˹ѡ arrow йظ֡ arrow Թҧ


ŻѲ ླ
йѲ ླ
Last comments
No comment...

           ѹҨѴ繻ᶺѹդö㹡Թзҧ Һط§ҧѺӹҨ ᶺ ѧ õ ͧҧ ͧҷӤѭժ§ҵʹյͧ ͵ ҡҤöҧԹͤͤöҧä ѹӹҨ㹡äǺ鹷ҧä㹺dzᶺµѹ͡§ٻẺͧäҷ¡ѹ ѷ ʵ Թ VOC ͵駢ѹ չҤ .. (.. ) հҹ繺ѷ㹤ŢͧѰ ӹѡҹ˭ͧ 㹻Ź ʶҹաä˭ШҤͧѵ Ъ ѨغѹͻԹⴹ á·ҷӡäᶺ ¹ͧ Ӿǡҹ ҹ ѹ ԡ 仢ѧû ͧҡǵѹդͧԹҾǡҧҡ Ѻ仺 ͡͹ äҢͧȷ¼ҹͤҤҧͪѺ¹ҹ ͧԹҷҤ٧ Թҧջ͹ͧоԡ令Ңѧᶺûҡ稡Ѻ繡§⪤ 鹷աû١ͧҹзҧµѹ͡§ ءͷѡѹ㹪ͧͧ͢ к ҵ ͹ 繵

           ҾͤҪѹ繪ͧҧ繵ǡҧ㹡ë͢ԹҾͧҧͧҵҧ ᶺ ֧Դʶҹաä¢Ҥա ͧҧҫҡ ȭ Թ ѧ ѹ С ѵҹ ظ 繵 ¹Թ ˹ѧҧ Ҫҧ ô ˹ѧҡູ պء ѧ ҡظ 仢ѧз йԹ ͧ ҡչ Ңѧ㹤ǡѹ ͡ҡѧԹҾͧ ա ԡ ѡ ҧ ѹ ɳ С ͧ ྪþ ҧ äҢẺӡѺѷʵԹҧ ѧҡͨ͡·᷹ä¹ͺѹ¡Թҵҧ ѹ֡¹ ͡úѹ֡ѹͧѷʵԹ ѹ֡´ͧӹǹԹФըӹǹҡ§

Travelling from the Distance
Holland (The Natherlands) was a western country who was skillful in navigation and travelling across the oceans, closely with some other powerful countries: England, France and Portugal. The famous seaports at that time were Amsterdam and Rotterdam. On the contrary, the Hollanders had more ability in trading. For this reason, they were able to control the trading routes in Southeast Asia in the form of a commercial group called United East India Company or VOC (1) established on March 20, 1602 (2). It was a company under the control of Holland. The head office was in Amsterdam in the Natherlands, and the big commercial station in Asian region was at Pattawia on Java Island. Nowadays, it is Indonesia. Their first target of trading was to sell spices: cardamom, clove and nutmeg in Europe because westerners needed using the goods. Formerly, trading spices could be done via middlemen who made the goods expensive. That was why the success of travelling across continents for spice and pepper trading in Europe was worthwhile risk-taking. The areas that grew spices were groups of islands in Southeast Asia, such as Molukka islands or known in the name of the islands of spices, Borniew, Sumattra, Ambon, and etc.

Later, the Holland traders knew the advantages of being middlemen in trading local products between the seaports in Asia. They opened minor commercial stations in the region, for example in Nagasaki in japan, India, Sri Langka (Bangladesh), Banda Ajae, Formoza, Malaka, Pattani, Ayutthaya and so on. The goods were deer leather, ivory, rhinoceros snouts, ray skin, rice, lead, and swollows nests from Ayutthaya to sell in Japan or other countries. At the same time, luxurious goods like porcelains, and silk fabric from China were sold in Ayutthaya. Besides, a lot of local products were bought: pepper, teak, sappanwood, sandalwood, eaglewood, lead, wax, indigo, gold, precious stone and gum. The trade made enormous profit to the United East India Company. The evidence was from the documents and correspondences between the traders and lists of goods written down during the period, for instance the United East India Companys daily memos displaying the amount of goods each time of their trading affairs.