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ѹ觪ҵ
ѹ觪ҵ


Ңͧѹ
      ѹ觪ҵ Ѵբ鹤á ѹ 5 ѹҤ .. 2523 ¤س˭ԧͷԾ ص ¡ҤѤЪ¡֡ ѡ˵ؼŷաèѴѹ͢觪ҵ ͧҡ 繺ؤżվФسպҷӤѭͤͺѧ ÷١ þԴٹеͺ᷹Фس¤ѭ ѧ÷¡ͧõ֧֡繾 ֧ѹ 5 ѹҤ ͧء ѹЪҢͧкҷ稾Ծʹപ "ѹ觪ҵ" Դõ кҷ稾 㹰ҹ “觪ҵ” 觹͡ҡͧ繾ҪԴҢͧҪоҪԴ çйغاҪʸԴҴ¤ѡ зçͺ͹ʹçԭó ç "" ҧͧǧ·鹴¾ҡس աѧç筤سҹػªȪҵлЪҪ çҡسҷйغاѴء켴اآʡԡöǹ˹ ͧç “觪ҵ” ҳһЪɮԴٹ¤ѡѡ ӹ֡㹾ҡسҸԤس ִ㹡ԭµͧؤźҷ㹡÷ӹغاҵԺҹͧ ѲҶ׺

ѵػʧͧèѴҹѹ觪ҵ
      1. ԴٹõԤسͧ кҷ稾
      2. ԴٹФسͧ ¡ͧҷͧͷյͤͺѧ
      3. ١ʴѭ١Ƿյ;
      4. 繾 ӹ֡˹ҷФѺԴͺͧ

Ԩ
      ԨѹЪҾкҷ稾 㹷ء աûдѺҵ㹷ء˹§ҹ ҨʶҹҪ ç¹ ѷ кҹ͹ Ͷ¾оͧçվЪ׹ҹ ѧա÷ӤҴӤͧ çҺ лдѺٻͧкҷ稾 ˹Һѷ˹§ҹҧ Ͷ繾Ҫкҷ稾Ǵ
      ԨѺ١ѹ觪ҵ дѺҵԵҤúҹ͹ ѴԨ筻ª ͺ筡 Ӻحҵ طǹ ֧֡Фسͧ
      ͡ҡѧաèѴԨСõԤس ͵ҧ ;ʹ ¡˹سѵ 40 բ ֡Ңͧص Դ Ѻʹ觤Ѵ ͺآءԴ طȵͻªҸó §



ѹЪҾкҷ稾


Ҫѵ
      кҷ稾лԹԾʹപ ʴ稾Ҫ çҺҹ (Mount Auburn) ͧԴ (Cambridge) ѰʫҪવ (Massachusetts) Ѱԡ ѹѹ͹ 12 çѺѹ 5 ѹҤ .. 2470 繾Ҫʾͧ稾ԵҸ ʹപԡ кҪ (Ҫ㹾кҷ稾лԹҨŧó ШŨ 稾ԹҺҪ) 稾չԹҺҪ վɰԹ稾кɰҸҪ 稾ҾҧҿҡҳѲ ǧҸҪԹ окҷ稾 ҹѹԴ çѺ֡Ҫ鹵 ç¹ ا෾ ֧ .. 2476 ֧ʴ稾ҪԹ任зѺ ͧūҹ ԵŹ ç֡ҵͪ鹻ж֡ Ѹ֡ Էūҹ ᢹԪԷʵ

      ѹ 9 Զع¹ .. 2489 кҷ稾ҹѹԴ Ѫŷ 8 ʴä վͧç駾ҪķҨФͧҪѵ§ҨѴҹкȾкɰõ Тй鹾վЪ 18 ͧʹç˹觾ҡѵҡ͹ ¤ѡѡբͧҳһЪɮյ;ͧҧ кҷ稾Ծʹപ ֧ʴ稢鹤ͧҪѵ׺ҪѹǧѺѹ繵 ͧҡѧվҪԨҹ֡ ֧ʴ稡ѺѧԵŹ ա˹ ͷç֡ҵ зç֡͡ԪҡѰʵ ᷹ԪԷʵ ç֡

      ˵ءó˹觷Դѹʴ稾ҪԹѺԵŹ ͷç֡Ԫҡ ͡ҧ͹ԧҤ ..2489 ҧзѺöзʹԹ͹ͧ ͧçԹɮä˹觵⡹ "ǧ ҷ駻ЪҪ" ͧç֡ͺؤż㹾Ҫķ"һЪҪ駢Ҿ ǢҾҨз駻ЪҪҧ"

      ѧҡ˵ءó鹼ҹ任ҳ 20 кҷ稾ç¼⡹žͧ㹤駹 ͤʴɮ㹵ҧѧѴ ¼鹡Һѧ ͧ蹹 ֡·蹴Թʴ仨ҡͧ 繾оѡҡ ֧ͧ͹ Ƿçͺ " ҹ֧֡˹ҷ ֧ͧѺ"

      кҷ稾Ծʹപ çСͺҪԸҪɡ Ѻ ҪǧԡԵ Եҡ ѹ 28 ¹ .. 2493 çʶһҪǧԡԵ Եҡ 稾ҪԹԡԵ ѹ 5 Ҥ .. 2493 çСسô 駡þҪԸպҪɡẺҧҳҪླբ зŷѡԳ 㹾кҪѧ к ֡㹾ؾóѯ "кҷ稾лԹԾʹപ ԵҸ ҸԺ ѡչĺԹ ԹҸҪ ҶԵ"

      駾ҪҹлҪͧ "ҨФͧ蹴Թ¸ ͻªآҪ" оͧ٨繷Шѡ㨢ͧ·ءǧ ͧçطȷ駡ѧ ѧѾ СѧԴ㹡ûСͺҪó¡Ԩҹҧ ͤءͧʡԡâͧͧ Ҩ繴ҹҪվ ɵ صˡ ֡ Ҹóآ Сõҧ

      ͡ҡ кҷ稾 ѧʴ͡¹ɮ㹶蹷áѹͤѺҺ ʹ͹лѭػäҧ ¾ͧͧ 㹤ǷԴҸóµҧ Ҩ ӷ ؾѴҹ͹ɮѺ ͧзçǧҷ㹤͹͹ͧǡҹ çѺաêоҪҹҪѾǹͧ繡 ҧ觴ǹ

Ҫó¡Ԩ
      ҹ֡
           кҷ稾վҪҡ֡Ӥѭش㹡þѲһоѲЪҪ㹻դբ ѧҪʤ˹ "֡ҫҡҹԭ" ç֡ҢͧЪҪ㹪ҵԷͧ㹪蹷áѹ ੾ҧ觡þҪҹ͡ʷҧ֡ѺǪҡд͡ кҷ稾Ƿç͵ç÷ǢͧѺ֡ç
               - عҹѹԴ
               - ç¹Ҿǧػ
               - ç¹ҪЪҹ
               - ç¹͹硷ʺ
               - ç¹
               - ç¹ҪЪ
               - çҹء
               - çþдҺ

      ҹþѲҪ
           ҡ÷кҷ稾ʴɮ㹶蹷áѹ÷çҺ֧ʹ͹ͧҧ ҨҸóٻ 俿 繵 ੾СäҤдǡöӤԭҧ 件֧ ֧վҪԷоѲҪЪҪ㹶蹷áѹö͵ͧ ç鹡þѲҧ仵ӴѺ鹵͹ 觨еͧҧ鹰ҹ蹤͹ лСӤѭеͧö觾ҵͧ Ҩ֧ѲҾǴբ鹵ӴѺ ԸաôѧǾкҷ稾ǷçԹҹҹлʺҧ ЪҪդբ դسҾԵբ ҧǾҪԹ ѧҡçѹͧҨҡҪԵҧ 繵 ѡԪҡ÷µҧѺѹǷҧþѲһȵǾҪԹ 繡þѲһẺШ¤ԭЪҪҡ㹪 ʹ繡ҧ蹤ҧҹɰԨ ѧȪҵҧ ç͵ٹѲѹͧҨҡҪ ;ѲҾͧǺҹդԭҡ ٹѲѹͧҡҡҪշ 6 ٹ
               1. ٹ֡ҡþѲԹ͹ǾҪ .ä .ԧ
               2. ٹ֡ҾѲ·ѹͧҨҡҪ ࢵ鹷ҪȹĤѹ .· .ྪú
               3. ٹ֡ҾѲͧѹͧҨҡҪ . .§
               4. ٹ֡ҡþѲǤ駡ູǾҪ . .ѹ
               5. ٹ֡ҡþѲҾԡŷͧǾҪ .ͧ .Ҹ
               6. ٹ֡ҡþѲپҹǾҪ ҹ .¢ҧ .ͧ .ʡŹ

      ҹҸóآ
           ʴЪҪ㹶蹷áѹú¤ кҷ稾Ƿç繻ЪҪ纻繨ӹǹҡ ֧ç͵ç˹ᾷҪҹͻ .. 2510 ç÷䢴ҹآҾ͹¢ͧɮ÷㹾鹷誹ҧҡ Ҵ㹡ôѡҵͧ ÷դᾷҪҹ͡仺ӺѴѡҼ·ɮ͡Ѻѡҧ١ͧ ͧ¤ѡҾҺҧ ֧çͺѡٵ ҹ 鹷ѧѴ§繤á͡ҡѧçҺŻШӨѧѴҪȹ çҺŹҸçҺʡŹ çҺŤ¡ШѴʶҹѺ֡ͺ 駹ɮ÷ѺͺǹӤѺ仪ͻЪҪ㹷ͧ蹢ͧͧ ͺͧҸóآ ûҺͧ Ǫʵͧѹäҧ õԴ͡Ѻ˹ҷѡҾҺŢͧѰ繵 ͡ҡѧçѴش˹ᾷҪҹ鹵ʶҹҧ çҺŻШӨѧѴҧ е˹ѡѡԳҪȹ е˹ѡپҹҪȹ 繵

      ҹɵ
           кҷ稾Ծʹപ çʹҪķ㹴ҹɵҵ鹤ͧҪѵ ·ç ɮǹ˭㹻ȻСͺҪվѡ ɵӤѭ վҪɵáþѲһԷҾ㹡üԵբ ç鹤ҷͧ觵ҧ ǡѺɵ Ԩ¾ѹת ѹѵ 駾תɰԨ תѺاԹ оתع ʹ֡ǡѺŧѵپת çôҹɵ÷ç駢 մѧ仹
           çǹͧǡѺ§ 㹻 .. 2495 ç§˹Ҿзش㹺dzзʶҹ
           ҢǷͧ 㹻 .. 2505 çСسô зǧɵˡó ӾѹǴѺҴ һ١ͧ㹺dzǹԵŴ
           ç⤹ǹԵŴ
           çբǵҧǹԵŴ
           ͧԺѵԡ
           ǹع 㹻 .. 2529 çǹͧǹԵŴ
           ç 㹻 .. 2531
           ªҡѡ
           ɵẺ׹

      ҹêŻзҹоѲ觹
           й觨ҧ㹡÷ɵá ҡԴҴŹҡ зתѺ кҷ稾 ֧ççêŻзҹҪԢ ¤ͨҡŻзҹ˹§ҹҧ Ǣͧ ӡ֡Ң;ԨóҨѴҧ͹ ҧ纹 ʹͧк¹Фͧ觹Өҡ觹ӵҧ 駹ͧʴ 价ʹ๵õ鹹Ӹèԧ еǨͺѺǺҹͤ١ͧͧŴ¾ͧͧ ͹зç˹Ƿҧ㹡Żзҹ˹Ҫ÷ǢͧѺ仴Թõ

      ҹ÷
           кҷ稾 Ѫŷ 9 㹰ҹзç繨Ѿ ç˹ѡ֧Ӥѭͧ˹һͧҹͧҧ ͤ駷ѧʺѺ¤ءҡ͡¤ǹʵ Тǹá͡µҧ 㹪ǧǻվطѡҪ 2515 - 2520 çʴ ͡¹ Ǩ ʹѤ÷軯ԺѵҪǪᴹ繻Ш 駾Ҫҹ觢ͧ㹡ôçվǪѳѺôҷҭҹ鹴
           ͷҹѺҴ ѺѡҵçҺ ʴ ¾ͧͧ Ѻ÷ԡ÷ؾҾѹͧҨҡúͧѹҵԡô Ѻÿ鹿öҾн֡ҹҹҪվ ö§վ͵ͧ 㹡óշªԵ㹡÷ӧҹͪҵ зçСس ҪҹѾػФͺЪ¡֡Һصâͧҹ Ѻзçʴ㹧ҹԸվҪҹԧȾôҼҹ鹴¾ͧء

      ҹûͧ
           ͧҡç繾ҡѵкͺЪҸԻ·顮Ѱ٭ ¨зçûͧȼҹҧѰҨ֧ç繾ҪáԨӤѭ㹡÷ʴ 价çԴ»ЪҼ᷹ɮô¾ͧͧء駵ʹ

      ҹʹ
           кҷ稾ԾʹപҪ çѤʹٻ çػʹҷءʹҷͧ 㹰ҹзç繾ط ͧç͡Ǫ ǡѹѺªǾطǹ˭ ·çǪ 2 ѻ 㹢зçǪçԺѵԾͧºͧʧҧ觤ѴǡѺԡٻ
           ͧѧʴ 价çСͺʹԨ繹Ե Ҩ繡ʴ 仺签Ҫͧ͡ʵҧ ʴ 仵ӡҺѧŢͧСѴТͧʹ ѧçҪ0ҹ Ѿǹͧ͡ûѧóѴششҧ ա
           Ѻʹ ʹҤʵ ʹ աáҺѧԭʴ㹧ҹԸӤѭ ͧʹҹ ʴ 价ç㹾Ըմ蹡ѹ

      ҹླ Ż Ѳ
           кҷ稾ԾʹപҪ зçͻԺѵԵẺἹҳҪླմءС㹡þҪԸյҧ ҷ ҪԸթѵ ҪԸվתŨôйѧáҢѭ駹ʹç觻ླբͧ餧׺ͧʹ кҷ稾 ѧçѺö¾ҪѭҷçѤŻԹ觪ҵ ҡӹѡҹСѲ觪ҵ ¾ͧç͵зѤŻҢ çҧäҹŻлҧ 駷ҧҹ ҧŻ ҹȹŻ дҹóŻ ШѡЪǵҧҵҧҡ
           ͡ҡѧçͧкҪٻŻзءᢹ 蹷çѺҤǢͧѺҹŻ㹾кҪٻҤ ѺçػŻԹ·çСسô ¡ͧԴõԤسͧŻԹʷդö ѺҪҹкҪҹ㹤纻µ

      ҹѹѺҧ
           ѧҡçʴ稢鹤ͧҪ㹪ǧվطѡҪ 2502 ֧ 2510 кҷ稾ԾʹപҪʴ ͹ȵҧ ᶺû ԡ˹繡ԭҧҪҧդѹҡ觢 çӤöҴբͧЪҪͺѺЪҪ㹻ȹ 繷ѡҧҧҡ觢 ж֧ѧҡվطѡҪ 2510 繵 ͧʴ稵ҧա (¡͹չҤ طѡҪ 2517 çʴ ͹ҸóѰЪҸԻ»ЪҪ ѧҡʴ 价ç繻иҹ㹡ԴоҹҧԵҾ - ) зçվҪáԨ㹻ҡ çСسô ҪоҪԴʴ ͹ҧ᷹ͷçԷҡ觷价ç繡ѺѲһԭ˹ҵ ͡˹ͨҡѧçʴ ͡õ͹ѺҪҤѹءз繻آͧȵҧ ʴԹҧ͹ô ôҷٵҹطٵʹ

ҧԧ:
      ҡԵ. ѹӤѭͧ. ا෾ : , 2541.
      ó . ѹлླӤѭ. ا෾
      ԡԾ ҹء