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      繧ҹŻᢹ˹觷ѺԷԾŨҡҵ Ǵѹҧ˭ çѹԴԴ ҧä¹¹Ẻҡҵ 繡õͺʹͧͧ (response) µç ʴبҡҵԻдɰͧ㹡úŧѺҷҷҧ֧ͧз մ---
      ¨֧պҷͪԵͧ ͧͷöͺʹͧͧ㹡ûͧе鹤֡ͧҧҡ ҢҴ§ŧ§Ǩзҧ ֡ ͧͻͧԴ ´͹Դآʹءʹҹ ѧ¤ "ҨѧԴ"

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       Ք 㹷з¡ǧͧ觡ǧ Ф Ք ŵç ”
      ҷǺ 繷͹ ظҹͧդú ҷ ͧ

ҡ˹ѧ Ѳ : ʵҨ þ ó
Image ҧԧ : þ ó.2549.Ѳ. ا෾ҹ : ͤտ鹷.












Thai Music in Thai Culture
Music is one of arts that were influenced by wide nature and environment. It inspires thought and creative that learn from nature and it is directly response using natural material and then invented to be musical instruments to play and lull according to gestures of human which was known as bounce-fiddle-bang-play.

Thai music plays the important role in human’s life. It can be the tool that can respond the need to enhance emotional and motivates our feeling very well. If we lack of music, human might live without feeling. There is no tool for enhance their mind. Their mind might not be neat and enjoy as the sentence “You must listen to the music and then you will feel relax”.

Thai music in Ayutthaya period

Arts especially music will progress when the city is peaceful and people are well-living without war. However, since Sukhothai territory has joined with Ayutthaya, the city always had both internal and external war. Therefore, music was not progressed as much as it should be. How the music from Sukhothai was, it was the same, never changed. Also, five kinds of musical instrument band still had five musical instruments as ever which contained flute, gong, two faced-drums, one drum and small cup-shaped cymbal. That Thai orchestra consisted of only five groups of wood and percussion instruments without xylophone in playing with Khone, play or other ceremony until the period of Great Phra Narai as mentioned on annals of Mongsier Der La Lubaer, special ambassador of the King Louise 14th, the king of France. He kindly gave the official and royal message to Siam recorded in B.C. 2231. In this annals, Lalubear has recorded all detail what were the musical instruments played in the band and how its shape was (in the eye of westerner). However, there was no xylophone in the record. It was impossible that Lalubear did see it because xylophone was not small and it must be placed in front of other musical instruments in the band. Lalubear did not say about xylophone anymore, so it was assumed that there was not xylophone in five kinds of musical instrument band certainly. Although the narrated words for respect the teacher which was called “Paksamtra” of the oldest issue said that:

“Chai Sri Khone Tawal Berkbarn Pratoo

Khong Klong Taphon Kru Doo Len Hai Suk Sumran”

And another lesson said that:
“Phon Ho Kan Ho Wan Wai Pi Jeaw Jub Jai
Taphon and Klong Khong Karn”

These two descriptions of Samtra did not refer to xylophone. Another one evidence that show no xylophone in the band was the image of music band on the wood cabinet of the story of Witoon Chadok in Ayutthaya period. Recently, it was kept in National Museum in Bangkok. the image of music band here contained gong but not xylophone. Five kinds of musical instrument band has just had xylophone in the end of Ayutthaya period. It was not sure whether it was the wisdom of Thai people or from Mon. Although there was xylophone, the musical band was called five kinds of musical instrument as ever because small cup-shaped cymbal had small rhythm, so it was deemed to be counted. Alternatively, they used the word “five” which was from “five musical instruments” of India as its original.

Thai grand orchestra

In Ayutthaya period, there was one another musical band which was the band recently called “Mahoree (Thai grand orchestra)”. Thai grand orchestra was played by women. It was used for lull for the king to relax. Thai grand orchestra was firstly played by 4 people. One of them played Indian lute that was called four strings lutes. Other one fiddle three strings fiddle. Another one played the kind of drum (Tone) and finally sang and beat the Thai wooden rhythm. Later, it was added musician and two musical instruments which were Rammana (one side-drum with shallow body) to play with Tone and added person who played the flute. Therefore, there were 6 musicians and added small cup shapes cymbal which might be replaced by wooden rhythm clappers.

Later, Jakhre (three strings musical instrument) which was the musical instrument from Mon to mix in order to replace four strings flute because it can be played with better rhythm and its sound was more beautiful. Also, it can be placed on the floor and it can be beat easier than four strings lute. This was the form of Thai grand orchestra in the period of Ayutthaya.

Ancient Thai Grand Orchestra Four musical instruments
Ancient Thai Grand Orchestra Six musical instruments

Strings instrument band
There were many kinds of string musical instrument in Ayutthaya period. In Ayutthaya period, there were many people who played fiddle and flute and it might be played widely until the happiness from playing those musical instrument made more area near the royal palace, this caused issuing the act for punishment in the rule of administration of the royal household as follow.

“In water pipe in glass pool, anyone sail boat, boat with roof, howdah boat and boat for carry weapon and the man covered their head with cloth or both male and female sail the boat together or had a quarrel, sang or played the music, played the flute, fiddle, beat the drum, make a loud noise. Some Indian, Kumar, Lao, Burmese, Meng, Mon, Masum, Sang, Chinese, Cham, Cava and people from other countries and came to walk in Taisanom, this was banned. If the officers could not ban those behaviors, they might be punished. That might be meant to their life.

Tonetub (kind of drum)
Any musical instrument mentioned in this administration of the royal household, apart from flute which was in Thai orchestra and four str5ings lute in Mahoree, they were in string musical instrument which included fiddle, flute, Jake (three strings instrument) and Tonetub (Kind of drum). For fiddle, it might be three strings fiddle as in Mahoree or treble fiddle as we used in the band of strings musical instrument. When considered from situation that it would be played widely until regulated in the law, it must be easily found and played. Therefore, we assumed that fiddle the mentioned in administration of royal household must be treble fiddle. That it was called only “fiddle” was for cover three strings fiddle or other kind of fiddles. If it was as we assumed, the band of string musical instrument in Ayutthaya period was complete which composed of treble fiddle, fiddle, Jake, flute to make rhythm and drum and small cups-shaped cymbals for make it more better sound. For flute, there was only medium size of Lao flute which was called “Pheingor flute” and “Klib flute” had smaller size that made high tone of sound. For “Tonetub”, it was the name of drum and called Tonetub. We can see that the instrument that control rhythm was Tonetub only. There was no Rummana to mix. For the name of the band that contained string musical, it would not be called string instrument band but called “music band” because it was called separately in administration of royal household. It was regulated in the part of any ceremony relating to boat as following.

“there were juries on the boat with Jake at both sides. The left hand was music band and the right hand was Mahoree”
The word “music” here might refer to the strings instruments band more than other band because the word “music” mean “things which had strings.

As all we collected, it was sure that there were all three musical instruments in Ayutthaya period which were Thai orchestra, Mahoree and strings instruments.

Source: Thai music in Thai culture: Prof. Suraphon Suwan
Reference: Suraphon Suwan. B.C. 2549. Thai music in Thai culture. Bangkok. Active printed.