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觢ͧԹ͡¡اظ
觢ͧԹ͡¡اظ
Ԫҵ ó

           ѧ繷Һѹ ;ͧ 稾ҸԺշ çʶһҡاظҪҹ .. dzҺ͹ҧͧҾ ҧҾҧѰʵͷӹµ͡ҧҹŧͧ Ҩ㹴ҹͧҾԹҡȷ仴½ҡ Ҿͧ駫觻Сͺ仴 ͺ Ҿ ӻѡ ž öҳҧ§ ͡ػ л١ ª鹷ҧҤ ʹسҾͧԹشٳ ͧҡõС͹ͧŹѧĴٹҡ ͡л١ 繰ҹͧѺҧɰԨѹӤѭ ¼ѡѹاظҾѲҵͧҳҨѡ÷դ蹤㹷ҧͧö§ͧ㹷ҧɰԨ ѧդӡǢͧҳѵԹ;ٴ֧ԭͧͧҳҨѡ ѡ¾Ҵԧ֧ ͤ駺ҹͧՔ 觡¶֧ اйظҔ ͧ

           駹ҾԨóҧͧ ѹԭͧ Ф蹤ͧҳҨѡظҵʹ 觡Ҫҹ¹鹻Ѩ·ӤѭشС˹ ǹѡѹҳҨѡظѲҡõͧ ѰվѧӹҨ㹷ҧͧСɰԨ зöҳࢵҧҧҧ ͡ԭ͡ҧҹŻѲ繨 ÷اظҴԹҷ㹰ҹзͧҳԪ¡ лСͺäҢӤѭ ੾ҧǹҴ¡äҡѺҧ 觹Ѻ繡ԨѡҺӹǹѰҪӹѡ èС Թ͡Ӥѭ˹觷繵ǡ˹ԭ觤觢ͧاظ 繨 ͧҔ ԵŵҵԷҡҔ ѹ繻Ӥѭͧʹ ѡɳТͧз͹·ʹ繶֧ͧСͺҧ ǹ֧ͧäҢͧ͡ çҧ ٻẺ Ըա ʹҧ

ѡɳ·仢ͧä¡اظ
           اظҳҨѡ÷դشٳ仴¾תѹѭ ӹ¼դԭͧ㹴ҹäҢµ仴 ѧҡѡҹաäҢ·¹͡ᾧй ԹҷռԵйҫ͢¡ѹ鹡ҡªԴ âͧʴ ͧػ ԹҷǵҧȹҨ˹ Թҷ͢¡ѹ͡ҡ ѡ ҹ ҹҪԴ ѧԹ 繵 ҡ §ѺǪҤ ١ ͧС ¢ ᴧ о è ͧû պ ҧ ͧ٪ž ҹ¹ҡ ͵й ᢡ ͧѧѳ ѹеѺԴҧ ͧͧٻó ͧ ͧҡ Թ ͧ ͧ ͧͧ С ҪԴҧ 駴 ʹҾ ҹ ͺ лٻԧ ١ ͹ ͼó اԴ ѡ Թ͢ Թʹ Żҹ ТǴ ͧѡҹ ͧҧ ͡ԧ ͷͧͧͺ ͧѹѺ ͧ ͧ ͧѡԧ һ Ҩǹҧ ᢡ ѵ Ѵ ͧҷ駻ǧ

           ҡͤǢҧ鹹 ʴ ҾҧҹɰԨ ¡اظ ѡɳ кɰԨẺ§ͧ (Self Sufficient Economy) Ǥ ЪҪǹ˭СͺҪվҧɵáաл١ѡӤѭ աüԵ觢ͧҧ ͧ 駷ҧҹػк Ҵ ٹҧ㹡õԴͤҢ ӹѹҴ ١Ҵ ӹѹҴ ҡêԴ˹ յҴ Ф㹵Ҵѵҷ˹ ҡӹѹҴԹԡѴѵҡж١ŧ к㹾¡Ҫǧ ŧɷ´ 任ШҹͺҴ Ҩ ѹ ׹«觡ӹѹҴԹ١ҴǨ֧

ä
           ҡ˹ѧͻѵʵҵҡͧ ҪҳҨѡͧ ùҶ֧ Ҿä㹡اظ 㨤 ˭ ҹͧҧҧ ʶҹ˭Դ繵Ҵ ҴҹԴءѹ شٳ仴» աѹҡ ͢¡ѹ Ҫѹѹҡ ˹蹨ҧԹáҹ ա͹˹觡 ɮǹ˭ӡä ҧͺǤҢ·ҧ кصŧ˭ ᷺ѹ鹺 ҧͺͧ ӡäһաҡԹҷѺԹºҹͧ öѴҧ˹价ҧͧҡҡԹͧ ҹͨ 㹻ȷԹҡӹ¶֧ҹ ա褹ؾҾФҹ ͧͷҹҡԹ

           ͡ҡ Ƕ֧ ҴӔ ¡اظ 㹺dzӺ˭ յҴ¹ ÷ء ʴ лҢ

           Ѻ͡ǧ âعǧѴдç Ƕ֧ ӷͧҡͺاйظ ɮӢͧҧ Ң лСͺäҢµҧ ѹҹ 繵Ӻҡ 繵

                     ҹ ʡѴѹ ѹ١ ѹç ѹ

                     ҹҹ ͢ᡧ з Ңá ͧ Թ

                     ҹҹѴ ѹ йͺ ٻ ٻд

                     ҹҹ 鹡жҧԹ ⶹԹ Фѹԧ ٻҧ ٻ ꡵

           зͺاյҴͧ繵Ҵ˭ Ҵ ҴǹҧШ ˹ Ѵѭԧ Ҵҡͧ٨ Ҵҡͧͧ ҴҡͧѴ ǹdz͡ᾧй ҹйЪҹᾧا յҴ Ҵ Ҵ˹Ѵä Ҵһԧӹ ҴͨҧѴҪ ˹Һҹõ Ҵѧ֡ҧѹ ҴѴԧ˹ҵ֡ յҴҹ Ӻ Ҵͧʴ Ӻ 繵Ҵ֧ Ӻ

           ֧Ҩ· ä㹢ͧاظҹ ٹҧä Ӥͧ ѭҡ ԹҨҡͧҧ ١§ ѧͧǧ ᨡѧ觵ҴӤѭժ§ҡ ҴʹҪǴǶ֧˵ءóԧҴʹ Դԧ㹾й ҡŧ件֧ҪѧµҴʹ ͺ١ԧ仵ŧŧᡧ ŧ仵ͧҵͧç ѹ֧Ѻ պҭ͹ҡخվ , ͹

           ҡѡҹ ͧҧ ¡اظ աäҢ¼ԵԹҫ觼Եͧ㹷ͧ蹢ͧ Թҷ˹Ң鹵ҡ繨 ͧҵҧ ҹ ѵ ˹ѧѵ ҵصҧ 觷觹ҾȢͧҹͧ § ͧդشٳ ˭ͧתѹѭԹҷǡͧҢѧاظҹѡ繼ԵžͧҡٻͧѾҡøҵԷҡ ͧ ѧҡ 㹤âعǧѴдç աáǶ֧ ÷ ͧɳš÷ء ٺ ǡͭ÷ءо ͢ŧҢ ǹҧͧ ž ͧԹ ͧ ͧԧ ͧä ͧؾó Ң͡÷ء ͤҷҧͧҡ ͧྪúó ÷ء ҹ ҧ 硹Ӿ ѹ ѹҧ ٺ ѵ ˹ѧѵ ʹ˹ͧ Ҩʹµǻҡͧ ͡ҡѧ١ҢǷ ԹҨӾǡŧ µо ٷ лҷŷʴҧ Ҩ˹ ǹǡͧྪúաӡлԹӻ ҧԴҧ Ң ˹ҹӾǡҧͧҧ к÷ءԹҢͧŧҢ繨ӹǹҡ й͡ҡͤҨк÷ءԹҢͧҷҧ ҡѧվǡ÷ءʹҷҧº÷ء¹ҨҡҧҤҹ ͹ ͹ ¹ҡͧҪоекͧ ÷ءԹ繵 ѡ ա ҪԴҧ ҹ ҹ ͧ ҧ Ҩʹѡҹ¹ ˭ ѧ 繷ѡͧǡͤ¹١

           äǹ˭¡اظ շѡɳТͧš¹Թҡѹµç (Barter System) СԹͧ㹡š¹ ҧá кͧë͢ѧӡѹẺ ӤͧеҴ ҹռ餹ѭҹ¢ͧ Թǹ˹觷ҫ͢š¹ѹ¹ 繼żԵͨҡػ㹤͹ ԵйҢѧҴͧǧ š¹ѺԹҧ ·ѧաõҧҹ˭á ССͺä㹻ȷӤѭӡѴ੾Ǵǧͧҡѵ ҹ ʹҺ Сչҹ

äҡѺҧ

           اظҵ㹷ѹ ҧ鹷ҧäԹ¡Ѻչ öԴ͡Ѻͧҵҧ § Ѵ пԻԹ дǡ ͡ҡѧշաͧ Թҵҧҵ繻Ш ͷͧй Դ ѹ繷Ѻ觤Ң·ҧŢͧԹ ǹҧҹ¡շͷͧʧ ոҪ ͧҧ͡ 觷ԹҡҾ СͺѺ㹪ǧȵɷ ҷԴա¹ŧӤѭ »С µѹ͡§ 觨ռšзµç͡äҢͧҡѺҧ ¡اظ 繵 ÷ǨչѰŨչ պҷ駷ҧҹäСͧҤµѹ͡§ҡ 繼աõ駶蹰ҹͧǨչҤ蹡ѹ д¤ͧٷҧä 繷ҧͧ çҧͧЪҡ㹻ȨչͧѰŨչ֧ӤѭԹͷҡ觢鹼š þѲԹطëöдաͷءԴ šѹ͡й Ǥç Թҧ÷ء٧ ͧ¤ Ҩҧ١͹¡ ŨҡþѲҨչͧ äԹһҤҶ١Թҧ÷ء٧ ӾǡԹһ ҧ ͧªҧҺ ö 㹢ǡѹ ˹ҷҧ෤ԤԷҡԹͧ͢չ 繼ͧ§ѹ㹡äҷҧŴŧ СͺѺҾͧäµѹ͡§ ȵɷ ҡԴͧҧҧӹҨ㹪ͧ᤺С ͧҡҳҨѡѪԵ¢ԷԾ㹪ͧ᤺ ѧӹҨ ԴѴ鹪ء ҧáҶ֧ǧȵɷ Ҿ蹻ǹصŧ ӹҨԴ С ¡äҹҹҪҵҧ觤Ѻͧ СҨ֧繵ҴٹҧäҢ˭ҧǴ ͤҾҳԪ¨ҡԹᴹҧ Ҫ͢¡ѹªҵ Թ÷šԹҢͧ Թٻ ͧͧСҷԹҨҡҧѹҵѹ͡Шҡѹ͡仵ѹ ҫ͢¶෡ѹ СٹҧäСاظ繷ҧҹ ѧҡ ҨչС͡ѺҡСҡѡзاظ й鹶֧СҨ¶١Ѻ ͧµҧդ١ѹ͡ѹҧС ѡɳТͧäҧȷӹ觼Żªѹ ¾ͤҪǨչᢡ繤ҧ ˹ҷ㹡õԴͤҢ Թҷ鹪ͪҡشҧ˹觢ͧС ͧ ͧع 繷͹ǹ˹觡ͧҨҡ ͧҔ Թ͡仨ҡاظҧͧʧ

           ͡ҡ ÷اظöçҷͧͧ ٹҧäҢͧҷӤѭ ظբº»С˹ͧ ͡ҡѨͧ ͻѨ·ҧҾʵ ѧբºӤѭС ա 觾ͨػѧ

           . ͡ҡ÷ظ繻ҡҧ觻Ъҡèӹǹ 㹷ҧ˹ ظѧٹҧͧͧҷҧҧҡ㹷ҧա 繵 ͧ ͧй ͧոҪ ͧʧ ͧѹ㹢ǡѹ ͧ㹷ҧ˹ 鹷ҧҹͧ§ ͧҔ ҡ ͭ § Ҩǧкҧ Ѻ٪ ǹͧҷҧ觡Шµ駷ҧ觵ѹеѹͧ͡Һط 觻СͺäҢͧ ǺԹҨӾǡͧ ԹҨҡԹ ֧ѹ͡ҧһ͹ظ 㹢ǡѹ·˹ҷкԹҢͧԹҨҡչ㹡اظ Ҵšա

           . اظҢͧͧ 觷繷еͧҢͧͤҵҧҵչŧ 㹢ǡѹظҡԹҾͧТͧҾ觾ͧҡͺ¢ͧͧ аҹТͧظҷٹҧäҨ֧ͤҵҧҵѡҨʹ ҵҧҵҨʹҡ ԹҢͧҨҡاظ ѺкҴŴҡҵ

           . اظҼ١ѹͧѺäҡѺչҧ˹ 㹴ҹѰ ظͧµѹ͡§ͧҪóҡѧҪӹѡ ҡ駷ش㹴ҹ͡ظԷͤҨչ˹;ͤҪҵ աùԹҶ١ ´ǹйҡǵ㹻繷Ҵ¡äҡѺչ

           ѧ繷Шѡ蹪Ѵ áչ 蹴Թͧ з觶֧ 稾кҪҸҪ (..- ..) ·ѧաõԴͤҢ¡Ѻȷҧѹ ǹ˭ѡɳТͧ令Ң¡Ѻչᢡ ¹鹡ᢡ Թ Ѻ ᢡ ҤҢ

           ҡѡɳоҹ ͡ .. ¾ͧ ͹˹ С˹ 㹤ط ҷѹ ͹͹繾ҹ С˹觪 ǡѹҷѹ ǡѹ繾ҹ

           ѡɳѡ ͡㹾.. ǡѹҵ˹ ѴҢҤҹȵҧͧŧҡ Թҧ 觤ȵҧͧ Ѻ»С㴾ԨóѨ ҹҼ¹”

           ѧ ֧Ҩ ѡɳеҧ ͡¾ͧ ͧ׹ѹ äҳ ¡اظҵ͹ ѧաäҡѹ Фԭͧҡ ѧҡ վͤҵҧҡ˹µ Ѻá աѺҧǹ˭繡ҤҢ¡Ѻͧչ ͧᢡ ͧ ͧ ʹ Թ ѧ Ҷ֧ѹҹоǡҹͧǡ礧պҧ

           ͨҡ稾ҸԺշ (ͧ) äҢ¡Ѻҧȡ礧ԭͧӴѺ ҡ稾йԹҸҪ 觤ͧҪҧ .. ʴ件֧ͧչ ͹ͧҪʹҤҢ¡Ѻاظҡ äҢ¡Ѻչ礧ԭҵ

           ѺҧҹͧäҡѺ෵ѹբ稾ҸԺշ (..-..)·õ繪ҵáҵԴͤҢ¡Ѻ .. ½觪ҵԵҧ ¡ѹҤҢ¡Ѻاظ ѧҡ ѹѹ .. ѧ .. ഹä .. ЪǵҧȤ㹻ҡзա·Ǣͧѡɳд¡ѹ 㹡¾¡Ҫǧ ҡͤ͹˹ ҵ˹ ᢡ ǹ Ƚ ѧ չ ѹ ѭ ⾸á ҤҢ·ҧҧ͡ ǾзôҹҾѡҹǨҴٴͧʵطͺѡ͢ ɳҴպء ١ҵͧ㴺͡边ѡҹ ҵҧ١Ҩҵ价ҧ ҵҡ 龹ѡҹǨҴ觢ͧͧ 餹ͺѡ͹仹鹶ҾѡҹԹ١ҾҹԪҼ餹蹴Թ 觢ͧͧ ҹ ҾѡҹǴҹ͹ŧ ʶҹ ǹ١ҹŧɴ ѡêǴҹ㨴ŧɶ֧”

           äҡѺҧ ԭ֧ͧմشѪ稾й³ (..-.. ) اظӡäҢͧҡѺȵҧ 駷ҧѹ͡еѹѧҡ .. 觷ٵ͡ԭҧҪաѺҹ繤á ǹäҢ¡ѺչѧԹ仵 蹴Թç觷ٵԭѹաѺչ .. ,,,, Ѻ͹حҵӡäҢԹ 㴡㹻Ȩչ Ѻдǡ㹡äҢͧ

           稾й³ äҢͧҡѺѹ ѧ н µǡҧҧ ѷʵ Թ¢ͧѧ繶֧ ӤѭͧäҡѺاظ ԹҢͧҷդ ԹҢ͡ҧ ҷ ɳ ҧ պء Ҫҧ ҡ С ѧԹҨҡչԹ´ ǡѹѺҵ駤ѧԹ㹻 .. Ѱõ͹Ѻҧ ԷԾ㹡äҢ 繻ªѺ㹡õԴ͡Ѻʷ駷ҧҹäѧç㹢й 駹лҡ 㹵͹Ѫ稾й³ ŻªҧҹäҢͧǹ˭ ͧ͢ѹ ѺԷԾ㹡ë˹ѧѵ ҵ¾ҷç .. Ҷ֧蹴Թ稾й³äҢͧѹŧ ѺâѴҧҡŤ͹֧йѹҡѧӡäҢ¡Ѻµʹ ТԹһШӷѷҫͨҡاظ 仨˹µѧ

           ͡ҡѧ ѹ ҡѧվͤҪҵ ੾ᶺ ҫԹҢͧԹҾͧҡ 繵

           й ԹһҨҡ Ҫҧ ҹ §

           ͧ ҵ ջҡ㹨ѹͧѧѺûૹͪ ͧԻе §ҹ ӻǧ蹴Թ稾й³ ÷ءͧᴧ պء ͧͧͧ ͧ ԡ ҹ ͧ͹зͧᨹ

           ͧҹ 㹻ҹ ҧ仢

           ͧԻе ҧວ觪ҧҡͧԴ仢

           ͹ ѺѪžྷҪ繵 (..-..) äҢͧҡѺȵѹдѺҡ ͧҡྷҪçվҪʧ еԴǡѺǵѹ СͺѺѪŹԴͧոҪ ͧҪ ѰŵͧһҺ ͡ʷӹغاäҢͧ äҡѺҧŧ ҧá ͽӹҨŧѹҡѺպҷӤѭա˹ .. ѹѭҡѺ 㨤͹Ѻҷ 稾й³ 稾ྪ () .. -.. ʴʧͤҽҤҢա ԹըԷԾɵҧ 繤Ӥѭ Ҿäͧ¢йǧҡ 㹾.. ǧ໹ШӿԻԹ觤зٵԭҧշҧäҡѺ 稾ǷӤŧͧäҢͧ Ǥ ໹Թһءҧ ͡ҡԹЧҪҧ 繢ͧФѧԹ ǹ˹ѧ ˹ѧҧ պء鹫 ԹҼ١Ҵͧѹ ǧͧ·ҤҢ ͧҡ÷駢Т͡ ҧá ѧҡʹѭ ҡ ·令Ң·اйѺ͹͹ ҡҡáзӢͧ໹ äҡѺ໹ԡҧѹ㹵͹Ѫ

           Ҫǧҹǧ äҢͧҡѺҧ ŧҡҡ ѧҡ㹨˵آͧͫͳ ֧ ŧѹ ѹ¹ .. ҾդҴҡ 繺ҹͧǧŧҡ ǾҪҳҨѡͧҹ͹Ѻͧͤ շǧ ҷǡ繤á ҹԹҨӹǹҡ ҤҢµ͹ǔ

º¡äҢͧ¡اظ
           Ҩ к١Ҵ ¾ФѧԹ 繹º㹡äҢͧҷӤѭͧ ԸշѰöҤǺԨäҵҧҧԴ 繡ûͧѹͤҪҵ㴪ҵ˹ ٹԷԾŷҧäҢͧҡҨѹµʶҾҧͧɰԨͧ 㹢ǡѹ к١ҴͧФѧԹѧ᡻ѹҡ йѺӤѭ мŻªͧ蹴Թҡҡ㹻Ȼ繨ӹǹҡѡ ˵طɰԨͧظ ɰԨẺ” Ҫٵѹ֡ äҵҧȹ鹼١Ҵ繢ͧҡѵ᷺ͧ ä㹺ҹͧҡ㴹ѡ ᷺С 繡ش·èоҡþ¡ɰմ¡äҢ

           ҧá ôԹҹ١ҴͧФѧԹ Ըաôѧǹ Դдǡ㹡ä»Сô¡ѹ ;ͤҵҧҵԹԹͧ Фѧ͡Թҷͧ͹ Ҥͧ㨪ͺ ҪԹԹ ҧ駡Թҧҧš¹᷹ Թǹ˭繨 ͧҔ й͡ҡü١Ҵä繢ͧǧ ѧ繪ͧҧԴéɮѧǧ§ ҢعҧҪ÷Ǣͧ黯Ժѵ˹ҷҧبԵ

           ¡اظ ҡäҡѺҧȨк١Ҵ ѰšԹշФҢ¡Ѻͤҷءҵ äҢͧ ԸաԷԾͤ ͪѡ٧Դʹ㨷ФҢ¡Ѻ ѧ Ѫžҷç ·ѰԹºäҢͧҡѺҧҧԧѧ ˹ѧѭҷҧþҳԪѺѹ繤á .. ԷԾѹ㹡ë˹ѧѵҡ¹͡ҡ蹴Թ稾й³ зѹԷԾŷҧä٧ش¹ 稾й³çѡ٧ͤҵѹҵ ҤҢ¡ѺͶǧԷԾŷҧäҢͧѹ ѧ ͧçѡǹѧҤҢ¡ѺеʶҹաäҢ鹷اظդ˹ ʹͨԷԾɵҧ ʹ¡鹡šҡ ǡѺ¡ѹ çѡǹѷʵԹ¢ͧҤҢ¡Ѻµ˹ѧѭ .. ԹҢͧءҧͧ龹ѡҹͧФѧԹҢͧ ͧ ӡѺѰѹ ѹҤ .. ѧ͹ѭҷҧäҷѰ͹حҵѷҢҧ ѧԷԾɷҧäҺҧҧѷա

           ÷ѰԷԾͤҵҧ 繡ʹͧº¡äҷͧͤҪҵԵҧ ҵԴͤҢ¡Ѻ ѹ繼äҢͧԹ͡µԭͧ ҧá ԸաôѧǡԴ繸ͤҵҧҵ ˵ͤҷѺԷԾ ѺŻªѹ Դ֡з駡ѹͧ ҧ óշѧѹ㹻Դõѹͧѵҹ;.. ͡÷ͤõ ͤѹѺԷԾ ֧Դ÷ҷѹ㹾.. ͧͤ͢ѹ ١ִ㹹ҹѰµͧ кѧѺõʤ׹ѹ ˵ءóԴ鹹 ѰµͧʺѭҡҡóվԾҷͧͤҪ ҧ ׺ͧҨҡ÷Ѱ Թº¡äҷҤͤҷѺŻªԴ˹ ͧҡä÷ҷ кôҾͤͧͧʺҡ㹡ûСͺä ¼ҹФѧԹ»С

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Transport of forest products to be released in the Ayutthaya period
Parichart Wilawan


           As is well known already, Phrachao U-Thong or King Rama 1 established Ayutthaya in 1893 at the lower plain of the Chao Phraya River. Geopolitical environment is conducive to create the city. it is on the side of the weather that's wet with rain from the monsoon. The location consists of three rivers and surrounded by the Chao Phraya River, the Pa Sak and Lopburi River which can provide enough water for consumption, growing and use as transportation routes. The quality of the soil is rich due to sedimentation of mud after the flood season. It is suitable for rice cultivation. This is important economic bases which help developing the kingdom of Ayutthaya until they are stable in political and be economic self-sufficiency. It is said that the ancient people in the period when they talk about the prosperity of the kingdom. It is often said Once a country was good" where it refers to "City of Ayutthaya" .

           However, if you consider it fully, you can see that the factor that made the prosperity and security of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya during the Thai capital for 417 years which encouraged Ayutthaya and having power in political and economy until they can expand the area widely and gather the growth of arts and culture is Ayutthaya operates as a commercial city , particularly in respect of that trade with foreign countries. This is the main event that makes income to the government and royal court. And it deserves to be mentioned that the major product which determines the prosperity of Ayutthaya is forest products or natural products derived from forests. It will be an importantl point of the offer in the nature of selling forest product as the export products.

The nature of the trade in the Ayutthaya period

           It is said that the kingdom of Ayutthaya is rich of vegetation and cereal. The result is a thriving center of commerce as well. The evidence showed that trade occurred inside and outside the city walls. Goods which produced and traded have been taken so many different kinds including fresh food, consumer goods and goods imported from foreign suppliers. Besides rice, vegetables, fish food and various fruit, there are also other products such as betel to wrapped for ordained, lead, cotton, white and red thread, coconut, instrument, chest, elephants and horse to sacrifice shrine, Tanao mat, religious supplies, bowl and cartridge types, the gold, silver, spices, pharmaceutical herbs, fabric type-both good and bad, as well as printed fabric, silk, knife, ax, pillows, bags, white and black pencil, nets, hooks, hemp and wire basketry, the firework and alcohol, mercury, brass plated, candy, tools, a textile, and fan.

           From that mentioned above, it shows that a General economic condition in the Ayutthaya period was a "self-sufficiency economy". The most people do for living with the cultivation of rice. And people produced materials to deman both consumers with a "market" as a center for trade and the "village market" will keep the money. The village market is the one who Tax-auction market. If the village market is taxed at the rate set out in the market, the overload will be punished. The prosecutor stated in his royal wrath that he will be punished with wooden for 15 times and then go to the market. Then he will be held with the beam for 3 days and then to return the excess contributions to the market then put it away.

Internal Trade

           From the natural history of the city of the Kingdom of Siam of Nilar Shareware, It has provided the conditions for trade within the Ayutthaya that "On the major roads, filled with shops both sides. And there are many large open markets. There are markets all morning and evening. The market is rich with fish, eggs, fruits and many other things. People gather at the many weird time to walk through a dense impenetrable "and another one said" most of people invest the trade. Some family with his wife and children are with water trading. There is no time to stay on the land, some family is in town, and they retail sales of goods which are purchased from the ship. People make a living following their skills. There is only unfortunate man who does not earn enough to pay. There are only people with disabilities and those penalties to beg.

           In addition, he mentioned "floating" in the Ayutthaya period. It said "In the vicinity of a large district, there were floating markets, a small boat over a hundred ships carrying rice, fruit, and fresh fish for sale.

           In addition, he mentioned "floating" in the Ayutthaya period, it said. "In the vicinity of a large district. The floating market is a small boat over a hundred ships carrying rice, fruit, fresh fish and Plaehea sale.

           For the Royal Observatory, Khun Luang at Wat Pradoocongtam Temple said that On the bank of two sides of the river in Ayutthaya, people sell many things.



The district of Sampani extracted sesame, Krabao, Samrong and bean oil.

The district of Ban Mor made pottery such as pan, oven, fireplace and soil bar.

The district of Ban Rim Wat Phrao produced powder, oil, Krachae Ngmab, Krachae incense and paper incense.

The district of Ban Konti made clay pots, light vehicles, fire atation and sculpture elephants, horses and dolls form.



           The river surrounding the city has 4 huge floating markets. These are Namwonbangkaja in front of Phanancherng Temple, Pakklongklujam, Pakklongklumairong and Pakklongwatderm markets. The outside walls of the city. the suburban of the city has a total of 30 land markets such as Lao market over Kohasawan Temple, Paplacherngtamnobor, Tarruachangwatnangchi which was in front of The house of Portuguese, Langtuekhangwilanda, and Watsing markets- infront of the building of Japanese. There were 21 groceries, 40 fresh morning markets. A total is 61 districts.

           It can be said generally that commercial center of Ayutthaya's internal trade was located along the banks. There were many boats.

           Products are transported to the capital and distributed to other markets which are very famous that is Yod market. in the royal chronicles mention that in the event of fire. "Fire in the city but at the end of the market's defense down to the palace. Fire spread to the Patong for three days, fire burnt 100 050 sanctuaries.

           According to the evidence, In cities in the Ayutthaya period, there are commercial products and products which are manufactured within their locality. The famous products are goods from the forests such as incense, meat, leather and minerals. All of this depends on the location and climate of the country such as Chiang Mai- a city which is rich and a great source of plant foods that are sold to the cities. Ayutthaya had products which are usually in the form of local produce from local natural resources as shown in the notice of Khunluang of Wat Pradu Temple. It is said that the citizens of Pissanuloke carry cane and tobacco. Mon carry coconut, Samae wood and white salt salt for sale. Angthong, Lop Buri, Muang In, Muang Phrom, Muang Sing, Muang San and Muang Supan carry rice. Merchants from Muang Tak and Muang Pechaboon carry iron, steel, shrimp tail, Lek Nam Phi, the horns, leather, tobacco, sesame seeds and bulbs for sale by boat. In addition, it also has a white boat marine carry mussels, oysters, Taphong horseshoe crabs, grilled and fresh fish and seafood sold in the city. Muang Pechaburi carries the shrimp paste, fish sauce and grilled fish of various kinds. The ship will carry many goods to sell. Besides, the merchants carrying their goods by water, there were also the merchants who carry their goods with carts on the land from the South- East. In 3rd months and 4th months, the carts from Nakhonrachasima and Pratabong will carry cargo such as water, wax, wing, fabric, meat, dried wax and incense and then stay at Ban SalaKwian. There are two big halls for the rest of merchants and customers.

           It was said that the majority of trade in Ayutthaya era is a Barter System and used money as a tool to exchange goods. However, the system of trading is still done in a simple way at the rivers and the market. This is an area where people roam around. Goods that were exchanged in those days were the rest of the production and consumption within the household. The production will be sold in the capital markets in order to share with another. It does not have a large store in the early stages. traders in the country that they are limited in the sphere of the king, chancellor and the Chinese people only.

Trading with foreign countries

          Ayutthaya situated on the location which has suitable site for trading. On the trading routes with India and China, it can comfortably contact with the neighbor countries such as Malayu, Java, Bernie, Atjea and Philippine. Further, there were many ports in Thailand in which the product ships of foreign countries stopped such as Tanaosri, Marid and Phuket port. They were close to the sea which was trading center of Kolomodel of India. In the gulf of Thailand, There was the port at Songkla, Nakorn Si Thammarat and Bangkok which is the products center near the estuary of Chao Phraya River. During 14th 15thcentury, it had many important changes. The Southeast Asia has been directly affected the product of the forest trading with foreigners in the period of Ayutthaya. Chinese and China government has played the important role in trading and political in Southeast Asia more. This caused higher settle of Chinese in Southeast Asia and due to the booming of trading, the need of political and population structure in China, China government paid more attention in sailing on the sea. As the result, the junk which had capability more than others used in the west for product transporting has been developed. The result of junk development caused the products which were cheap but high cost of tonnage like products of forest such as Phang wood, shellac, and pottery can be made in the long distance. In the same time, the progress of sailing technology of China such as compass using, lower the dangerous risk of trading. Moreover, trading of Southeast Asia in 14th century had the power gap in Malacca straits. Due to Matpahit Kindom which has expanded to this strait was in decline, so there was abound thieves in that area. However, the chaos has stopped in 15th century because of new powerful country occurred, Malacca. Malacca used the trading with international countries to built stability to them and it becomes the big trading center rapidly. Traders from many countries come to trade here. All products types imported from both Western and Eastern can be found in Malacca. This made Malacca become trading center and Ayutthaya was the passage way as appeared the statement that China junk which would go to Malacca or turned back would stay at Ayutthaya. Therefore, both parties had some relationship although Malacca conflicted with Thailand, especially in the international trading which both parties was mutually depended on each other by Chinese and Moor trader was a middleman. The middleman will contact for trading between both parties. The product which was very famous of Malacca was spices and herb. Certainly, that was products of forest which was from Ayutthaya.

          Moreover, Ayutthaya can play the role of the port which was the important for the products of forest as well because Ayutthaya has many advantages over other ports which were not only its location or geography factors. It also had other advantage over other port as following
          . Apart from Ayutthaya was the estuary to a large number of population in the north, Ayutthaya also was the center of the ports in the south such as Thawai, Tanao Sri, Nakorn Si Thammarat, Songkla and Jantaboon. In the same time, the cities in the North were the passage way for transporting the products of forest from Myanmar, Chiang Mai, Luangprabang and Cambodia. For the port of the South, it situated on the west and the east of Malayu peninsular which had free trade. They help collecting the spices and products from India and Middle East to Ayutthaya and released the products from Ayutthaya to the world market as well.
          . Ayutthaya had its junk. This lowers the need to use the junk of foreign country. In the same time, Ayutthaya has many local products and products of forest because the port was a trading center, so most traders from foreigners stayed at Ayutthaya. The more the junks stopped the more the products of forest could be released to the world market.
           . Ayutthaya has tightly tied itself with China government. Ayutthaya was the port in Southeast Asia that often provides the tributes to the royal court of Meng. In the private sector, Ayutthaya gave more privilege to Chinese trader than other country. For example, the importing tax was cheaper. For more detail, we will talk in the next chapter.
As we can see that since the period of the king Authong to the king Ramathibodi III (1893-2034 B.C.) was the period that hasnt yet contacted with Europe. We mostly trade with China and Arab by junks and Arabian from India, Persia, Arab and Moor come to trade with Thailand as well.
          According to the evidence issued in 1893, the period of King Authong, it appeared the statement that on the sea, the mariners had quarrel to each other, the junk friend would be witness. Also, marine friend had quarrel to each other, the marine friend would be witness.
          The abduct law was appraised in 1899 B.C., the same period with the 1st section, anyone abducts people for sell in foreign country or sell for the mariner or sent to the foreign country, if be caught, he must be killed only. Therefore, we can say that the laws were appraised in the reign of king Uthong. This confirmed that the trade by junk has been existed since the ancient age and it might be prosper that time as statement appeared that there were foreign traders to make trading with Chinese, Arab, Cham, Chawa, Malayu, India, Persia and Lungka for a long time ago and some of them stayed in Thailand already.
          Later in the period of King Ramathibosdi I (Phrachao Authong), trading with foreigners had prosperity. Somdet Phra Nakarintarathiwas has reigned during the year of 1952-1967 B.C., his Majesty has gone to China before reigning, so trading with China has increased prosperity.
           For trading with the west countries started in the reign of the king Ramathibodi II (2035-2072 B.C.) and the first countries that contact with Thailand in 2054 B.C. was Portuguese, followed by France as appeared that Holland or Wilanda come in 2141 B.C. , England in 2155 B.C., Denmark in 2163 B.C. and many foreign countries come to stay in Thailand. Therefore, there were many laws appraised. For example, it had the statement appeared in the Royal Criminal law that section 1, Arab, Brahman, Yuan, France, English, Cham, Wilanda, Java, Malayu, Kuiy, Khamer, Burma and Raman come to trade on ground and sea, so Phra Tawan Dan people kept the weapon very well, not allow them to trade those weapons or eagle wood and tin as well. if customers wanted anything, let them told the official or when the customer wanted to transport on the ground or sea, the checker must check the prohibitions. Whoever takes the prohibition or the official himself violated, the customer can take that person as well. When they were caught, the official will be punished for six punishments and the customers will be punished in the same way as a thief and translator or checker will be punished to die.
          Trading with foreigners was highest progressed in the period of King Narai (2199-2231 B.C.). Ayutthaya has tie the commercial of products of the forest with many countries in both east and west as appeared that Thailand has firstly sent the diplomacy to establish relationship with Iran. However, trading with China still continued and Thailand has sent the diplomacy to build relationship with China in 2207, 2208, 2211, 2215, 2216 and 2221 B. C. and has been allowed to make commercial the products wherever in China. Also, Thailand also was more comfortable in trading the product from forest.
          In the reign of King Narai, forest products trading with Holland, England and France were widely expanded. East West India Company of English has seen the importance of trading in Ayutthaya, especially in term of forest products trading. Many forest products were exported such as eagle wood, Phang, tin, ivory, dominoes, and lead. Further, it was the product center from China and India as well as France that com to locate their product warehouse in Thailand in 2205 B.C. Thai government was very welcome and gave special privilege in trading because Thai government thought of the perceived benefit from contacting with France in term of commerce and respect. It appears that in the beginning of the period of the king Narai, benefit from forest trading was in the hand of Holland. They had special privilege to buy animal leather from the reign of Phra Chao Songthamn in 2160 B.C. Until the end of King Narai period, trading with Holland was in decline because of obstruction from Fallcal. However, Holland still made the trade with Thailand because rice was the main product that the company bought from Ayutthaya for selling to Malayu and Java Island.
          Apart from England, France and Holland, there were other traders from different countries in Asia that come to buy the forest product and local products from Thailand. Malacca bought the forest products such as ivory, gum Benjamin, and civets from Thailand.
          Sumattra Island was appeared the name in daily letter of the commandant of Saint Gogh at Masuripatum city. It was reported that the royal ship in the period of King Narai contained copper, tin, brass, platinum, pepper and gum Benjamin to Pondicherey city and they stayed the Arjea City as well.
          Krosan city where was in Iran was one city that Thailand sent the wood to sell.
          Masuripatum city which located on the gulf of Bengal, Thailand has sent ivory from Marit city to sell there.
          Since the reign of King Pes Raja (2231- 2246 B.C.) onward, selling the forest products with the west countries was much lower because Phra Pes Raja did not want to contact with the west countries. Also, there was rebellion in Nakorn Srithummarat and Nakorn Ratchasima. The government wasted time to suppress, so there was no time to maintain or trade the forest products. As a result, foreign commerce was in decline. However, when France fall into decline, Holland returned to play the important role again. In 2231 B.C., Holland has made commercial contract with Thailand. Its content was similar to the old one which made in the period of King Narai and Somdet Phrasanpetch VIII (Phra Chao Sue) in 2246-2251 B.C. Thailand expected France come to trade in Thailand again and Thai was welcome to give special privilege. However, France did not have any feedback because trading in Thailand that period was in decline. In 2260, Spain governor regular in Philippine has sent the diplomacy to build trading relationship with Thailand in the period of King Hua Taisara and tied for forest product trading. That means Spain can buy every kinds of product from Thailand except saltpeter and ivory which was the product in royal warehouse. For the cow and deer leather and tin were the tied products with Holland for trading to each other without paying tax. However, after already made the treaty, Thai junk going to trade in Vanilla was in trouble because of Spanishs behavior. For this reason, Thai stopped trading with Spain in the end of such reign.
          In the dynasty of Banphuluang, forest products trading with foreign countries were much declined as statement in the annals of Mercier Derboo to Emcier Tesia issued on 10 September 2256 B.C. that I was surprised seeing the city declined very much. All area of Thailand was not similar to 50 years before which we firstly found. This time, it disappeared the product ships or Thais ship to trade as ever.

Policy of forest products trading in the period of Ayutthaya

          it can be said that Monopoly system of royal warehouse was the important policy for forest product trading because it was the way that government can closely control foreign business. Further, it was the way to protect trader from other countries increased commercial influence and finally get in trouble to political and economical stability in the same time. Monopoly system of royal warehouse can also increase income to the country very much and it was the important revenue because common interest was from tax in the country was not too much. Because Ayutthaya economic was tribute economic system, Lalubear, France envoy has recorded that foreign trading was tied with the king only. Internal trading was not much good, so it was very difficult to become the rich man because of trading in that period.
           However, Monopoly system of royal warehouse made uncomfortable for trading. When foreign traders brought the product to sell in Thailand, the royal warehouse would select the required products and prices it. For payment sometime exchanged with other products which most products was forest products. Besides, Monopoly system was the channel to have cheated easily if the related nobleman did not work honestly.
           in Ayutthaya period, although foreign trading was monopoly, the government was welcome to trade with all countries and tried to support the forest products by giving special right to traders in order to attract them to make commerce with Thailand. As we can see that in the period of Phra Chao Songthum started the policy of forests product trading with other countries. Thailand has firstly made commercial contract with Holland in 2160 B.C. and gave special right to Holland to buy animal leather from Thailand. Later on, in the period of the Kinf Narai which was the period that Holland has highest commercial power, the king Narai tried to invite traders from other countries to trade with Thai in order to hold the balance of trading power of Holland. We can see that His Majesty tried to persuade England come to made commercial relationship in Thailand and located trading station in Ayutthaya by except keeping all taxes as except for Holland. Later, his majesty the king persuaded East in India Company of France to make trade with Thailand according to the contract issued in 2227 B.C. However, they must allow officer of royal were house of Shervalia Der Chomong made with Thailand on 11 December 2228 B.C. there still had the sub-contract that Thai government allow other countries to make a free trade and provided them privilege as well.           Thai government gave many privileges to foreign traders to respond to trading policy to attract foreign traders to make trading with Thailand. This caused the forest products for export had high expansion and prosperity. However, this way made injustice among foreign traders. Traders who did not get privileges or unequal benefit felt unsatisfied and brawl each other, for example, in case of the war between England and Holland made in Pattani in 2161 B. C. or Portuguese traders was not satisfied that Holland traders had more privilege, so they have brawled in 2167 and the ship of Holland was seized in territorial water of Thailand. Therefore, Thai government must smooth the dispute and forced Portuguese to return the ship to Holland. Those events indicated that Thai government faced with many problems of disputes between foreign traders due to unequal policy of privilege and they were bored because it did make much more benefit as it should be. Also, traders must face with trouble in commerce through royal warehouse.
          Besides, the commercial policy of forest products was trading by junk. The junk decorating tradition was supported by government since the ancient age. The junk which was decorated and sale in other countries gained 2 ways of benefits. That was profit from forest product selling and local products of Thai for foreign country and profit from selling the products which bought from foreign countries and then sale in Thailand. Apart from the products, it can be said that Thai government has apply the royal junk for release the local products. The local products was from collecting from tributes, forest products delivered from inside royal and products from neighbors countries such as Burma, Laana, Luangprabang and Cambodia. Those products were exported from Thailand to the world market and these become another one income of trading. Thai junk policy for selling the forest products could help the government selling directly, not need the middle man and also gain much more benefit.