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اظ·ͧҨҡ˹
اظ·ͧҨҡ˹


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ʡ١ҹԨ

ءԺͧ

֧ҡاظ ѤйԴ


          ŧǾҡóاظ ͺӶѴਹ١ͧش اظҹ鹶͡Դͧҡä ˹ҷٹáäҢµç ѹاظԭ觤觢鹪ѧҹһ 㹾Ǵ˹͡ ͧлзѺе˹ѡ§硺dzѴ طô ҵѧҪҧͧ 龺ѺдҺͧ˹觪 ѡ⤴ 觷ҹª˹觷ͧѺӹ اظҹ鹨աѵ˹繨ӹǹҡ ͧҔ 㹾Ǵ˹ѧա͹˹ ͧ਴ ҡاظԹԵѾҾ਴㹡ا˧Ǵ ˭⵴ɹʹѡ ֧عǡоոҪҾ繨ӹǹҡͧ ٪件¾਴ عǡ龺ѧҪ觡اǴ 觷ҹ اظ繷Ӕ ͡ҡ ѧ¡اظ ͧ觹Ҕ ͧ仴 Ӥͧҡ ǹ˭ѭù鹨 ҤҢҵԴҡͧҹѡҹ Ӥѭ׹ѹ繨ԧ㹻ѵʵ͡ҡ觢ͧҡ ѧҾ繷Һѹ

           اظ觤ѾͧͧҨҡ»Ѩ´ѧ

          . ҡ ظкɰԨҧ˹ѡɳẺըҡЪҪ Ҫ 繴ͧ͡ ͡Թ ͧ Թ ѹҡǹҹ͡Шͧ ѧԹҷѰͧ͡ŧع觢ͧҧͧ Ҫѹͧ鹡اظ ªͧЪ ͧ繷ͧӤ ͧҧоҹ ѧѴШǺբѹ ྪ ҧ ҡͧѹ 繵 ͡ҡɮ÷͹ͧͧ繷ͧ ɮúҧӾǡ¼ԵžͧͧѰ᷹ͧ ࡳçҹ ᶺͧҧ觴պء ᶺŤҧҷӴԹ ᶺͧѡٻͧ 繵

          . ࡳԸվ ÷ǺѾԹԹͧ繨ӹǹҡ ͹ҷӧҹӤѭ ҨԸվ ࡳ âͺԨҤ ͡ح 繵 ҧԴ觴ǹѺѹʧ ҡҧʹʶҹͻ٪ѵطӤѭ ҷ ;оطٻ ҧкҵ਴ҹͧ öáࡳ ҡعҧ ѵѴлЪҪҹçѷ           . äҢš¹ ѺԸաСҧѨ·Ӥѭҧ˹ اظ繵Ҵҷͧӵûѹ֡ äҷͧͧѡɳФվͤҹҨҡҧ ҡ ҵ Ѻ Шչ اظҡҨԹ͡Ңš¹繷ͧСاظ Ҩӷͧش͡š¹ѺԹҷӤѭ繡Ѻ ҵҧȴ äҢ¨֧պҷҧӤѭ͡ǧҷͧª͵ͺʹͧ ͧѧ

          . Ҫóҡ 繸ླշѺդӤѭҡкûͧ駡ا ظҡǤ ͧ ͧ͡ͻҪͧԺѵԵҧ觤Ѵ㹡ʴ ͧͧѡӹҨ 觵ͧ ԹҪҹշء - ըӹǹҡ͡䴡仵͵ŧѹ

          . ѷ ҪѷҤͷѾѵԷԺҨҡ͡繢ͧǧ¡ó ռ㴼˹觡зӤԴҧ ҡҧºҧ çͧҪҵ ١êԵѧ١Ժء觷ءҧ ١¢ҷʺ عҧպôѡ 鹪ԵҨ١¡׹ͧ ҹͧ պͧ Сس ͡ҡѧҨ繷ѾԹԹִͧҡ֡ѵ٤ʧ

з 秾ѹ. (.) ͧͧاظ. ا෾ : Żþ.



Krung Si Ayutthaya was rich and wealthy: where was the gold from?

“Customers and traders
in every province and percint
came from countries with twelve languages.
All of them depended on Krung Si Ayutthaya.”

A form of Thai octameter poem answers the question most clearly and correctly. Krung Si Ayutthaya was welknown because of trading. It was the center of commerce that made Krung Si Ayutthaya rich and welknown among different countries. The north annals indicated that King U-Thong, while living at Wiang Lek Royal Residence in the area of Wat Phutthaisawan, commanded some noblemen to cross the river to the island and look for the location for the new capital. They met a hermit named Luck Thammakhodom. This hermit helped point at the place to locate the new city and foretold that “Krung Si Ayutthaya will reign with a lot of kings and will be a harbor with junks”. The north annals also indicated in a part of “Phra Malee chedi” that the King of Krung Si Ayutthaya heard the fame of Phra Malee chedi in Hongsawadee (Pegu) about its respectably enormous size. The king ordered Khun Karawek and Phraya Si Thammaracha together with a lot of soldiers to bring his royal oblation and offer it to Phra Malee chedi. Khun Karawek met the supreme patriarch who said, “Krung Si Ayutthaya is the land of water”. Besides, some Persians called Krung Si Ayutthaya, “the city of waters” or the city full of boats because there were many rivers and canals. Mainly, the journey was done via boats, and there were also a lot of junks coming for trading. These are the visible evidence assuring the reality according to the history about the things we see nowadays.

Krung Si Ayutthaya was rich and wealthy with gold from many factors:

  1. Making regular payment and taxes: one of economic systems in Ayutthaya period was making regular payment and taxes from people and dependent countries, for example a lot of golden flowers, silver flowers, golden trees and silver trees. The taxes were not only used by the government, but also exported as goods without any invesment. The appliances having to be used were from other provinces and dependent countries according to the sorts of things and the payment indicated. The province to send gold was Muang Bang Taphan, Prachuap Khiri Khan, and diamonds and precious stones were from Chanthaburi, and etc. Besides, people who panned for gold had to pay for taxes with gold. Some peasants and people had to make regular payment with their native products required by the government. Sometimes, labors were needed. Moreover, lead was sent from Thalang District. Bat excrement to make saltpeter was sent from Dong Phayayen area, and golden figures were sent from Pak Thong chai District.

  2. Regarding special payment, property, money and gold might have been gathered in special occasions by enlistment, collection, donation, soliciting for charity, and etc., for example in the war time, building important religious places or sacret objects such as molding Buddha images, and constructing a chedi for Buddha’s relics. These activities could be collected from noblemen according to their military pension and general people according to their faith.

  3. In light of exchanging products, it was a good strategy and factor. Krung Si Ayutthaya was a market for gold trading according to the European notes. There might have been two kinds of gold trading: the traders brought it from abroad: - Chawa, Sumattra, Malayu, Arab, Persia and china. On the other hand, Krung Si Ayutthaya might have used the levy it received to trade and the gold dug out to sell and exchange with some other essential products from other countries. As a result, gold took a great role for gold mine business in order to exploit its value for some other important products and social value.

  4. With regard to royal offerings, it was the tradition for the dependent countries to send the royal offerings to the kings in Ayutthaya period. Sending the offerings showed that the dependent provinces and countries still swore allegiance to Krung Si Ayutthaya by sending golden and silver trees in every 2 -3 years. The amount was according to the agreement made before that.

  5. Phatthaya or Ratcha Phatthaya was the property confiscated from private sectors or people to become the public property, little or much due to their guilts. Seriously, some of them were escheated and executed including their families, their followers and slaves. For some noblemen with titles, after they died; they had to give back their insignia of ranks such as golden trays and golden boxes in relation to the royal grace. Besides, it might have been the property got from enemies in wars.

Reference

Chumpengpan, Prathoom. (2005). Khruangthong Krung Si Ayutthaya (Krung Si Ayutthaya GoldProperty). Bangkok: Rungsilp Karnpim.