Ѵ§

 

Ѵ§ 5 Ӻѹ ;йظ ѧѴйظ ͡СاظҴҹѹ͡çѴخմ 㹺dz͡ѹࢵ¸ҵ͹˹ ѹ¶֧ͧҳ͹աҧاظ 鹷ѡɳ繷͹ ҹȵѹͧ͡Ѵй ѹɰҹԴҡâشԹͺ ¡дѺͧѴ٧ͻͧѹӷͶ֧Ĵٹ դͧ 3 ҹ ͹դͧѹ (ͤͧҹ㹻Ѩغѹ) ͧЦѧ ӻѡ ͺ

dzѴ ҾͧҳʶҹѴ§ Ҿ͹ҧشش Ѫתá

ҳࢵͺҧ˹͵ԴѺ Ѵ͡ǹͧѡͧһԺѵԸӹѡԺѵԸѴ§ ͡ҳʶҹѴաش

ԴѺ Ѵ͡ ͧҳ Ѵ͡ա繵˹ѡѴ§ 繷зѺͧǷ ҧҷӡúóѧóѴ§ .. 2252 㹪ǧظҵ͹

ȵѹ͡ ԴѺӹѡԺѵԸѴ§

ȵѹԴѺ Ѵ繤ͧ

Ѵ§ ѴѺúóѧóѴҴ˭դӤѭҡѴ˹㹪ǧ 60 ա͹¡اظ ѡҹʴ֧ͧ駷ҧɡԨʹҢͧظҵ͹ҧ1

Ѵ§ѺôŢش繤á ͻ .. 2521-2522 ӹѡҹçûѵʵ Żҡ

ѡҹǴк Ѵ§ҧѪ (ͧҪ .. 1967-1991) ѧҧاظǻҳ 80-100 ա 100 աҵ ʧ¡اظҤ駷 1 .. 2112 Һçͧ ѵѴ觹繷駡ͧѾǧѭҡú ͡ѵظ ʧ ԹҸҪѺѭԭ ѵҼ骹 ѺҷѴ


е٫ͧѴ Ẻҧ ͧ¡اظҵ͹
ᾧѴشŧҧǹ਴иҹͧѴ2


Ѵ§Ѻúóѧó˭Ѫ¾ҷ (ͧҪ .. 2252-2275) úó㹻 .. 2252 кóա 3 նѴ 㹻 .. 2256 էҹͧѴʾ 7 ѹ3

ͤ駡اظ Ѵ§繾ǧѭ ѧاظᵡѴҧҹ з .. 2527 վʧҵӹѡԺѵԡҹ㹺dzѴҧ .. 2544 ֧ѴѴ§㹺dzԴѺѴ§4

ҳʶҹѴ

ࢵطǡᾧ׹ (95.20×214 ) իеٷҧҷ 4 ҹ ҡеٴҹ˹ҫҧȵѹ͡թǹҧԹçѧҤӤѭش ʶ ǹ鹷ͧҡ͡ǹѺᾧ駴ҹ˹觡ҧ਴çỴ ʹ਴çЦѧ ࢵʶǡᾧͺ (38×72 ) ᾧ਴ѧҢҴ 4 5 Һdzͧᾧ紷çѳŻظҵ͹ ¾ҷ ô ʶѧŧ §ҹҧͺҹ 駷кк¹ӽ赡ŧ§ ½觷к¹鹴Թ

ʶҴ˭վ鹷袹Ҵ˹觢ͧ鹷ࢵᾧ (18×36.80 ) 觡ҧͧἹѧѴ 觫ҡѧҢͧʶʴ繶֧˭ⵢͧʶѧ Ҥá԰Һٹѹ˹价ҧȵѹ͡ آ駴ҹ˹ѧ ҹ˹ջе 3 ͧ ҹѧջе 2 ͧ ʶհҹءբҴ˭ 2 繷дɰҹоطٻԹ¢Ҵ˭ ѨغѹҾѡŧǹ ҾоطٻʶӢ鹨ҡ᡹ԹǨ֧Һ»ٹŧѡԴͧ աùҾоطٻһдɰҹ

ͺǾʶաᾧͺ 2 ѡɳ繡ᾧ ѡɳТͧҤҤ÷ç׹ Ỵ 2 8 6 觢Ҵͧ͡ դҧ 3 9 ͧ ͧ 3.60 ռѧ 4 ҹ Ἱѧͧʶٻ׹ ࢵᾧǷҧҹȵѹ§ͧʶ 1 ѡɳҷӴԹǹ բҴҧ 1 ٧ 2 ˹ 20 ૹ Ẻǡѹ ʶѴҪ൪ 㹻ѨغѹҤҾѡѡѧ мѧʡѴҹ˹ҷŧ ٹҺѧҤ· ش͡ͺ ԰ҧѴਹ ѡɳ繡á԰ẺѺǡѹҧº ͹ѹ駵Ҥ ѡɳСá԰Ẻӡѹظҵ͹

ҹ 繰ҹԺͧ հҹ§ͧѺԧ аҹԺͧͧѺҹǡ ٧ͺ 1.50 á͹֧ ҡ繨ӹǹ 8 ҹ¡ѹ Ҿѡѡѧŧҡ §ҹҹ˹ҹ鹷Ҿ͹ҧó

ʶ觹 Ѩغѹѧժ·ѷ㹾طʹҹ觷Ҹ ͧҡվʧҨѴҧ “Ѵ§” 鹷ҹѹͧ͡ࢵҳʶҹ Ѵҡʶ਴иҹ ҧȵѹ͡ᾧǢͧʶҹѧѴ ਴çЦѧӵ躹ҹ§ç 3 իͺ ͧ਴ 20 繷дɰҹоطٻԹ 觻Ѩغѹشءͧ հҹѡԳٻѵ ҧǴҹ 32 պѹ䴢鹷 4 (਴ͧѧ¶֧ǹҧͧͧЦѧ 㹻Ѩغѹͺó·ҧѴͧ ѧʹͧ਴ͧѴҧ)


ҹͧ਴иҹٻҧдѺͺ7


ͺҹ਴ժҧٹ׹٧ 1.05 дѺ 80 ͡ ¡਴ҧ 觪ҧ͡ҡѵդѹѺԾطʹ ¾ҷ ͧç繡ѵѺҧҴ 㹺ҧշç͡ӻ蹢Ҵ˭÷ءҧ͡仢ѧԹ º÷ءҧ֧ 30 ͡

Ѵҡҹ਴ҧ ਴çѧ਴ 4 й͡ࢵᾧطʴҹȵѹ਴çѧ 3 ͧ ǹ͡ࢵᾧطʴҹիҡͧҤ 觤ҴҨ繷зѺͧҷʴҷçҹúóѴ ҨҤࢵѧʢͧѴ觹8


਴иҹͧѴ9


ͧҡѴ§㹺dz͡ѹࢵ “¸” ѧ鹨֧ѺþԨóٻẺ਴ҧҨԷԾŷҧʹŻШҡ⢷ 鹷ء͹Դͧظ 1 ȵ ҧáѡҹǴáاظҪҧѴਹ Ѵ§赡ʹҳʶҹҶ֧Ѩغѹ 繼Ҩҡúóѧó˭¾ҷظҵ͹

еٷҧ е٨ѡɳ繫ѹŧ͹Ŵ 2 ԰ŴдѺ 2 ǹ հҹҧдѺǡѹ С繫ŴдѺա 2 дҹͧе հҹҧдѺǡѹ 繰ҹǫ١͡ շ 6 еٴ¡ѹ еٷҧҴҹȵѹ͡ 繷ҧҷͧѺǹҧԹѧʶ ҹҧԹҧ 2.80 ѧҡ٢ҧѧͧеٴҹ дҹҧ Ƿҧͺе ͧҡջٹҺѺ繷ҧ


ἹѧѴ§
Żҡ , Ҫѧҳ, çӹѡº¡Ѱ, .. 251110


еٷҧҴҹȵѹ ҡҧѧ㹪ͧеٵç繷ҧ਴ҧ ѧҡѧҡ԰çҧѴ Ыеٷҧҹ˹зաҹ 2

਴ͧᴧ ҧѪ稾ҷ ҧȵѹ͡§˹ͧ͢ʶ ͡ᾧ ਴çỴհҹѡԳ 2 ǹʹѡ ͧ਴ǧ պѹ䴢਴ҧҹѹ͡ ռѹɰҹз¡ѹ “ͧѧ” ͧ਴ Ǻҹ繷ͧᴧ ֧¡ѹ “਴ͧᴧ”11

ǹ ˹ʶ “ǹ” ҧԹҡҹѧʶ 鹷ҧѺҡѵ ҹ½ ҹ˹ʶդͧ ʴ稾ҪԹҧҶ֧ҹӡʴ稢鹼ҹǹʶ Ѩغѹ˹ʶդͧ й 2 ǹҧԹҧ 2.50 ǻҳ 60 ͧҧ͡ᾧ٧ҳ 1.60 12

й йӼѧ׹ҢҴ 10.5 ×7 ҧͧʶҡ繢ͺкҧǹ ͡ԹԹѪת軡ҧ˹ ʴ繶֧÷ش ͺաᵡ价駴ҹдҹ͡

˹ѡǷ ҧе١ᾧѴҹ 73.50 繵˹ѡʴ任зѺ͹˹觺ҧ ͧ͹ҧ Ҫ÷˹ѡ ˹ѡٻ鹼 ԰ͻٹ 25.50 ҧ 10.40 ʶһѵ¡ظ ѧҹ٧ 4.55 10.85 ˹ 1 ѧҹѹ ٧ 3.85 8 ͧԹҡҺٻ෾ ¡






Wat Mahaeyong
Wat Mahaeyong is situated at Moo 5, Hantra Sub-district, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya District, and Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Province. It is outside Krung Si Ayutthaya Island in the east and opposite Wat Kudeedao in the area that is believed being north of Ayothaya City. This means the ancient community before Krung Si Ayutthaya was founded. The area was a highland. The north of the temple connects to a pond which is believed to be dug and the soil was used to make the temple area higher in order to be safe from flood in the rainy season. There were waters on three sides. As a result, the temple was nearly like a triangular isle surrounded by Khlong Hantra (A canal called Hantra or Banma in the present), Khlong Rakhang and Pa Sak River.

When entering the temple, Wat Mahaeyong was seen in ancient ruins, disordered and overgrown with weeds.
The north of the temple connects to a road. Next to it are shelters for people coming to do religious activities, and the farther are the remains of Wat Sika Samud.

The south of the temple connects to another road. Next to it is an ancient canal. The further was a royal residence at Wat Mahaeyong where King Thai Sa stayed during the renovation of this temple in the late Ayutthaya period in 1709.
The east of the temple connects to the building used as the place where people do religious activities.

The west of the temple connects to a road, and next to the road is a canal.

Wat Mahaeyong had been renovated as a big and important temple 60 years before Krung Si Ayutthaya was completely destroyed. The temple shows the clues of Ayutthaya’s glory in both economic affairs and religions in the late Ayutthaya period (1).

The temple of Wat Mahaeyong was firstly dug out in 1978-1979 by the Office of Historical Projects in the Department of Fine Arts.

Evidence in annals stated that Wat Mahaeyong was constructed in the reign of King Sam Phraya (1424-1448) or after Krung Si Ayutthaya was founded about 80 - 100 years. One hundred years after that Krung Si Ayutthaya was firstly defeated in 1569. Burengnong, the Burmese king, used this temple as the base of his troops, and when Ayutthaya was defeated, King Mahinthrathirat was invited to have an audience with the Burmese king at the pavilion at this temple.
The door façade of the temple is in the general style of the late Ayutthaya period.

Some parts of the temple wall are damaged displaying the main chedi inside (2).

Wat Mahaeyong was grandly renovated in the reign of King Thai Sa (1709 1732). It was started to renovate in 1709 and was finished three years later in 1713, and there had been the ceremony for 7 days (3).

In Ayutthaya period, Wat Mahaeyong was in the forest dwellers’ side (Monks who live in the jungle). It had been deserted for a long time after Krung Si Ayutthaya was defeated. Some monks began to use the place for meditation activities in 1984, and in 2001, Wat Mahaeyong was established as a temple in the same area next to the old one (4).

The Ancient Remains in the Temple
A line of rectangular wall surrounded the religious area (95.20 X 214 meters). There is a door facade on the four sides. From the front door façade in the east, there was a covered walk to the most important building, the ubosot; but on both sides of the covered walk in the north and the south, there were octagonal chedi, the vihara and an overturned bell-shaped chedi. The ubosot was surrounded by a wall (38 X 72 meters) with indented corners, and there were small chedi in Langka style (spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus base) on the four corners (5). Each wall post on the four corners had an ornamental knob with leveled tops in the art of the late Ayutthaya period. King Thai Sa commanded demolishing the old ubosot, leaving only its base and building the new one on it, together with rain water draining system by burying tubes under the ground.

A big ubosot with the size of half area inside the wall surrounding it (18 X 36.80 meters) is situated in the middle of the temple plan. The ruins of the walls and the posts of the ubosot show its enormous size. It was a building made of laid bricks and mortar and turned to the east. There was a portico in the front and the other one in the back with three doors in the front and two ones in the back. Two big Buddha image bases are inside. They might have been used to situate big Buddha images made of sand stone. Nowadays most of them tumbled down and reveal that the images were made by using the cores made of sand stone; then covered with mortar, lacquer and gold leaves.

There were two lines of walls surrounding the ubosot. The ubosot and the walls were rectangular. Two rows of eight octagonal columns were inside the ubosot (6). The room between each column was 3 meters wide and 3.60 meters long and there were 9 rooms as a whole. There was a wall on the four sides. One Bai Sema (leaf-like boundary stone) was found in the southwest inside the wall surrounding the ubosot. It was made of green slate with one meter wide, two meters high and 20 centimeters thick. It is in the same style as the one at the ubosot of Wat Ratchatecha. Nowadays the building is in ruins and the front wall tumbled down. The mortar covered the building nearly all slipped off displaying the laid bricks which were made alternating neatly with long and short bricks in the same row for the whole building. This style was very popular in the late Ayutthaya period.

The base of Bai Sema was square with twelve indented corners, and there was a base with legs like ones of a lion under it. A base with twelve-indented corners supports the base in the form of a round lotus. It was 1.50 meters high in total. There are only eight bases left and they are all in ruins. Only the base in the north is nearly in complete condition.

Nowadays, people still come to do medition at the ubosot since a group of monks rebuilt “Wat Mahaeyong” in the east of the ancient remains. Next to the ubosot is the main chedi situated in the west outside the wall of the ubosot in the back of the temple. It is an overturned bell-shaped chedi situated on a round base made in three-leveled form. Twenty facades with Buddha images made of sand stone under them surrounded the chedi, but all the images were damaged. The base of the chedi is square with 32 meters long on each side, and there are four sets of stairs leading to it on the four directions (The original chedi was damaged and leaves only half of the bell-shaped part. The one seen at present was renovated in nearly complete condition by the temple. The top of the original chedi is still placed on the ground there.)
The base of the main chedi was surrounded by models of elephants (7).

The base of the chedi was surrounded by 80 standing elephants made of molded lime with 1.05 meters tall. It has been called “Chedi chang lom (The chedi surrounded by elephants)” because elephants were not only the animals relating to Buddhist moral precepts; but King Thai Sa also like to catch wild elephants, and in some years, he commanded building a big ship (called “kampan”) to transport elephants for export to India.

Next to the base of the chedi surrounded by molded elephants, there were four chedi in spherical pagoda shape with glass lotus bases (called Song Langka) on the four corners, and outside the wall of the religious area in the west, there were also three chedi in the same style. Outside the wall of the religious area in the south, there were ruins of a building. It is believed being the royal residence of King Thai Sa when he came to inspect the renovation of the temple. On the other hand, it might have been a building inside the monks’ residence of this temple (8).

The main chedi of the temple (9)

Due to the fact that Wat Mahaeyong is situated in the area that is believed being the area of “Ayothaya”, so the style of chedi surrounded by molded elephants was determined to be influenced by the arts and religion of Sukhothai which was a capital and founded one century before the foundation of Krung Si Ayutthaya. However, Krung Si Ayutthaya annal evidence indicates clearly that Wat Mahaeyong which has been inherited as a historic site till today was grandly renovated in the reign of King Thai Sa in the late Ayutthaya period.

Regarding the characteristics, the door facades were made in two superimposed levels with two pointed levels of laid bricks on the arches. But the bases were in the same levels made in the form of lotuses with the ridgepoles made of marble, and there were six door facades all together. They were entrances in the east, and in parallel to the covered walk to the ubosot with 2.80 meters wide. There are still holes at the back on the upper and the lower parts of the doors. They are the clues of the door frames showing only long tracks which were not covered with lime.
The layout of Wat Mahaeyong

Source: The Department of Fine Arts. (1968). Phra Ratchawang Boran (The Ancient Palace). Bangkok:

The Office of the Prime Minister Press (10).

The back and upper part of the door façade in the west was made of wood. It led to an ascent of the chedi surrounded by molded elephants. There is still the sharp arched roof made of laid bricks left, and also those of the two door facades on each side in the north and the south.

The copper chedi was built in the reign of King Thai Sa and is situated in the northeast of the ubosot outside the wall. It was an octagonal chedi with two-leveled base. The top of the chedi was disappeared. Inside the chedi, there was a hollow and there were stairs as an ascent to it in the east. It was assumed to have metal sheet called “Thong Jangkho” covered the chedi body, but people thought it was copper and called the chedi “Chedi Thongdaeng (Copper Chedi)” (11).
The covered walk called “chanuan” in front of the ubosot was the pathway from the waterfront rest-house to the ubosot. It was the passage for the king, the queen and court ladies. Originally, there was a canal in front of the ubosot. When the king and followers reached the waterfront rest-house, they would go directly along the covered walk to the ubosot. Nowadays, there were no canal in front of the ubosot, but there are only two ponds. The covered walk is 2.50 meters wide and 60 merters long, and there are two walls with 1.60 meters high on both sides (12).

The ponds are rectangular (10.5 X 7 meters) and situated in the south of the ubosot. Only some parts of their edges are left. Mounds of soil covered with thick weeds are seen and display the collapse of the land. The edges of the ponds are cracked on both inside and outside.

The royal residence of King Thai Sa was situated about 73.50 meters from the temple wall. It was a royal residence that the king stayed once or twice a month. He used to administer civil affairs there. It was rectangular and made of laid bricks and mortar with 25.50 meters long and 10.40 meters wide, and was in architecture of Ayutthaya period. The south wall was 4.55 meters high, 10.85 meters long and 1 meter thick. The west wall was 3.85 meters high and 8 meters long. Only tiles made of baked clay with the patterns of gods in figures of clasping hands in token of worship and Thai designed style are left.

References

1. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, pp. 104-107.
2. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture and captions in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk (Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 108.
3. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, p. 107.
4. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 85.
5. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, p. 107.
6. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 87.
7. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 109.
8. Kasetsiri, Chanwit. (2007). Ayutthaya. Bangkok: The Foundation of Social Sciences and Humanities Projects, p. 107.
9. Laykhakul, Khunying Khanita. (2000). A picture in Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Moradoklohk(Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya: The World Heritage). Bangkok: The Tourism Authority of Thailand, p. 109.
10. Malakul, Associate Professor Momluang Pratheep. (2005). A picture in Krung Si Ayutthaya Barithas. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, p. 79.
11. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 89.
12. Chaipakdee, Rapeepan. (2005). A Picture in Khumeu Chom Silaba lae Sathabattayakam Thai Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya (A Manual for Thai Arts and Architecture, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya). Bangkok: Saengdad Pua Dek Press, p. 89.