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           ѺʴҭҴФ㨸ҵԢͧ蹴Թзͧҧ´ þɢͧ¨֧͡ʶҹ駾й㹺dzѹ繷èѹͧ 3 ¤ Ҿ ӻѡ ž ѹ繷觼׹蹴Թش仴¸ҵطҡС͹ӷѺ÷ӡɵ

           ӷ 3 ¹鹷˹ҷ繤ͧͺاǻͧѹҵ ǹ٤ͧشͶ֧ѹѺ鹷ҧӵҵ 鹷ҧ觹Ǻҹ Ѻ㹡ɵ 㹢ǡѹ˹ҷ鹷ҧҤ աѧ鹷ҧк¹ӷӤѭ㹪ǧĴٹҡա

           ѧաᾧ԰觤ǡ 12 ҧͺй ѹջҡõԴ駻׹˭ 16 觵شӤѭ ͡ҡѧջеͧ 99 е Сͺ仴»еٴԹ 18 е е 61 е леٹ 20 е

           Ф٤ͧҧٻẺѴ§ѡɳеҢ Ƿȵѹ͡-ѹ Ƿ˹- Ͷ֧ѹоҹ駷Ӵ԰ 30 Դ鹷袹Ҵ硷ԴҡõѴѹͧӤͧж ѹ繷ҧѴ 500 ШǾй ·駵ǾкҪѧ Ҵҹǧ çҧ ʶҹҪ кҹ͹ɮù鹶١Ѵҧҧºº ӹǹҴ㹾йй͡йա 32 §仵ͧ 駷繵Ҵҹҷ ֧ 40 еҴͧԹ੾Шҡзͧ յҴӢҴ˭ա 4 繷͢Թҷ㹻ԹҨҡҧȺͧ Ӥͧ仴ºҹ͹ 餹 Ѵ зͧҡҧ˭ зèѴ÷Թ١Ѵ¡͡ǹ ǹࢵصˡ ࢵ鹷ԵҹҧŻҧ о鹷«¡͡繪Ъǵҧҵ ·ҧҹ͡й÷ҧ͹˹͵ԴѺž ͧк ФͧҧǴ繺dzա÷صˡͧ鹴Թ

           ǹԹdz͡й͡价ҧ͹¡͡繵Ӻŵҧ ѹ繷¢ͧЪǵҧҵªҵ ѺкҪҹحҵáҡᶺ 仴⡴ѧԹԹ ԴʹԷʹ¡ѹҧ餹ҡҧҵԵҧҷԹҧ͡äҢ ѲҧҵԷԾм׹ѺѲͧ

           ǵѹ¡ظͧӤͧ "ǹ觵ѹ͡" ѹ֡蹪յ;й觹

           "Ҷ֧ظ 繻ҡͺ ͧ֡ѡ仴¼餹 ʧЧẺ..."

           "...ҪҳҨѡ Сͺ仴ͧͺ¡ᾧͧ 7 - 8 ͧ Թҳࢵͧ...ͧҹռ餹Ѻѹ ҡͤҹѺ Ҩ蹴Թͧ餹աԹẺ¡Ҩҷºš"

           ҡѡѡѧͧ԰лٹ鹷ҳҪҹԹ ͧظ龺¡һ ʴͧйѹ˭ʹյԭͧ繷ѡѹǵҧҵ ͧӹҨ֧ 417 վҡѵ컡ͧ׺ͧҶ֧ 33 ͧ

           㹪ǧСʶһҡاظҹ Ҫѹ˭ǧͧ稾ҸԺշ 1 (ͧ) ͧ컰ѵ Ǻ餹Сâҳࢵûͧ͡ Ǥ͡þǺҳҨѡ⢷ǹ˹觢ͧҪҳҨѡ 觶١ͧؤͧѵͧ мǡǹ˹觢ͧҪҳҨѡ ⢷µӹҨûͧ駷ҧҹͧ ÷ ֧µСžҪǧ㹷ش

           ѡСáҧ਴çʹҧ⢷ѹ͡ѡɳ˹觢ͧاظ 繶֧÷ظԷԾ˹⢷«ŧ ѧҡõѹǹҹ÷ʧСèҷҧ÷ٵҧͧѾͧ稾кšҶоҵšҪ 觹§

           ͡˹ͨҡѹҧѲѺ⢷ ظѧա͡Ѻ§ ѹ繹ǧҳҨѡҹ ҡѡҹӤѭ˹ ٻẺáҧ਴çЦѧẺҹظ ҧá ѹẺ袹ҹѡɳз繻ûѡ͡ѹҧظ§ѧԹ訹Ѵ駡Ѻ㹷ش

           Ѫ¢ͧ稾ҸԺշ 2 (.. 1491 - 1529) ҵԵѹԷԾҤ ¹͡˹仨ҡѹҧäСʹ ǵѹҧǹѧ͡ѺҪҪӹѡҢ ҷ 繷 Ԫѹ Ҫͧѡ ЪҧҪӹѡ 觾ҡѵçҪҹԹ ҧҹ͹ 件֧ʶҹСͺʹԨ ԷҡẺѹظ ҧä ͧŻ ʶһѵ¡ 件֧áҧҡõҧ ա׹˭աüԵط⸻ó ෤Ԥҧ÷ҹ պҷӤѭʧҧоҷͧ§ҹ 㹪ǧѪ¢ͧ稾ҪҸҪ (.. 1534 - 1546)

           ʧҧ¡ѺؤҤѪ¢ͧ稾Ҩѡþô (.. 1548 - 1568) Ѻ繤駷èա˹觶֧оЪվͧ稾· оҪԴ ç鹾Ъҧ÷طѵյպѹ֡㹾ҪǴ ѧҡ˵ءó㹤駹Ҩ֧١պʧ֡ͺҧ͡Ѻ ҧá ظѧѺҧԧ з йö١ءҹա 5 Ѵ¡ͧѾ觢ͧ

           áͺ͡Ҫѹ˵ءóѹ˭˹㹻ѵʵŧ¾Ҫص оҪáѹҭͧ稾йҪ (.. 1590 - 1605) ·çժ˹;ػҪͧ㹡áзطѵ㹤ǹ . ѡҹѹͧѷѭҵԴѪ ʷ Թ ӡѴ Թҧѧ 㹻 .. 1690 ͺ 100 ѧҡ˵ءóطѵ ѧԹͧǪªТͧͧ ѧաè֡਴ҷͧ

           ¢ͧһҷͧ ç鹻Һɡ繾ҡѵ çʴԷӹҨͧ繡ѵͧͧҹҧҪԸԹɡ ѹ繾ҪԸշʴ֧͡繡ѵẺ෾ 觵 觡ҧ оҧ ҷ ѴѲ ֧úóоз觵ҧ ǹз͹繶֧ѭѡɳͧҪʶҹѹ٧شͧͧ

           ֧ͧմشͧҪҳҨѡ׹Ѫ¢ͧͧ仨֧Ѫ¢ͧ稾й³ 繾Ҫ ѹؤҪӹѡ͹ѺҪٵҡ ¤Ӥѭش褳Ҫٵҡ 14 觽 ظͺѹմ¡ҪٵѧҪӹѡǡѹ

           ѧҡõԴ͡ѹ㹤ǹ鹽ѺԷ㹡û١ҧҹ͹ʶ ֧㹡ʵʹ ˵Էҡèҡѹ ҷ ʵ ҧѧͧ ûл 繷ѡҪҳҨѡ㹪ǧдѧ öԷԾŢͧҵԵѹ ҧ ѡɳСҧҡâͧž ا෾ лྪظͧ

           㹨ӹǹǵҧҵԷ·ѺҪҪӹѡ ԷԾҡشؤ ҾԪ¹ ǡա§Դᵡ¡Ҫӹѡ㹷شѴ駷عçҡ ྷҪҷӡûѵҪӹѡ 觵Ҫªǡա١êԵ зǵҧҵԤ ͧԹҧ͡ҡҪҳҨѡ оྷҪҢҪ繡ѵͧ

           Ѫ¾Ǻ (.. 1732 - 1758) 繪ǧҷش ǧѪ¢ͧͧ繪ǧա÷ӹغاкóЫ˭شҡ͹ ؤѧ繪ǧ觤Ժó觤 ɰԨ ͧͧоطʹ ФСõԧҧŻ 觤ءԹҨ֧ؤ觡 㹻 .. 1767 çѺѪ¢ͧ͡ȹ

           ǧҴѧǶ繨ششͧйѹ˭ ׺ǹҹ֧ 417 Ҿй㴨º ͡¨ҡѧä ا෾ ҹâؤ»Ѩغѹ



The Location of Phranakhon (Krung Si Ayutthaya City)
The selection of the location for the new city in the area where three rivers the Chao Phraya, the Pa Sak and the Lop Buri - connect to each other display the Thai ancestors’ intelligence, and understanding of the land and the waters, the plentiful place of useful elements accumulated from sediment brought by the rivers which was appropriate for agriculture.

The three rivers have done their duties as the canals around the city and also the natural anchor. The canals dug to connect each other and to join each river were used to supply water to people using it for agriculture. At the same time, people used the canals for travelling and communication. Moreover, the canals were importantly used to drain water in the rainy season.
A strong line of wall made of laid bricks with 12 kilometers long was built around the city with 16 fortresses installed with cannons. There were 99 city gates comprising 18 gates called Pratu Din, 61 small gates (Pratu Yoy) and 20 gates used as water ways.

The roads and the canals were planned to cross and connected each other in the form of a net: from the east to the west and from the north to the south. They were connected to each other by 30 bridges made of bricks and wood, which made small areas, happened from the cross of rivers, canals and roads. The areas were used to build more than 500 temples dispersing around the city. The royal palace, shops, workshops, official buildings and people’s houses were located in order. There were 32 markets inside and outside the city. They were located on both sides of the roads. Additionally, there were 40 general markets and also the markets with collection of goods from many regions. There were also 4 big floating markets on both sides of the rivers used for trading both domestic and foreign goods. People’s houses, temples and wide rice fields were on both sides of the rivers and the canals. The land was divided into the industrial area, the handicraft area and people’s dwelling areas of Thai and foreigners. Outside the city island in the north on the Lop Buri River, Khlong Sa Bua and Khlong Bang Khuad were the areas for pottery industry.

Regarding the area outside the city in the south, it was divided into different tambol (Subdistricts) where both Thai and foreigners with royal allowance settled down. The area was full of warehouses and trading ships. Thai and froreign people became friendly due to the trading. As a result, foreign culture got influence and mixed to the local culture.

Foreigners called Ayutthaya the land of rivers and canals or “Venice of the East”, also wrote down and admired the city as follows:

“When we reached Ayutthaya, we saw the rivers surrounding it. There were a lot of graceful and brilliant people in Thai style in the city ”

“ The Kingdom of Siam comprises 7 8 cities surrounded by lines of walls. The Kingdom was enlarged to a city called Phakho There were many thousands of people in these cities. They were uncountable. Additionally, it may be said that Siam is the land of people with well being and there are not any other places to be compared with it on this earth.”

The remains of bricks and molded lime discovered by Phraya Boranratchathanin about 100 years ago showed the existence of the glorious city in the past, the place known by general foreigners, and had been in power for 417 years and reigned by 33 kings.

In the earliest stage of founding Krung Si Ayutthaya, the main burden of King Rama Thibodi I, the first king, was to unite people and enlarge the governed area. The king tried and succeeded in uniting Sukhothai Kingdom as a part of Krung Si Ayutthaya. Then Sukhothai was conquered and surrendered in political affairs, military and royal family.

The characteristics of the chedi in the style of prang (pagoda) in Sukhothai showed that it was influenced by Krung Si Ayutthaya arts. This emphasized the influence of Krung Si Ayutthaya over Sukhothai after the long fighting and diplomatic negotiation between King Boromatri Lokanat’s troops and King Ti Lokarat of the city of Chiang Mai.

Apart from the cultural relationship with Sukhothai, Ayutthaya also contacted with Chiang Mai as the capital of Lanna Kingdom. The visible evidence was the style in building chedi in bell-shaped form in Lanna style in Ayutthaya. However, the parallel relationship in the colliding style between Ayutthaya and Chiang Mai continued and led to the conflict with the Burmese.

In the reign of King Rama Thibodi II (1948 1986), the western countries tried to expand their influence in Asia, apart from the commercial relation and the propagating of Christianity, some westerners had a chance to serve under the crown, for example volunteer soldiers, missionaries, royal bodyguards and royal craftmen to whom the kings gave pieces of land and places for religious affairs. As a result, western technology was widespread to Ayutthaya and led to new creation in arts and architecture, including the construction of fortresses with the beginning of using cannons, the production of weapons and techniques in military affairs. All of them took a great role in the war between the Thai and the Burmese at Chiang Kran in the reign of King Chai Rachathirat (991 1003).

The latter war between the Thai and the Burmese was in the reign of King Maha Chakkraphat(1005 1025) which was remarkable because Queen Si Suriyothai and her daughter renounced their lives in the war. The Queen was killed during the fighting on elephant’s back according to the annals. After the incident, Ayutthaya was forced to cease fighting by giving white elephants to the Burmese. However, Ayutthaya was not really defeated, and five years later, the city was invaded again by the Burmese’s stronger troops.

An important event in history was the fight for independence by the patience and the bravery of King Naresuan the Great (1047 1062). The king got victory over Phra Maha Uparat (the crown prince) of Burma by the fighting on elephants’ backs. Dr. Kaempfer, a German officer of a Dutch company called “East India Limited”, who travelled to Ayutthaya in 1147 or 100 years ago, also heard about the king’s victory on his elephant’s back. Later, the details of the incident were carved in a piece of stone and placed at Chedi Phukhao Thong.

Later in the reign of King Prasat Thong who was enthroned to be king, he showed his royal power via his coronation ceremony, the ceremony to express himself like a god. After that buildings and temples, for example Wat Chaiwattanaram, in cluding the renovation of many royal residences implied the symbols of his highest royal status.

The glory of the kingdom had continued in King Prasat Thong’s reign till the reign of King Narai, his son. In this era, the Thai court had receieved royal envoys from many countries. The most important event was when King Louise XIV of France sent his royal envoys to Krung Si Ayutthaya, and Krung Si Ayutthaya accepted the friendship by sending the royal envoys to France as well.

After the contact, the French were allowed to build houses and a church, and also independence in propagating Christianity. As a result, western technology like astrology, city planning, water supply and others, became welknown in the kingdom during that time. Additionally, western countries’ influences could be generally seen, for example characteristics of building the fortresses in Lop Buri, Bangkok and also Pom Phet in Ayutthaya.

Among the foreigners serving under the crown, the most influencial person was Chao Phraya Wichayen, a Greek man who incited court men and brought disharmony to the Thai court. The disharmony became so serious that Phra Phetracha made revolution in the court. The Greek man was executed and the other foreigners had to leave the kingdom. Then, Phra Phetracha occupied the throne as the new king.

In the reign of King Boromakot (1732 1758), a lot of royal temple became damaged. As a result, this reign passed with renovation and improvement. That was the era of enrichment and wealth in economy, Buddhism and artists. The glorious time had lasted till the collapse of Krung Si Ayutthaya in 1767 in the reign of King Ekkathat.
That was the end of a great city which had existed for 417 years. The city, which was uncomparable, was replaced by the foundation of Bangkok as the new capital till today.