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ش Фҹ ѵԨҡþ
ش Фҹ ѵԨҡþ

           “…ӡдɨҡҽ ѧӨҡ͡骹Դ˹觪͵鹢 (Ton Coe) ա 觵ͧҺ´ ҧ¼Ң дҹդ˹Һҧ ͡дФǼͧ͹Ңͧ…” ˹ѧҪҳҨѡ ͧ ͧ

           ҡѹ֡ҧ鹢ͧҪٵʷѧҪӹѡاظ稾й³Ҫ ѡҹʴҤҳԸպѹ֡Ť ѵʵ ͧǵҧ ŧʴط¡ “ش” ҹҹ зѹҨŧ෤աþ˹ѧѧѪ¾кҷ稾ШŨ繵

           ششѡɳ੾е͹˹ѧͷҤ㹻ѨغѹٻẺѺҡҵԵѹ شѡɳ׹ ¹Ǣͧд 繡дǵԴǡѹʹ ԸվѺѺ з㴡 蹡д͹˹ѧͻѨغѹ Դҡ仫 ԴҡҹǼҹ͡

           ش 2 Ẻ ˹ҡдբ ¡ ش ˹ҡдմ ¡ ش ʴط¹ҧ شӨ¹´ԹբǷҡԹ;ͧ ͡ء شǨ¹մ մҡ ֡չ ᴧҡҴ շͧҡͧ ͧҡǹͧç (ҧ) ô (Թ)

           ͡ҡѹ֡ͧǵҧ ѡɳѡ شºҧ ੾شǡѺоطʹ ѧҾԵáСͺ ͧҾ¹͡ҡسҷҧҹعʵѧз͹Թؤ´

           “ش” Ҩҡͧ͡鹢 ׹鹷辺ҡҤҧ dz ÷ӡдɴ¢¨֧෤ԤࢵҤҧ բ鹵͹÷Ӵѧ
                1. ӵ鹢͡͡ 仵ҡᴴ 駹 3-4 ѹ з͡
                2. Ң¢鹨ҡ ա繽 ٹŧ令ء
                3. ͹ء ͨ¾ͷл´ ѡ㹹ӻٹա 1 ѹ
                4. Сҧ պʹԷ 繡͹Ҵͧ
                5. ӡ͹¹ ŧ繵ç׹
                6. ˹ҵç͢͡ѹ ¡仵ҡᴴ ͨ駨֧͡дɢ͡ҡç
                7. ҡͧ÷ش Ҵ¡ ҡ駢Һӻٹ Ǩء ҡͧ÷ش ¡Ͷҹ´ ҡ鹹仵ҡᴴ 颹ҴشͧҷҺ蹡д ǾѺдɡѺ仡ѺҨش蹡д ش

           ͡ҡش ҹաʴ˹觷褹ҳҷ˹ѧ ҧѹçҹѹ֡ͧǷҧطʹҡͧ ֧¡ѹ “ҹ” ȹ ˵ط͡ҹʴء㺨ҡҹդسѵԷкҧ öѡ ͹дǡ Ӥѭͤҡ ҳشѺ˹觢ͧ¤ “ԧʹԺҵҪҴ” ˹ѧ͸ҹ ҧͻ .. 2014 500 һ Ӵҹ

           úѹ֡ŧ˹ѧҳԸ “” մѡɳѡúҹ ҡ鹪ҧз մӢͧҨнѧͧ ͧ繵˹ѧ蹪Ѵ ҡҹ㺴͡ Ѵ ¡ “١” ١ѹ˹觤

           ѨغѹҹѧӾи աþѲ෤Ԥ㹡¹ ¹ҡèԸվ᷹ зҧ鹺ҹ੾ЪҧҹѧԸմ жҡҧиҡèҹʧç

           ҹ׹ ѡɳФµ鹵 ¡͹ѡ١Ѵ дǡ㹡ù㺢ͧҷӾи բ鹵͹÷ ѧ
                1. Ѵ͡ҹسҾշ͹Թ ҡᴴ 3 ѹ
                2. Ѵҹ颹Ҵ բҴ 50- 70 . ҧ 4-8 .
                3. ҹ ǵҡ ҹ˹ բǢ
                4. ҹ§͹ѹ ǵѴͺ ҡᷧҹѺ͡
                5. ͺͻͧѹ
                6. ӤҴ ТѴҹº١Ф ǹ仨

Samud Coe (Thai long book made of pulp from tree of
the family uricaceae)
Samud Coe

“Siam people made the paper from old cotton cloth and also one kind of tree called Ton Coe. It must be digested thoroughly such as the rage digesting. However, such paper had thickness differently and the paper surface and white color was worse than ours.” book on Siam region of Mr. Mercier Der La Lubear

Regarding to above record of France ambassador who come to Ayutthaya royal court in the period of King Great Narai, it shown that Thai people knew the way to record any information about knowledge, history and any other story on the material called “Samud Coe” for a long time. This has been used until it declined because printing technology was widely used in Thai society in the period of the King Rama V.

Samud Coe or Thai book which had its unique characteristic was different from the recent books we use in the present which was the pattern from the west. Samud Coe was rectangle and wrote in horizon of the paper. It was long continuously only one page and rolled it to be the book. its length can be as long as you want, not page making as the recent book and
not open from right to left but open from the reader side.

There were two types of Samud Coe which were white paper called white book and black book. There were many types for writing. The black book would write with white pencil made from soft-prepared chalk or pearl shell mixed with glue. The white book would write with black color which made by soot or Chinese ink, red from cinnabar, gold from gold leaf, yellow from the mixture of Rong (resin) and mineral stone.

Apart from the use for recording stories in the letter, some Samud Coe, especially the book with the content relating to Buddhism, still had the images. The beauty of those images helped increasing aesthetic and also reflected traditions in each period.

The book made from Ton Coe
“Samud Coe” was made of the bark of Ton Coe which was mostly found in the Middle part at forest and riverside area. To make the paper from Ton Coe was widely used in the middle part. The method for make the paper should follow this step.

  1. Peel the bark of Ton Coe and dried, then soaked in the water for 3-4 days until it was rotten.
  2. Took the Coe from the water and ripped it and added white lime to mix
  3. Cook it the pot to be raw or rotten and press thoroughly and mixed with white lime for 1 day.
  4. Wash with the water to make it become white and dried it and round in to be the required pieces.
  5. Take the pieces to distill in the water and pour into the model which was rectangle sieve.
  6. Make the surface smoothly and dried it on the sun light until it dried, then took the Coe paper from the sieve.
  7. If need to make the white paper, then painted with the wet flour which made from the rice mixed with lime water and then cooked it raw. If need the black book, used the flour mixed with charcoal. Then dried it and took the flat wood to cover the paper and rolled as the book. Then, you would get Samud Coe.

Bai Lan scripture

Apart from Samud Coe, Bai Lan was one material that Thai people used to make the book. Bai Lan almost used for record about Buddhist stories, so it was called “Bai Lan scripture”. It was used when gave a sermon. The reason for use Bai Lan was because Bai Lan was soft and slim, so it can be kept or moved comfortably. Importantly, it was very durable. The oldest scripture of Thailand was “Tingsanibatkussarat Chadok” which was Lanna doctrine book. It was made in B.C. 2014 with age more than 500 years and it was made of Bai Lan.
To record on this ancient book used the method of “Chan”. That was to use the sharp iron to write the letter on Bai Lan. Then, used the black charcoal to bury in the trail and this would help the letter to be clearer. After that, thread each Bai Lan to each other and made the paging called “tie” together to be one scripture.
Recently, Bai Lan was still used as Buddha’s teaching scripture but writing technique was developed from Chan method to be typing in stead. While the local technician, especially Lanna technician, still used the old method because they thought that to make the Buddha’s teaching scripture would make them gain more result of merit.
From leaf to be scripture

Lan is perennial tree. It is like sugar palm tree and it can be easily found. In the past, it was grew in the temple so that it would be comfortable to make Buddha’ s teaching scripture. We can make as following method.

  1. Selecte the good quality Lan leaf, not too young or too old, dried it for 3 days.
  2. Cut it equally, generally about 50-70 cm. wide 4-8 cm.
  3. Boiled it and dried it so that the surface of Lan would be sticky, soft and whiter.
  4. Take Lan leaf to overlap each other and cut its edge equally, then made the hole to page with thread.
  5. Bake it to protect fungus.
  6. Clean and rub the Lan leaf to be smooth with massage and take to write.