Retailers),shout and cry. Is this a Buddhist country? How can the government stand?

           Where are all governments that came to solve the suffering of the people?
          Privatization in Thai Rak Thai government, Privatization has been publicly traded. They sale state enterprises to private. Thai and foreigner can buy. The privatization of state enterprises that are the privatization are International Petroleum, Thai Airline, TOT,CAT, maritime, MCOT and Laem Chabang port, etc..
          Privatization of PTT, PTT profits for shareholders. Especially the opening day, many people look forward to the Bank of Thailand to book PTT shares since 5 a.m. at a bank. When it's time for booking, it was sold out within 1 minute 37 seconds. The reporters presented the news that there is the one who is a relative of the Minister can book 7 million shares. The share prices of 35 baht per share. Currently the share price becomes around 200 baht. People who bought shares at a price of 35 baht, it would have been resold for huge profits. The PTT privatization causes oil prices rise due to higher profits for shareholders- not for consumers.
          Privatization of PTT is like selling property of the country because it used to be people. After selling, it makes large benefits to shareowners. For the purpose of purchasing shares on the stock to the list, it appears that there are 15 family of the government that owned company.
          Privatization of Thai Airways International, It is an honor of Thai people but they remove public property into private markets to seek benefits. The pride of Thai people is gone. The slogan of Airlines that serve. "love you as much as the sky" most Thai people are very passive with such slogans.
          Privatization is reasonably possible. State enterprises providing public services such as electricity, plumbing fixtures, train and PTT should not be privatization. State enterprises which are the honor of Thai people such as Thai Airway and Maritime are not suitable to be privatization. Even state enterprises which control information such as Thai Com satellite should be controlled by security department.
          The state is a burden to the government and not about security as a given- MCOT is reasonable to privatization. The process deserves to private management.

          Legislation for foreigners to be land ownership
          Thaksin had an idea to allow foreigners be able to occupy the land in Thailand. He issued the law called special economy. It means foreigners can rent the land then pay fee to the state. Not long ago, a group of Arabs came to look at the Suphan Buri to rent a farm but farmers anti them. They do not allow t foreigners to hire to do. The farmers claimed that Thailand needed to do. If allowed foreigners hire to do, they would give farmers a higher price to rent. Farmers are not farmers any more.
          The legislation allows foreign ownership of land should be repealed because here in Thailand. Thailand's ancestors lose blood to save the land. They save the land for their children- not to foreigners or some Thai people who want to make benefits.