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ǹ ? ҪҤѡ ອҾŔ 觵͹á
ǹ ? ҪҤѡ ອҾŔ 觵͹á
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           Եǹ ժ¡ҧա ŧǹ” ;õԾҪҧ͡ اҔ ͧѺóӤѭͧ˹觫ʶҺѹش֡Ẻ¹Ԫ óջѵʵ Ңͧ ǹ” ´ǡѺ˵ءóҧ Ѫ稾кšҶҧ ੾ͧʧͧ§ ҴçҪҹҾ çվԹԨǡѺ·м㹤ӹӤǷաþ˹ѧͧ繤á ͻվطѡҪ

           ˹ѧǹ¹ѡҪ 繼ҷҺ ѧࡵ·ҧӹǹӹǹҡ 駤ͧǴ ˹ѧ;Ǵ§ Щй鹹ҷ Ѻ˵ءóǶ֧ ֧ѧöͧǹ ѹɰҹ Ѫ稾ҸԺշ 繾Ҫʢͧ稾кšҶ Ҫ .. .. ѧࡵ·ҧӹǹҧ˹ Եǹ¹繼դǪҭ ẺἹ Ҫä繡դӤѭ˹ѧͧ

           ҡ㹤ӹӷ¡ҹ ҴçҪҹҾ çդ ǹ” ҨѪ稾ҸԺշ

           ҡԨóҷŧǹ оͧ͡ ͹

           ͹á ŧ ֧ŧ 繡ԭõԤسͧ稾кšҶѡɳТͧ ȳغ ش ȹ سԡྐྵ ʾ ͧè ѹ

           ҡ繡ùѡҧطʹҵǴ ֧ Ǵ ҡºº (ŧ ֧ ) ŧ ֧ 繡þóººѡɳТͧ

           ͹ѧ ŧ 繵 Ƕ֧Ҫѵ˵ءóӤѭ Ѫ µ躷 仨ͧ Ƕ֧˵ءóʧͧ§´Ҫѵ˵ءóӤѭǶ֧ŧǹ

           ҪԴ (稾кҪҸҪ ) ʴä 稾кšҶҪѵ ŧҧĹö ä §ͧ ŧҧ ȡ ;Ⱦ ɮ

           ͹㹾ҪǴáاظ Ѻǧ԰ѡùԵ ѡҪ çȡ (.. ) 稾кҪҸҪҹľҹ֧Ҫ÷ҹ 稾 ѵ çй稾кšҶ

           ˵ءó;ҵšҪͧ§ ¡ҵͧᾧྪ ͧ⢷ § (ظɰ) 繡 稾кšҶ觡ͧѾ仵ͧ⢷¤׹ ŧҧš ͧ ȹ ʴͺ׹ ŧҧͧ ع 仹 ⢷ §

           ҪǴéѺǧ԰ Ƕ֧˵ءó ͹ ѡҪ (..) ͧ¾Ҥ;¾˹仹ҹ С仵׹ С¡ͧ⢷ ͧ׹بҔ

           ŧǹ оҪǴáاظ Ѻǧ԰ѡùԵ Ƕ֧˵ءóӤѭ ҧԴ稾кšҶçѹ ʴ稢ͧɳš ʶһҾѴ С÷çǪ ҧҧ ʴ ;ط ͪ ҧšᾧ ȳš ҧҿ ͧ

           ط” 㹷 Ҩ¶֧Ѵշͧɳš ҪǴéѺǧ԰ѡùԵ Ƕ֧˵ءó͹çѹ ѡҪ (..) 稾кš ҧѴՔ

           ѡҪ Сȡ (.. ) 稾кšҷçмǪ Ѵ ͹ ҾмǪ

           ǡѺѵʵŧǹشŧ͡Ƕ֧ʧͧ§ ѡѵʵŧ繵ͧѹͧ§ ͧ§Ѫ ҪǴéѺǧ԰ к§ ѡҪ ȡ (.. ) ʴ仵ͧ§

           ͹ Ѫ稾кšҶ ˵ءóӤѭҧ˹觷ҪǴ ءѺǶ֧ þҪԾͧҪҵԤǧ ҧҡҪǴéѺǧ԰ ѡҪ ȡ (.. ) ҹ蹡ʾ ѹ ͧѵ- Ҹҵ Ǩ֧ҪԾҪҵԤǧԺó

           繷ѧࡵ ŧǹǶ֧þҪԾҪҵԤǧС 駷Ҩ˵ءóӤѭҧ˹Ѫ稾кšҶ 觶ŧǹ 觢ѡҡվطѡҪ ͧǶ֧˵ءóҧ͹

           ҡ԰ҹѧǨ֧Ҩ͹ҹŧǹµͧ觢ҧվطѡҪ ֧ ѧҡʧͧ§С͹þҪԾҪҵԤǧ ѪкšҶ

           ѧ ǹ¹͡ ͹ 㹵͹á繡ԭõԤس Ƕ֧Ҫѵ ҵ͹á騺ŧŧ ͢ä͹ ˹ ͢¾Ԧ آҸ ç

           ŧ繡â;ѡԷͧоѹѹ繢ѡͨͧ ŧǹº͹˹ҷ ա ֧ ѡɳз觪 ͧǔ ç ź ͡ Żອ 觼 ѡʴ ֧ ѡҪͧ Ǫҭ 㴼Դԭ ͹ 㴪ͺҭͭ §þྦྷ ʺҸ 觾Ⱦͧ ¡Ż Ҥͧ šҹ ͤä ͪ ອҾʴ õ ͤ 觡ҧ ໹Ⱦѹ ػ ǧøҧ ׹¤ 蹴Թ

           ôԹѡɳТͧ ֧ 繢㹡èͧ 觻ҡóظѵԹ͹ ͹ӵҧҡͧҡ㹷 ŧ ҷá ʴͺ оѹդ Żອ 觼 ѹ¤ ջѭҹ¹Դ ѺѭҡҼŧ ҷ Ѻ ອҾʴ õ Ҕ ҡŤç оѹʴõȢͧͧ»ѭѹҡŔ ѹѡɳТͧǴͧ ТѴѺŧ ѧ ອҾŔ Ҩ¶֧ؤŷյ˹ҪԹôѡ Шҡŧ㹺 ҨѡҹӤѭʴ ອҾŔ ͹ͧշŧǹµ͹á ºѡ յ˹觾ʧҪҤ˹˹觤 лѭҾŔ лѭҾД 繾ҪнԻʹҸ ҡԨóŧǹªǧ鹨 դѾ٧ǡѺ͸ҧ 㹷ҧطʹá繨ӹǹҡ Ҩ ອҾŔ кŧǹ ѭҾŔ ҪҤٻ˹Ѫ稾 šҶ 繼ŧǹªǧ ͹ ظҹŧ ѧҡҧ㹡ú Ѵ Ѵ Ӕ ѭ ອ ѧ鹨֧š ѭҾŔ ອҾŔ յҧѡɳдѧǻҡǹ¤ ѹ԰ҹ繴ѧǪѴਹ觢 ֧¡ŧ һСͺõդա˹ ѧ Ҥͧ šҹ ͤä ͪ ອҾʴ õ ͤ 觡ҧ ͤҤ§¶¤繡չԾºѧ͡ä ອҾ ʴõȢͧͧͧ º͹´͡鹔 ʴõԔ ¤ ӾõȢͧͧʴ㹵͹ ÷ ອҾ (Ҿ) ӾõȢͧͧʴ㹵͹º͹´͡ () 繾ǧ (͡¡ͧ) ǹŧǹµ͹ͨҡ ŧ Шѡҷ šҹ Ź ໹ٵʶҹ͹ º ŧҧٺ ԴҪ §ʸä ѡҷ šҹ ŹҔ 觵դ 仹е駵 (ҷ) ӻоѹ ÷ ҷԔ 駵鹔 ֧ҨʴҼͤ躷 繵 褹ǡѺ ອҾŔ Шҡú´ҧ ʧբͤ ʧǤ駹鹴 Ҕ ͡Ƕ֧˵ءó͵ͧ§ ҷء Դ йͧ Ǻҧ Թͧ ء ҧͧҪҧ 觧 ҡŧǹառ м觪ǧá ອҾŔ 繾ԡ ѹɰҹ չù觵㹪ǧѧ Ҩ줹㴤˹觢ͧ ອҾŔ 㹡ͧѾǵͧ§ ҡ繴ѧ ອҾŔ 繼Ǩ ŧ㹪ǧѧ ӹǹ ǹ” ֧͡׹ѹʹͧ


Who compose Yuan Pai ? The clerical title has the priests rank as Benyapisarn first composition
Bonntein Sriworapot

           Lilit Yuan pai had another name Klong Yuan Pai or Yor Phra Kiat Phra chao Chang Phuek, Krungkao. These literatures become the textbook used for teaching in many universities which was the subject of history literature. The content of Yuan Pai gives detail about each event in the reign of Phra Borommatrilokkanart very well, especially the war at Chaing Chuen City. Phraya Dumrong Rajanuphab synthesized about the period of composer and composer in the part of introduction of first printing book on 2465 B.C as following.

           Nobody know when was Yuan Pai written and who composed it? However, it has quite ancient language in term of knowledge about annals and Chaing Mai annals. Therefore, it may be written in the period close to the mentioned event because it quite had more detail. However, it was be assumed that it was composed in the period of king Ramathibodi II who was the son of King Borommatrilookanart and reigned during 2034-2072 B.C. If considered from its language, we can certainly know that the writer of Lilit Yuan Pai was a person who expert in language and servant tradition and he must be the important poet in that period.

           According to introduction above, Phraya Dumrong Rajanuphab thought that Yuan Pai might be written in the period of King Ramathibodi II.

           if considered all story of Yuan Pai poem, it can be found that this story was divided into 2 parts which were:

           First, 1-60 chapters has praised the prestige of King Borommatrilokkanart in form of eloquence poem such as Prom Pitsanu Boramet Chao, Jommeru, Mathea, Yametmaruton, Artsanama, Pirunkanikupetra, Soonsep, Ruenrawee worachao jamjan.

           Then, dharma principle from chapter 1- 1o was compared (chapter 12-31) and from chapter 32-55 was the comparable describe in form of eloquence poem.

           The last part, from chapter 61 onward, this mentioned about the biography and important event in the reign and from chapter 81 to the end mentioned about the war at Chaing Chuen city and biography and important event was mentioned in Klong Yuan Pai, for example,

           After father (king Ramathibodi II or Phra Chao Samphraya) died, Phra Borommatrilokkanart has been in the throne.

For this statement in Ayutthaya annals of Lung Prasert Aksornnithi said that in 1991, the king died and Somdej Phra Ramesuan has reigned in the throne and named The King Borommatrilokkanart

           When Phra Chao Thilokkarat of Chaing Mai has attacked Kumpheangpetch and Sukhothai, Phraya Chalieng (Yuthitthira) was the rebel. Therefore, The King Borommatrilokkanart sent his army to siege Sukhothai in return.

           Ayutthaya annals of Lung Prasert Aksornnithi said about the statement in 2005, Nakornthai emigrated their family to Nan and Phra Kalahom has been commanded to siege Sukhothai in return.

           Klong Yuan Pai and Ayutthaya annals of Lung Prasert Aksornnithi talked about many important events occurred in the period of king Borommatrilokkanart such as going to Phitsanulok, Phra Wihan Wat Vhulamanee establishment and his ordination.

           Phutthaisawan means Wat Chulamanee in Phitsanulok province. Ayutthaya annals of Lung Prasert Aksornnithi mentioned about the same situation in 2007, the king Borommatrilokkanart established Phra Wihan Wat Chulamanee.

           In 2008, the king Borommatrilokkanart has been ordained for 8 months at Wat Chulamanee.

           information related to history in Klong Yuan Pai ended when talked about the war at Chaing Chuen city, historists agreed that Chaing chuen city was Chalieng or Srisatchanalai because Ayutthaya annals of Lung Prasert Aksornnithi said that in 2017 B.C., his majesty attack to seize Chalieng city.

           in the reign of Phra Borommatrilokkanart, there was one situation that was mentioned in all annals, writing the story of Maha Chart Kumluang. For example, Ayutthaya annals of Lung Prasert Aksornnithi said about this that In 2025, there was 15 days of entertainment for celebrate for Wat Phra Sri Rattana Mahachart and the end of Mahachart kumluang.

           it is noticeable that Klong Yuan Pai did not mention about Mahachart kumluang although it is one of important events in the reign of king Borommatrilokkanart. However, if Klong Yuan Pai was written after 2025 B.C., this event must certainly be mentioned.

           According to the assumption, Klong Yuan Pai must be written during the year 2017-2025 after the war in Chaing Chuen and before writing Mahachart kumluang in the period of Phra Borommatrilokkanart.

           We can see say that the content of Yuan Pai was divided into 2 parts. Firstly, it praised general prestige, not refer to biography. The first part ended at chapter 60 which is decease must keep away from me any other good things come to me.

           This poem is blessing from secred things to protect the composer. This is a tradition that Thai poet always use in the end of the poem. Klong Yuan Pai chapter 56-59 has the content telling it is the end such as This poetry is going to end. If there is anything wrong, please help to rewrite and the poet apologized for such errors. If there is something attractive, please tell another person to know in order to inherit this forever.

           Telling the story as in chapter 50-60, it is traditional for ending the story. This appeared in literature in the period of Ayutthaya and the beginning of Rattanakosin but we do not give an example to you for this. In chapter 56 in first two rows, it showed modest that the poetry has not much knowledge and Appabenyoyaowa which means having less knowledge or had less knowledge than other people. However, in chapter 58, it said that Benya Pisarn Sadeang Dermkait Phraru. This means the poetry showed his prestige with much knowledge. This showed the boast which is contrast with chapter 56. Therefore, benyapisarn Benyapisarn possibly refer to person who has title conferred by the king. That is the name of poetry that composes Klong Yuan Pai. Firstly, it is compared equally to clerical title which is the position of Phra panya pisarn or Phra panya pisarn thera who is the clerical tile of meditation. If considered the content of Klong Yuan Pai above, we can see that there are many advanced lexicons related to Buddhism in the poem. It is possible that Benjapisarn mentioned in Klong Yuan Pai is Panya Pisarn who is a clerical title in the period of King Bormmatrilokkanart who composed the beginning part of Klong Yuan Pai. In the period of Ayutthaya, it was usually changed P to be B as appeared in the palace law such as Plad to Ba-lad, Pa-rum to bram and Panja to benja. Therefore, it is not surprised that Panyapisarn will be benyapisarn, which there were many example words in Klong Yuan Pai to use for support this issue more clearly. Therefore, we will give some example from chapter 48 as follow. Ҥͧ šҹ ͤä ͪ ອҾʴ õ ͤ 觡ҧ ϔ means the statement was compiled to be poet which was compared as the flower on the heaven, benyapisarn used it for praise the prestige of the king as if the silk which used for twine. Derm means the tree praise the prestige. This means bringing the title of the king to show in the beginning. That benyapisarn (I) brought the prestige of the king to shoe in the beginning is like twine with the flower (Sarn Siam) to be the garland (composing). In Klong Yuan Pai onward, started with chapter 61 that Шѡҷ šҹ Ź ໹ٵʶҹ͹ º ŧҧٺ ԴҪ §ʸä ϔ. In this poet, konkarn leana means now, we will start the verse. That the composer used the word tang ar thi or tang ton might means the composer of this poetry chapter 61 onward was not the same person with benyapisarn and in the war description, there were many statement showing that the composer was in that war period such as the word we, when talked about attacking Chaing Chuen city, ҷء Դ йͧ Ǻҧ Թͧ ء ҧͧҪҧ 觧 . if Klong Yuan Pai had the author more than one persons and the composer of the first part was benyapaisarn who was the monk according to this assumption. The poetry of the second paragraph might be the disciple of benyapisarn who participated in the army to attack Chaing chuen and if it would be so, benyapisarn might be the checker or edited all last part of this poet. Wording in the last part in Yuan Pai was similar in all stories.